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Touch'in Paris

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Welcome to

Future of Dining
The international marketing strategy of Touch’ In Paris

Course Title: Lecturer Name: Module/Subject Title: Assignment Title: Company: Date due: | BA (Hons) MarketingSandra KernanInternational Marketing/ B8MK106Future of DiningTouch’ In Paris04/04/2016 | N° of words: | 2756 words (excl. Table of Figures, Executive Summary, Table of Contents, Figures, Appendix, Minutes of Meeting, Individual Contribution and References) | Student Names: | |

Executive Summary
This research paper aims to analyze internal and external factors concerned with the expansion of “Touch’ in Paris” into the Irish market under the name “Touch’ in Dublin”. Internal analysis will give you an insight of what kind of internal issues and obstacles we may encounter. External analysis will focus towards understanding the Irish food industry and will give you an insight of current market conditions. Modes of entry will give you an insight and an explanation of which approach we are suggest to enter the market.
Overall, this research paper will guide you through all the analysis that we conducted and will allow you to better understand the risks as well as rewards associated with opening a natural-monopoly business as it is one of a kind.

Table of Content
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2 : Internal Environment (PRIMEFACT) 1) People8 2) Reputation8 3) Intellectual Property8 4) Market Information9 5) Ethos9 6) Finances9 7) Agility9 8) Collaborators10 9) Talents10
Chapter 3 : External Environment (ICEDRIPS) 1) Innovation10 2) Competition11 3) Economic Factors11 4) Demographic12 5) Regulatory Environment12 6) Infrastructure13 7) Partners13 8) Social Trends13
Chapter 4: Modes of Entry 1) Internal Factors15 2) Desired Mode Characteristics15 3) Transaction-Specific Factors15 4) External Factors15 5) Hierarchical mode of entry15
Chapter 5: Marketing Strategy 1) Product Strategy16 2) Pricing Strategy17 3) Distribution Strategy17 4) Marketing Communication Strategy17 5) People18 6) Processes18 7) Physical Evidence 18
Minutes of Meeting59
Individual Contribution60
References61

Appendix
Appendix 1: Introduction to the Irish Restaurant Industry20

Appendix 2: Touch’ In Paris Collaborators23

Appendix 3: International Competitiveness
Appendix 3.1: Analysis of National Competitiveness (Porter’s Diamond) 25
Appendix 3.2: Porter’s Five Forces Model28
Appendix 3.3: The Collaborative Model29
Appendix 3.4: Value Chain Analysis30
Appendix 3.5: Competitive Benchmarking32
Appendix 3.6: Blue Ocean Strategy33
Appendix 3.7: Generic Strategies38

Appendix 4: Stakeholder Mapping 39

Appendix 5: Socio-cultural environment 41

Appendix 6: Evaluation of the Mode of Entry 45

Appendix 7: Marketing Strategy
Appendix 7.1: The Role of Employees 49
Appendix 7.2: Cost Food Preparation 55

Chapter 1: Introduction

The foodservice industry is constantly evolving, as restaurants cater to changing consumer preferences, new lifestyle choices, and demographic shifts. The trend toward health and consciousness, coupled with an increasing interest in innovative restaurant concept, and high-quality cuisine, is inducing foodservice operators to adopt value-added options.
Restaurant industry has become highly competitive area due to improved communication channels to create awareness of their brand with the aid of internet, smartphones and computers. Demand for better quality food is becoming a trend and people are becoming more aware of what they consume. Rise of celebrity chefs had a major contribution to this trend.
Touch’ in Paris is a bar-restaurant in France, Paris. Three owners came up with a new concept of applying technologies to improve customer experience while at the same time offering very good quality dishes and cocktails. The idea was to implement touch screen tables to allow customers to gain a glimpse of the future. This main purpose of the table is to entertain customer. The table allows to make orders, order a taxi, play games, browse the internet and it to make the payment through the table by credit or debit card. In a case when the customer wants to pay with cash they will no longer need to wait and have this awkward hand raise or shout to ask for the bill whereas now they need to simply touch the button!
Company name will be adapted to suit the city’s name which in this case is Dublin, therefore, the restaurant will acquire the name “Touch’ In Dublin”. The main purpose of this report is to analyze internal and external factors, modes of entry as well as identify what marketing mix is going to be used to enter Irish market. Changes to food menu and design will have to be made to adapt to different cultural needs.

Chapter 2: Internal Environment
In The Art of War, Chinese military strategist Sun Tzu wrote: “If you know the enemy and know yourself, your victory will not stand in doubt” (Sun Tzu, 1981). Thus, the Primefact checklist by David Parrish (2005) has been used to provide a comprehensive analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of Touch’ In Paris. 1) People
Employees working in service businesses are expected to be fast and efficient in executing operational tasks as well as courteous and helpful in dealing with customer (Lovelock & Wirtz, 2011). From the company’s perspective, the way service is delivered by the employees can be an important source of differentiation as well as competitive advantage.
Thus, Touch’ In Paris is composed of approximately 10 employees included: one director (Jérémy Vuillaume), one bar manager (Frederic Pinto), one floor manager (Romain Martin), one chef (Olivier Pariaud), waiters and waitresses, and kitchen assistants (Touch’ In Paris, 2016). 2) Reputation
As Touch’ In Paris is the unique bar-restaurant in France giving the customer complete control over their dining experience through the use of interactive table, the core competencies of the company give to the restaurant a high tech, innovative and contemporary image which is the base of the business success. 3) Intellectual Property
Ownership of creativity has never been so important as we are living in the new millennium called the Age of Intangibles where intangible assets such as brands, market information, know-how and ideas have so much power (Parrish D., 2005). Thus, the company protected its brand name, logo, and all documents on the official website such as pictures, videos, etc. (Touch’ In Paris, 2016).

4) Market Information
Food is a large part of French culture. A large number of restaurants in and around Paris are medium/high-end restaurants, serving a wide range of food. The availability of a wide variety of cuisines has led consumers to demand various restaurant concepts, which in turn has led to the creation of new and innovative restaurant offerings. These new concepts have been influences by changes in consumer lifestyles, with strong trends towards healthy restaurants (France: A Modern Foodservice Sector, 2011). 5) Ethos
The culture of the company is also important as it is embedded within the organisation as ‘structural intellectual capital’ giving a competitive advantage (Parrish D., 2005). The core value of the company is to provide a healthy environment by giving information on the product origin and nutritional values on each ingredient used in the restaurant. To keep the image of a high tech dining place, all these information can be found on the tactile application giving an entertaining experience. It is all about respect for the customers, and it also increases customer trust in the service. 6) Financial capabilities.
Touch’ In Paris is a Small and Medium-sized company (SMEs) created by three friends in 2012. As the company is relatively recent, the information concerning the current state of profitability, cash flow and assets do not enable to establish the real financial capabilities of the company. The actual profitability is at €7.000 as the company is still in development.
To create the restaurant, the founders have recourse to a capital (€5.000), bank lending, crowdfunding, business angels and support public programmes (Touch’ In Paris, 2016). 7) Agility
Touch’ In Paris stays able to change if the manager sees a new opportunity in customer’s needs by introducing or improving a new product for example. However, the company has not sufficient financial funds to size larger opportunities.

8) Partnerships and Networks.
Touch’ In Paris has several strategic collaborators in France from local producers, Michelin Chefs, communication agencies to companies providing staff training improving the competitiveness of the company (Appendix).
Furthermore, the emergence of Web 2.0 has significantly changed consumer behaviours in the context of tourism and hospitality (Appendix). To increase brand awareness, Touch’ In Dublin uses social media such as Facebook, Tripadvisor, Lafourchette and its official website (Touch’ In Paris, 2016). 9) Talents.
The company applies an effective recruitment by expecting certain qualifications, knowledge, skills, interests and abilities in the employees such as communication skills, flexibility, stress tolerance, integrity, initiative and cooperation with others (Appendix).
Even if the company’s key skills such as the abilities of preparing food, dealing with new technologies, and providing an excellent customer service give a competitive advantage, constant learning is inevitably an ingredient of success (Parrish D., 2005).

Chapter 3: External Environment Analysis

1) Innovation
Due to population growth, the livestock production may not be able to keep up with the demand and therefore alternatives must be developed. Vegans and vegetarians are raising awareness of already available recipes where a certain mixture of spices, flour, carrot fibre and soy powder can simulate chicken-like texture and flavour (Caroline Scott-Thomas, 2013). Bill Gates quoted “There’s quite a lot of interesting physics, chemistry and biology involved in how food tastes, how cooking changes its taste, and why we like some tastes and not others”. On top of that, the developments of healthy salts, low fat cheese and various egg replacements open up a path for new recipes 2) Competition
Food and service industry is a highly competitive market in Ireland. According to Restaurants Association of Ireland there are roughly 3500 restaurants operating in Ireland (RAI, 2016). New crisis of chef’s shortages forces restaurants to close. 5000 chefs are required to fill vacancies by 2016. 3) Economics
The speed of economic growth in Ireland is amongst highest in Europe (IDAIreland.com, 2014). The current unemployment rate was estimated at 8.8% compared to last year’s 10% (cso.ie, Monthly Unemployment, February 2016). It’s a sign that recession in Ireland is at halt and shows signs of economic recovery and improvements in services and hospitality sectors (cso.ie, Monthly Services Index, February 2016). Currently the economy is in deflation stage (-0.10% (CPI) /-0.20% (HICP). Deflation can create 6 step downward spiral effect:

(Image Source: http://www.investinganswers.com/financial-dictionary/economics/deflation-1160)
It can have negative effects for various industries and country’s economy although it has little impact on restaurant sector. People are not going to hold onto their saving to wait months or even years for the price of dinner to decrease. It gives an opportunity for the restaurant to acquire income and make a purchase of cheaper and higher quality equipment as the time pass. 4) Demographics
The following are statistics provided by Central Statistics Office and IDA Ireland: * Ireland’s population was estimated at 4,635,400 at the end of April 2015. It’s expected that by 2021 there will be a 1.4% increase in Irish population. * Dublin accounts for 27.5% of the population (approximately 1,274,735 people). * According to IDAIreland, in 2015 nearly half of the population was under 35 years of age.

(Image Source: http://www.cso.ie/multiquicktables/quickTables.aspx?id=pea01) * Ireland has well-educated and productive workforce. * Increasing life expectancy. 5) Regulatory Environment * Before opening food service business one must familiarize with the relevant food legislation including 852/2004/EC; 853/2004/EC; 178/2002/EC; I.S. 340/2007; I.S. 341/2007. * It’s important to register with relevant official agencies such as HSE, DAFM, LAVI and SFPA and to obtain a copy of NSAI Guidelines (fsai.ie, 2016). * To serve alcohol first it’s mandatory to acquire alcohol license (Special Restaurant License/ Wine Retailers on License) from the Office of the Revenue Commissioners (pointofsinglecontact.ie, 2016) * IMRO provides license to play background music in the restaurant for a fixed annual rate. 6) Infrastructure
The following list was provided by IDA Ireland: * Developed telecommunications network. * Developed transportation services (Dublin Bus, taxi, and Dublin bike rentals). * Developed roads and highway network. * Developed railway networks (Luas, Dart). * Good quality & easy access to water (UISCE EIREANN). * Developed and improving energy network in Ireland as well as an ongoing development of self-sustainable energy infrastructure.

7) Partners
Two ideal institutions to create partnership with:
Good Food Ireland – Promotes local produce and brings together Ireland’s agri-food sector, farmers, food producers, fishermen and links them with the tourism hospitality sectors, restaurants and hotels.
Irish Hospitality Institute – professional, voluntary nonprofit organization for tourism and hospitality in Ireland. Being member of IHI has many benefits such as hosting numerous social events for general management, specific groupings or seminars. They collaborate with educational institutions and provides the education and training to employees. 8) Social Trends
People want to be in control of their health and wellbeing, manage and improve the quality of their wellness through making better choices (Boardbia.ie)
Access to the internet enables people to stay connected to the world at all times. Brands are creating awareness online through social channels such as Facebook, Twitter etc. Companies can interact with their target market and it became a common practice for companies to advertise on social media.
Chapter 4: Modes of Entry

To elaborate a relevant and effective breakthrough into a foreign market, the company has to choose a suitable mode of entryand consider the course of cation base on these 4 criterions: the internal factors, the desired mode characteristics, the transaction- specific factors and finally, the external factors (MarketingTeacher, 2014). Afterwards, the company selects between an export, intermediate or hierarchical mode of entry, according to the level of risks and advantages linked to theses modes.

1) Internal Factors

Regarding to the resources of the company, we realize that the company isn’t very strong financially speaking: turnover of 483000€, net profit 7000€ and capital 5000€. This financial capability of a company is the key point to emerge into a foreign market, and it’s logical to wonder if the company is currently capable of expanding into the foreign market (Societe.com, 2016). It’s necessary to mention that the company was created in 2012 therefore profits aren’t too appealing at first sight. Moreover, the experience and know-how of the Touch’in Paris managers enable to ensure a strong human resources : Frédéric Pinto was the manager of a previous bar in Paris, Romain Marin is a business developer and Jeremy Vuillaume is gratuated from the high cook school of Paris (SortiraParis,2012)

Even if the company doesn’t have any experience abroad, the strength and the originality of its concept has a potential success for « Touch’in Dublin ». The fact of being the first restaurant to offer this kind of concept enable to have a natural monopoly in Dublin (D.Wu, & F.Zhao, 2007).

2) Desired mode characteristics

Regarding this export in Dublin, the key word of this implantation is control. As a matter of fact, our company doesn’t have enough resources to ensure flexibility to the staff (Ukessays, 2015) and the company can’t afford to bear lots of risks in this implantation: we have to keep in mind that this expansion is more of a bet than a necessity and we don’t have to jeopardize the head company.

3) Transaction-Specific factors

In the case of the transfer of « Touch’in » restaurant in Dublin, the articulation won’t be focused on the tactile tables which are very easy to use (M.Kichenama,2013) and intuitive device. Actually, the transfer of know-how has to more focused on the conception of cocktails which are all unique creations. The training of the staff could be operated through video lectures or seminars.

4) External factors

It’s important to keep in mind that the Irish market has it owns habits and that there is a socio-cultural differences between France and Ireland (R.Tulshyan,2010) First of all, the Irish population is used to a night life which begin early and, thus, end up early. Moreover, in France, people go out in restaurants most commonly for special events whereas Irish people prefer to go out to have dinner several times a week (BoardBia, 2014). Theses firsts challenges has to be well managed by the French company to ensure a good implantation.

The restaurant sector survived the recession well, valued at 1.85 billion euros, and its demand is still certain: high wages, business confidence, immigration (BoardBia, 2014). Dublin attracts lots of workers and students which represents a big advantage for our company (C.Taylor,2014) .

5) Hierarchical mode of entry

We assessed that the most suitable mode of entry for this project would be the hierarchical one. As a matter of fact, this mode of entry allows to have a high control from the head retailer and to reduce the flexibility, which is perfectly matching our objective of overall control. The supervision could be ensured in a direct way, avoiding expenditures linked to intermediaries (D.Barua, 2014).

Chapter 5: Marketing Strategy

Services marketing strategy focuses on delivering processes, experiences, and intangibles to customers rather than physical goods. The four Ps of marketing (product, price, promotion and place) are only partially adequate to conduct effective services marketing strategy (Lovelock & Wirtz, 2011). Thus, three additional Ps such as people, process and physical evidence will be analyzed in this following part.

1) Product a) Core Product
Touch’ In Dublin is a restaurant in which customers can enjoy a large range of locally produced food (fish, meat, salad, pasta, etc.). However, the restaurant does not offer French cuisine to stay with the high-tech restaurant concept.
The variety of food offered in the restaurant allows to attract a maximum of consumers, and to fulfill new customer’s expectations in term of choice (Appendix). b) Supplementary Services
Touch’ In Dublin offers to customers a unique experience through the interactive tables. Indeed, customers can navigate through a carousel of available products in the restaurant, and choose their food of choice. The interactive table includes other services such as the possibility to have information concerning the restaurant, access to internet and social media to share pictures, videos and documents, and the possibility to call a taxi right from the table when the evening is over.

2) Place
The restaurant will be located in the city centre of Dublin (Dublin 2). One of the main reasons is that the location attracts a lot of people every day from domestic customers to tourists. This location may increase visibility, and represent a huge competitive advantage for the company. 3) Price
Touch’ In Dublin will offer medium range price for its products: * The Meat, Fish, Burger and Pasta Meal: from €12 to 16€ * All Salads: from €8 to €12 * All Desserts : from €4 to €6

As Touch’ In Dublin wants to attract young customers, a student discount of 30% will be offer for students from Monday to Friday.
The sale prices take into account all different costs such as raw material, labour, variable and fixed costs, and VAT (Appendix).

4) Promotion
Traditional communication methods will be used for the promotion of the company such as flyers, banners and newspaper advertisement.
Furthermore, the company will use the street marketing strategy as a way of promoting the restaurant to attract customers. The event consists of placing an interactive table in Grafton Street, and asking general questions about Ireland. People answering right will obtain discount on their future consumption in Touch’ In Dublin.
Moreover, recent advances on the internet have given individuals the opportunity to use social media to generate content online (Gruzd et al. 2001). While traditional media keeps customers informed, social media goes a step further by keeping the customers stimulated and involved. There is also an abundance of advantages such as low cost investment, direct customer communication, and brand communication (Hailey, 2010). A business that understands the advantage of social media is well aware that social media is essential in developing new business in the current competitive and online driven marketplace. Thus, Touch’ In Dublin could share pictures (restaurant, Interactive table, smiling employees, meal), promote their seasonal offers, share information concerning the food origins, reserve a table online, and encourage reviews on social media (Facebook, Twitter, Tripadvisor, etc.). 5) People a) Segmentation
Touch’ In Dublin will target young people aged from 18 to 35 years old having interest in new technology. b) Employees
The restaurant will be composed of approximately 10 employees including managers, chefs, kitchen assistants, and waiters/waitresses. From a customer’s perspective, the encounter with service staff is probably the most important aspect of a service as it provides a tangible element (Mittal, 2009). Thus, employees are expected to be courteous, responsive and helpful in dealing with customers. All employees in contact with customers must wear a black uniform. 6) Physical evidence
Because services are intangible, customers look for tangible evidence to evaluate the experience (Langeard et al., 1981). Physical evidence such as environmental design helps to establish the firm’s image and influence the customer’s expectations (Baker, 1987).
Thus, the restaurant will be decorated in a contemporary design by using black, brown and white colours. Touch’ In Dublin wants to place a cozy atmosphere with jazz, pop-rock, folk and popular music. 7) Process
Process is another element of the services marketing mix. Employees will welcome the customers as soon as they open the door of the restaurant, and bringing them to a table. Then, the waiter/waitress will explain the process of the interactive table and responding to eventual questions. Customers can order food thanks to the interactive table. Guests simple drag and drop the food from their menu to the center of the table for purchase, and the order is then sent to the staff to prepare and deliver. Finally, customers can directly pay on the table thanks to the Touch’ In Dublin app.

Appendix 1: Introduction to the Irish Restaurant Industry

The combined impact of recession, squeezed incomes, rising food costs and the dramatic increase in the number of branded coffee shops and fast foods have resulted in a challenging environment for the Irish restaurant in recent years. However, Ireland’s out of home food spend has increased and is expected to continue to grow. An analysis of the Irish restaurant Industry has been made to determinate the actual and future trends on this market which could impact the development of Touch’ In Dublin.

1) Overview.

In 2014, Irish consumers spent €6.1 billion on out of home food in locations such as quick service restaurants, full service restaurants, cafes and pubs. Restaurant industry in Ireland is being driven by greater tourist numbers, and a domestic consumer that has more disposable income after the recession (BordBia.ie, 2013).

The foodservice market in Ireland is characterized by a competitive mix of foreign and domestic competitors. Fast food outlets and quick-service restaurants have gained ground in Ireland with nearly half of consumer going into these restaurants, and only 13% attributed to full service restaurants (BordBia.ie, 2013).

2) Consumer’s tastes are changing.

The food and beverage industry is subject to numerous trends and these trends have an impact on business success or decline.

With consumers being more cautious with their finances, cheaper and informal foodservice outlets such as fast food, 100% home delivery/takeaway and street kiosks benefited at the expense of full-service restaurants and cafés/bars (BordBia.ie, 2013).

While mainstream cuisine remains important to restaurant offerings, consumer interest in restaurant concepts is growing, which in turn has led to the creation of new and innovative restaurant ranging from burrito outlets to Pan Asian restaurants. These new concepts and menus have been influenced by changes in consumer lifestyle, with strong trends toward light and healthy cuisine (BordBia.ie, 2013). Indeed, consumers are more health conscious, are taking more self-responsibility for their health and are adopting a wellness perspective towards living.

However, there a few aspect of the eating out experience that today’s consumers simply won’t accommodate. Consumers are increasingly looking for both value and quality; expecting a lot from their eating experience.

Lunch and/or dinner are typically eaten out-of-home 2-3 times a month by one quarter of Irish consumers, whereas light snacks are eaten out-of-home up to 2-3 times a week by a fifth of consumers.

Figure: Frequency of eating lunch/dinner outside the home in the last three months, RoI & NI (BordBia.ie, 2013). | |

To conclude, based on analysis of Irish consumers, the following summary shows both shifts in consumer demand (in terms of menu applications that are increasing in demand) as well as operational changes and new ways for doing business.

Global Trends | Shifts in Consumer Demand | Operational | Vegan/VegetarianEthnic seasonings in traditional conceptsSnack sized menu itemsHealthier menu items | Transparency and Food SafetyMobile PaymentExpanding takeaway/food-to-go formatsNew alternatives for those with dietary restrictionsExpanded customization opportunities for diners |

Appendix 2: Touch’ In Paris Collaborators
Touch’ In Paris has several strategic collaborators in France from local producers, Michelin Chefs, communication agencies to companies providing staff training improving the competitiveness of the company (Touch’ In Paris, 2016). a) Bar Spoon
Bar Spoon is a school dedicated entirely to the bar world offering bartending, cocktail and flaring courses to beginners and professionals. Bar Spoon and Touch’ In Paris worked together to create the list of exclusive cocktails. b) Interio Design
Interio Design is a company specializing in the interior design of hotels and restaurants. Regis Conseil, the company’s creator, is the architect who designed the restaurant-bar Touch’ In Paris. c) After-Mouse.com Application
Expert in multi touch tables, After-Mouse.com uses cutting-edge technology to develop touch and gesture based applications for businesses across the globe with 500 companies. The company is an official Premier Partner of Microsoft.
Touch’ In Paris uses one of After-Mouse’s applications. The cocktail selection feature allows guests to navigate through a carousel of available beverages and choose their drink of choice. Guests simply drag and drop the drink from their menu to the center of the table for purchase, and the order is then sent to the staff to prepare and deliver. The bar location and neighborhood is displayed on a full HD map powered by Bing, and includes numerous markers with photos and text about local points of interest. Guests can also read about Touch’in’s history through digital brochures, photos and videos. When the evening is over guests can even call a taxi right from the table (Touch In Paris, 2016).
Thus, After-Mouse.com provides a personalized application which could increase sales, productivity, staff efficiency, and provide a memorable experience for the customers to keep them coming back in Touch’ In Dublin.

d) Vianova Group
Vianova Group is a global communication agency, which helped Touch’ In Paris with is communication strategy. e) L’Hostellerie du Pas de l’Ours Relais et Château
Franck Reynaud, Michelin Chef at “l’Hostellerie du Pas de l’Ours” helped Touch’ In Paris in the elaboration of its menu. f) Asforest
Asforest, which has been active since 1975 advising hotels, cafés and restaurants in their staff training strategies, has brought its expertise to Touch’ In Paris.

Appendix 3: International Competitiveness
Appendix 3.1: Porter’s Diamond
In his book, “The Competitive Advantage of Nations”, Michael Porter introduced his model for analyzing the areas of strength and weakness that can give a country, or industry within a country, a competitive advantage or disadvantage. The model is known as “Porter’s Diamond” and includes four key elements such as factor conditions, demand conditions, firm strategy, structure and rivalry, and related and supporting industries.
In addition, Porter proposed that the four key elements all influence each other, and that they are all also affected by chance and by government policies (Porter, 1990). Thus, the home nation plays a major role in the achieving and sustaining competitive advantage among companies. In the following part, the Porter’s diamond model has been made for the Irish restaurant industry.
Figure: Porter’s diamond (Porter, 1990)

Factor conditionsNatural Resources: * Availability of Raw Materials * Ireland has a “green” image * The farms account for 90% of Ireland’s beef production and half of its milk output (Irish Examiner, 2016).Human Resources: * Highly labour Intensive * 120.000 farmers (Bord Bia, 2014) * The restaurant industry currently employs 72.000 people (RAI, 2016). * Well-educated and productive workforceTechnology systems improving and increasing convenience for consumers (Euromonitor, 2015) | Firm Strategy, structure and rivalryNo trade barriers, member of: * The European Union * European Economic Area * European Customs UnionNational conditions (culture aspects): * Business practices and approaches * Management manner and structures * Working Morale * Relationship with the consumersIntensity of Competition: * Fast Food * Quick Service Restaurant * Full Service Restaurant * Cafes/Bars/Pubs * Self-Service Cafeterias * Street stalls and kiosks * 100% home delivery and takeaway(Euromonitor, 2015) | Related and supporting industries * Tourism Industry * Hotels & Accommodation * Other Business Service Providers (special events, concert, sport venues, clubs, cinemas, etc.) * Farmers/Suppliers * Relations with Public Authorities and Institutions * Associations(Bord Bia, 2014) | Demand conditions * Demand is rising: Foodservice performance is being driven by greater tourist numbers and a domestic consumer. * Preference level of domestic demand to the products in terms of origin and brand * Service efficiency level After Sales * Saturation of the market(Bord Bia, 2014) | Government * Favorable VAT connected to foodservice spending * Irish Government encourages the creation of SMEs and company to innovate * Corporate Tax Rates * Employees Cost (minimum wage) * Cost of Raw Material * Formal and informal Rules affecting relations between companies (code of business ethics, etc.)(Euromonitor, 2015) | Chance * New inventions * Political decisions by foreign governments * Rapid changes in financial markets or exchange rates * Increase of world or regional demand * Discontinuities in input costs * Technical changes |

Appendix 3.2: Porter’s Five Forces Model
The five forces framework by Michael Porter is a model to assess the attractiveness of an industry regarding competitive aspects. If all five forces are high, the industry is considered to be not attractive to compete in (Johnson and Scholes and Whittington, 2008, pp. 59-60).
The Irish Restaurant Industry will be examined in the following:

Threat of New Entrants / Potential Competitors: High pressure * In the restaurant industry, there are a lot of new restaurants that open every year with similar prices so the threat of new entrants is high. * Entry barriers are high in the restaurant industry | Threat of Substitute Products: High Pressure * The threat of substitute product is high because Touch in Dublin is not the only restaurant in Dublin so every customer is able to go in others restaurants. | The Bargaining Power of Buyers: High pressure * Low switching costs * Large number of providers * High availability of substitutes | The Bargaining power of Suppliers: Low Pressure * Large number of suppliers * Low vertical integration | Rivalry among existing Firms: High Pressure * High number of firms * Low switching costs |

Appendix 3.3: The Collaborative Model
The comparative Industry Structure Analysis visualizes the power of each of the five forces on five axes (Figure). It compares the five forces over time (Johnson and Scholes and Whittington, 2008, 99.71-72). The power increases as the axes go outwards, representing high forces, where the total area enclosed is large. Thus, the smaller the enclosed area the greater is the profit potential.
In this case, the blue lines represent the current industry situation (Time 0), whereas the red lines depict the industry in five years (Time 5).
As visible in the following Figure, the Irish restaurant industry is expected to become even more competitive in the next five years.

Figure: Comparative Model (Own Illustration)

Appendix 3.4: Value Chain Analysis
Value chain describes the categories of activities within an organisation which, together, create a product or service (Johnson, G., et al., 2011, pg. 97).
Michael Porter (1985) have developed the theory of value chain and interpreted it into the following graph.

This graph allows to better understand the strategic enterprise position. Value chain is made up of 2 main activities, support and primary. Primary activities are concerned with day-to-day business, support activities are enabling business to be more efficient in primary activities (Johnson, G., et al., 2011).
Support Activities: * Firm Infrastructure is dependent on quality control and management. It’s important that the quality of the product is top quality. Lawsuits may not be relevant therefore there is no need to acquire legal representative to deal with various legal issues and disputes but in case such would arise, we would request credible solicitor to assist with the dispute. It’s important to have an accountant to manage financial aspects. * Human Resource Management is responsible maintaining their employee satisfaction and safety in workplace. HRM is also responsible for hiring right people for the company with an appropriate skill set and those who can contribute to their business. * Technology development - software maintenance and improvements for our touch screen tables to provide more effective communication with the staff with a touch of a button as well as provide new experiences to the customer. * Procurement – Is very important support activity allowing businesses to achieve economies of scales and as well it serves the purpose of acquiring various resource input to the primary activities (Johnson, G., et al., 2011, pg.98). Supporting local farmers and producers and promote Irish made products and create relationship with them to acquire higher quality goods at a lower price.
Primary Activities: * Inbound Logistics - responsible for maintain right amount of stock at the right time to provide the business with the resources whenever demand for the product appears. * Operations- recycling and anything that is concerned with day to day business processes. * Outbound Logistics - gathering and delivering customer orders. * Marketing and sales - advertising and promoting the brand, setting the right pricing to meet demand, monitor product mix and bring in new ideas of how to minimise costs and maximise profits. * Services – purpose is to serve as the frontline of communication between company and customers i.e. Waiters, chefs and phone operator.

Appendix 3.5: Competitive Benchmarking

The benchmarking is the process of identifying the highest standards of excellence for products, services or processes, and then analyzing them and making the improvements necessary to reach those standards (Elmuti & Kathawala, 1997).
As Touch’ In Dublin restaurant provides a new experience in Ireland, there is no direct competitors on the market to date. The hospitality industry in Ireland is composed of 2.500 licensed restaurants (Failte Ireland, 2009) with different features, services, products, price, location and processes. Thus, the market is too vast to analyze one of those standards.

Appendix 3.6: Blue Ocean Strategy
W. Chan Kim & Renée Mauborgne coined the terms red and blue oceans to denote the market universe (Harvard Business Review, 2004). Blue Ocean denotes all the industries not in existence today, it means the unknown market space, unexplored and untainted by competition. Like the ‘blue’ ocean, it is vast, deep and powerful in terms of opportunity and profitable growth. Blue Ocean is a market spaces where competition is minimized.
As Touch’ In Paris is still a new concept of restaurant, this new business is situated in the blue ocean. Blue Ocean Thinking encourages companies to find market spaces that are not currently being served (Johnson, Whittington & Scholes, 2011). By analyzing Critical Success Factors (CSFs), the company will be able to face to eventual new entrants by well positioning its business on the market. Internationally there have been proposed models of critical success factors to making the creation and operation of new restaurants ventures successful (Parse et al., 2005; Camillo et al., 2008). By comparing key competitors Critical Success Factors (CSFs), and analyzing the current strategic landscape with the Canvas Strategy, the company will be able to focus on new alternatives from competitors. a) Touch’ In Paris Critical Success Factors (CSFs) Touch’ In Paris Critical Success Factors (CSFs) | High-tech Restaurant Concept | Embrace new technology through interactive table is a vital factor success of the company within the restaurant industry. Touch’ In Paris is the only bar-restaurant offering a new concept by gathering high technology, taste of drinks and local foods in Paris. | Traditional Food | Touch’ In Paris offers traditional French cuisine. People are now looking for local products responding to the health and well-being trends in the global environment. Customers want to taste local foods to be environmentally friendly. | Medium Price | Consumers without brand preferences will select the restaurant with the most competitive price. | Adapted Location | The location of a restaurant is an essential critical success factor. If the restaurant is situated in a wasteland, customers will have difficulty to find the place and simply won’t come. An adapted location is essential for a restaurant, especially if the place attracts a large number of people every day (inhabitants, tourists, etc.) |

b) Four Actions Framework RaiseAreas such as ‘better-for-you’ and ‘naturally healthy’ are the opportunity areas within the restaurant industry. Touch’ In Paris could improve its restaurant by offering more healthy products from local producers. The traceability of the product is also a new important trend from customers. Touch’ In Paris should provide more transparency on the product origin (producer information, transport, etc.). In service businesses, the service levels and the way service is delivered by the frontline personnel can be an important source of differentiation as well as competitive advantage. Thus, Touch’ In Paris could improve its service level by improving the quality of the service. Moreover, social networking sites take an important place in the current business environment because individuals can enhance brand popularity (de Vries, Genlser & Leefland 2012), increasing sales (Agnihotri et al. 2012), and facilitating word-of-mouth communication (Chen et al. 2011b). Many individuals nowadays share their travel or dining experiences in rich and diversified contents (texts, photos, and videos) on social media sites (Leung, Law, van Hoof & Buhalis, 2013). Social media has emerged as a very effective tool to engage with consumers. Thus, Touch’ In Paris should not underestimate the power of social media, and should stimulate positive word-of-mouth on various platform (Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, etc.). |

ReduceA common theme has emerged around the world with consumer interest in the health and wellness trend increasing, thus driving reductions in high calories products. Moreover, consumers are increasingly opting for lighter main meals and are moderating their alcohol consumption (Mintel, 2009).Thus, Touch’ In Paris should focus on developing healthy products, and reduce high calories products and cocktail offers. |

CreateDespite disparate growth, the restaurant industry still offers opportunities for companies in offering new concept by introducing new ingredient and flavours for example.Customers demand variety, and choice of products.Vegans and vegetarian foods are also rising, as well as food without carbohydrates and gluten due to an increasing number of allergies and intolerance.Touch’ In Paris could create new flavours, vegetarian meals and adapted meals for customers with food allergies and dietary restrictions. |

EliminateTouch’ In Paris should eliminate all unsustainable products. |

c) ERRC Grid Eliminate | | Raise | Unsustainable Products/Brands | | Local Food PositioningTraceability of the productService levelsSocial Media Presence | | | | Reduce | | Create | High Calories FoodCocktail Offers | | Healthier PositioningNew ingredient and flavoursVegetarian FoodAdapted Food for customers with food allergies and dietary restrictions |

d) Strategy Canvas

To summarise this findings, a strategy Canvas has been created where the current and potentially future “Blue Ocean” factors are compared amongst the five biggest players in the soft drinks industry.

Critical Success Factors (CSFs) | Blue Ocean Factors | High-Tech Restaurant ConceptTraditional FoodMedium PriceAdapted Location | Healthier PositioningNew ingredient and flavoursVegetarian FoodAdapted Food for customers with food allergies and dietary restrictions |

Figure: Strategy Canvas (Own Design, based on Blue Ocean Strategy)
Explanations: 1 (Low) to 5 (High).

Companies | High-Tech Restaurant Concept | Traditional Food | Price | Location | Healthier Positioning | Touch’ In Paris | 5 | 4 | 3 | 4 | 2 | Average Full Service Restaurant in Dublin | 0 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 3 | Average Quick Service Restaurant in Dublin | 1 | 2 | 2 | 4 | 1 | Average Cafés/Bar/Pubs in Dublin | 1 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 2 | Average Street Stalls/kiosks in Dublin | 0 | 2 | 2 | 4 | 1 | Average 100% Home delivery and takeaway in Dublin | 5 | 3 | 3 | 5 | 3 |

Companies | New ingredient and flavours | Vegetarian Food | Adapted Food for customers with food allergies and dietary restrictions | Touch’ In Paris | 2 | 0 | 0 | Average Full Service Restaurant in Dublin | 2 | 3 | 2 | Average Quick Service Restaurant in Dublin | 1 | 2 | 1 | Average Cafés/Bar/Pubs in Dublin | 2 | 3 | 2 | Average Street Stalls/kiosks in Dublin | 1 | 1 | 1 | Average 100% Home delivery and takeaway in Dublin | 3 | 3 | 3 |

Appendix 3.7: Generic Strategies To understand the strategic position to gain a competitive advantage on analysis is made using Porters Generic Strategies (Porter, 1998). The current strategy of Touch’ In Paris Company is a differentiation strategy. The use of differentiation strategy is where the firm attempts to be diverse from its competitors by adding something to its product that will provide a unique value to its customers (Porter, 1998). Differentiation for Touch’ In Paris is achieved through perceived high tech restaurant, quality product, unique and contemporary. Thus, Porter’s model concerning the differentiation strategy has been made. Touch’ In Paris focuses on one particular segment which is the high-tech restaurant to gain competitive advantage. Thus, the company is “differentiation focus” according to the following model. Figure: Differentiation Strategy (Own design based on Porter, 1998) Strategic Target | Uniqueness Perceived by the Customer | Low Cost Position | Industry Wide | Differentiation | Cost Leadership | Particular Segment Only | Differentiation Focus | Cost Focus |

Appendix 4: Stakeholder mapping
Stakeholder mapping helps to understand the priority of stakeholders by analyzing their power, influence and interest (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2011, pp.141ff).
Figure n°: Touch’ In Paris Stakeholder Mapping
High

Keep SatisfiedSuppliersGovernmentsNGOsTrade associationsPower | Manage CloselyConsumersCustomersPartners | Minimum EffortLow
Communities | Keep InformedEmployeesShareholders |
High
Low
Level of Interest

Stakeholder Group | Engagement with Stakeholders | Consumers | Regular VisitsSocial Media engagement | Customers | Regular visitsSocial Media engagement | Partners | Day-to-day interaction as business partnersJoint projectsJoint Business planning | Employees | Engagement surveysEmployee Communications Individual development plansHealth and Safety communications programsCommunity and employee well-being projects | Shareholders | Quarterly Road shows and results briefingsOngoing dialogue with analyst and investors | Suppliers | Joint Value creation initiatives | Governments | Recycling and recovery initiativesChambers of Commerce | Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) | Memberships of business and industry associations | Trade Associations | Industry collaborationsPolicy engagement activities | Communities | Community meetingsSponsorships |

Appendix 5: Socio-Cultural Environment
Anthropologists and sociologists define culture as “ways of living”, built up by a group of human being which are transmitted from one generation to another. Culture includes conscious and unconscious values, ideas, attitudes, and symbols that shape human behaviour (Keegan, Waren J., 2012). As defined by the anthropologist Geert Hofstede, culture is “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one category from those of another” (Geert-hofstede.com, 2016).
Consumption patterns, living style, and the priority of needs are all dictated by culture. Food preparation methods are also dictated by culture preferences. Thus, the marketing challenge of Touch’ In Dublin is to create a product that fits the needs of the Irish culture.
The importance of understanding the language of a country cannot be overestimated. Touch’ In Paris managers must achieve expert communication, and this requires an understanding of the English language as well as the ability to speak it fluently (Keegan, Waren J., 2012).
Furthermore, understanding cultural dimensions becomes increasingly essential to identify how an organization should be structured and managed internationally. Dr. Geert Hofstede conducted the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. Studying over 90,000 people in 66 countries, he found that the cultures of the nations studied differed along four cultural dimensions such as (Geert-hofstede.com, 2016): * The Individualism/Collective Index, which focuses on self-orientation. * The Power Distance Index, which focuses on authority orientation. * The Uncertainty Avoidance Index, which focuses on risk orientation. * The Masculinity/Femininity Index, which focuses on achievement orientation.
The main purpose of this study is to analyse the different cultural values according to the four cultural dimensions between Ireland and France to conduct an effective management in Touch’ In Dublin.

Figure: Hofstede’s Model: Ireland in comparison with France (Geert-hofstede.com, 2016).

* Power Distance Index.
The power of distance measures the tolerance of social inequality such as power inequality between superiors and subordinates within a social system.
With 28%, Ireland has a low score. It means that the society tend to value equality and respects sources of power. Within Irish organisations, hierarchy is established for convenience. Indeed, superiors are always accessible and managers rely on individual employees and teams for their expertise. Communication is informal, direct and participative. Information is shared frequently, and both managers and employees expect to be consulted regularly.
In other hand, France has a score of 68%. It means that French culture tend to be hierarchical with members citing force, manipulation and inheritance as sources of power. Cultures with high power distance scores tend to indicate a perception of differences between superior and subordinate (Geert-hofstede.com, 2016).
Thus, Touch’ In Paris must operate differently concerning its management to minimize * Individualism Index.
The individualism Index refers to the preference of behaviour that promotes self-interest. In other words, cultures that are high in individualism reflect an “I” mentality and tend to reward and accept individual initiative, while those low in individualism reflect a “we” mentality and tend to take care of a group in exchange of loyalty.
Both Ireland and France present a high score in individualism. In the business world, employees are expected to be self-reliant and display initiative. Furthermore, hiring and promotion are based on merit or evidence of what one has done or can do (Geert-hofstede.com, 2016). * Masculinity
The masculinity Index refers to one’s desire for achievement and entrepreneurial tendencies. A high score in masculinity indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success, while a low score means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life.
With 68% Ireland is a Masculine society, highly success oriented. The Irish are proud of their success and achievements in life. Behaviour in work is based on the shared values that people should “strive to be the best they can be”. With a score of 43%, France has a somewhat feminine culture. The country is well-known for its welfare system, the 35-hour working week, five weeks holidays per year and its focus on the quality of life (Geert-hofstede.com, 2016). * Uncertainty Avoidance
The uncertainty avoidance index explains the intolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty among members of a society.
With 35%, Ireland has a low score on uncertainty avoidance. Thus, the Irish society os associated with a low level of anxiety and stress, a tolerance of deviance, and a willingness to take risks. Irish businesses embrace creativity and are always looking for new ways to approach problems. However, the French society is highly intolerant of ambiguity, and tends to be distrustful of new ideas or behaviours. French tend to have a high level of anxiety and stress, and a concern with rule following to avoid risk (Geert-hofstede.com, 2016).
To conclude, adaptation is a key concept essential in the development of Touch’ In Dublin in Ireland. There are few basic criteria that the company should be able to meet such as open tolerance, flexibility, humility, justice, ability to adjust to varying tempos, curiosity, knowledge of the country, liking for others, and ability to integrate oneself into the environment (Keegan, Waren J., 2012).

Appendix 6: Evaluation of Modes of Entry

To elaborate a relevant and effective breakthrough into a foreign market, the company has to choose a suitable mode of entry, regarding to 4 criterions: the internal factors, the desired mode characteristics, the transaction- specific factors and the external factors (Marketing Teacher, 2014).
In this following part, these factors will be analyse to determinate which mode of entry is suitable for the company.

A. Internal factors

Analyzing the internal factors allows to assess the resources and capabilities of Touch’ In Paris to export overseas.

* Firm size:
Touch’ In Paris is a SMEs (Small and Medium-sized enterprises) created in 2012 with approximately 10 employees.
As the company is relatively recent, Touch’ In Paris is still in development. The turnover and net profit are just becoming growing over the last few years. Name | Touch’ In Paris | Head office | Touch’ In Paris, 120 rue Montgolifer78360 Montesson | Field (NAF Code) | Traditional Restauration (5610A) | Legal status | Limited Liability Company | Date of registration | 08-04-2011 | Capital | 5000,00 € | Turnover | 483000,00 € | Net profit | 6641,00€ | Evolution of Business | 47.37% |
(Societe.com, 2016)
Thus, the company may have difficulties to enter in a new market due to not sufficient financial capabilities. However, the company could have recourse to bank lending, crowdfunding or business angels.

* Experience abroad:
Touch’ In Paris company does not have any experience abroad.

* Product complexity:
The interactive tables represent a huge investment for the company as one table costs approximately 11.000€ (Appendix). All the success of the company is based on these high-tech tables which require technological and informatics knowledge from both consumers and employees.
However, the product is an intuitive device; it means that the interactive tables are easy to use with advices at all stages of the process (M. Kichenama, 2013).

* Natural monopoly:
Touch’ In Paris is the only restaurant in France offering a restaurant concept with interactive tables. Thus, the company has the monopoly.
These new concept will be unique as well in Ireland. Indeed, there are a lot of restaurant concepts in Dublin, such as “Chez Max” where consumers can enjoy French cuisine, but no one deals with interactive tables (Yelp, 2016).

B. Desired Mode characteristics.

When a company decides to break into a foreign market, it has to deal with the desired mode characteristics, in other words, the main policy, way of thinking to apply during this implantation (D. Wu & F. Zhao, 2007).
For the implantation of Touch’in Paris in Dublin the key word is control. As the company is relatively recent, Touch’ In Paris has not sufficient financial capabilities to ensure flexibility and take risks. The implantation in Ireland represents a real challenge for the company. According to this analysis, the export mode does not suit to Touch’ In Paris profile. The intermediate and hierarchical modes may be more adapted. C. Transaction-specific factors.

During the implantation of a company abroad, it’s important to wonder how the know-how will be articulate to ensure the same good quality and service to customers (D. Wu & F. Zhao, 2007).
One of the critical success factors of the company is the preparation of cocktail. Thus, Touch’ In Paris may transfer its ability to create cocktails to gain a competitive advantage. Frederic Pinto, the bar manager, could provide training through video lectures or seminaries.

D. External Factors

When a company decides to make an implantation abroad, it has to assess the local market in order to adapt the strategy to the local habits. Each country has its own lifestyle, economic situation, market and legislation concerning the international trade and several elements has to be taken into account to elaborate an efficient implantation (R. Tulshyan, 2010).
Understanding the Irish socio-cultural environment (Appendix), the macro-environment, customer’s needs and expectations (Appendix), the legislation and the global business environment is essential before entering into a new market.

E. Hierarchical mode

Regarding to the analysis made above, the recommended strategy is the hierarchical mode of entry. It ensures a high control from the head retailer and reduces the flexibility. The supervision could be ensured in a direct way, avoiding expenditures linked to intermediaries (D. Barua, 2014).

Due to socio-cultural differences between France and Ireland, the implantation would have to be done in a polycentric orientation which means that the company has to think Dublin as a wholly separate market to be more relevant in its offer (D. Barua, 2014).

(Whatishumanresource.com, 2016)

The hierarchical mode enables manifold advantages for the implantation: * Gain new business: assessing the implantation in Dublin as a new experience, a first glimpse of an international implantation. * Save costs: contrary to franchise which could be very expensive for Head Company * Widen business concept without taking lots of financial risks: not making investments which jeopardize the company * Simple administrative tasks * Enjoy the French legislation: territoriality point implies that French state can only tax subsidiaries located in France. In other words, even if a company starts a branch abroad, it will only be taxed according to the local legislation which is very profitable in this case: 12.5% in Ireland (Service-Public, 2016)

Appendix 7: Marketing Strategy

Appendix 7.1: The Role of Employee
Among the most demanding jobs in service businesses such as restaurants are the so-called frontline jobs (Lovelock & Wirtz, 2011). Employees working in these customer-facing jobs are expected to be fast and efficient in executing operational tasks as well as courteous and helpful in dealing with customer. In fact, frontline employees are a key input for delivering service excellence and competitive advantage. From a customer’s perspective, the encounter with service staff is probably the most important aspect of a service as it provides a tangible element (Mittal, 2009). From the company’s perspective, the service levels and the way service is delivered by the frontline personnel can be an important source of differentiation as well as competitive advantage.
Thus, Touch’ In Paris applies an effective recruitment by expecting certain qualifications, knowledge, skills, interests and abilities for its employees that will be describe in this following part.
The company is composed both in Paris and in Dublin of 10 employees (manager, chef, kitchen assistant, and waiter/waitress).
The number of employees could increase if the restaurant is successful among customers in the near future. In the following part, the role of each employee will be analyzed to clearly define limitations. a) Chefs and Head Cooks
Chefs and Head Cooks may participate in the preparation, seasoning, and cooking of foods. May also order supplies, and keep records and accounts. Touch’ In Dublin will be composed of one head cook when the restaurant will open its doors. The number of employees could increase if the restaurants is successful and makes profits by appointing a sous-chef for example.
Chefs and head cooks typically do the following: * Check freshness of food and ingredients * Supervise and coordinate activities of cooks and other food preparation workers * Develop recipes and determine how to present the food * Plan menus and ensure uniform serving sizes and quality of meals * Inspect supplies, equipment, and work areas for cleanliness and functionality * Hire, train, and supervise cooks and other food preparation workers * Order and maintain inventory of food and supplies * Monitor sanitation practices and follow kitchen safety standards

Dress Code Kitchen: Chef Whites (monogrammed jacket, pants, non skid shoe, apron and hat)
What skills are required for Chef and Head Cook in Touch’ In Dublin? * Monitoring/Assessing performance of itself and other individuals to make improvements. * Communication skills: Talking to others to convey information effectively especially during peak dining hours. * Social Perceptiveness: Being Aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do. * Time management: Chefs and head cooks must efficiently manage their time and the time of their staff. They must ensure that meals are prepared and that customers are served on time, especially during busy hours. * Management of Personnel Resources such as assistants: Motivating, developing and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job. * Judgment: Considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one. * Instructing: Teaching others how to do something. * Quality Control Analysis: Conducting tests and inspections of products or processes to evaluate quality. * Management of Material Resources: Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work. * Creativity: Chefs and head cooks must be creative in order to develop and prepare interesting and innovative recipes. They should be able to use various ingredients to create appealing meals for their customers.

What knowledge is needed to be a Chef in Touch’ In Dublin? * Food Production: Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting food products for consumption, including storage techniques. * Production and Processing: Knowledge of raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and other techniques for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods. * Personnel and Human Resources: Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruitment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems. * Public Safety and Security: Knowledge of relevant equipment, policies, procedures, and strategies to promote effective local, state, or national security operations for the protection of people.
What abilities is needed to be Chef in Touch’ In Dublin? * Attention to Detail: Job requires being careful about detail. * Flexibility: Job requires being open to change. * Stress Tolerance: Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations especially during peak dining hours. * Integrity: Job requires being honest and ethical. * Initiative: Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. * Leadership: Job requires a willingness to lead, take charge, and offer opinions and direction. * Cooperation: Job requires being pleasant with others. * Self Control: Job requires maintaining composure, keeping emotions in check, controlling anger, and avoiding aggressive behavior. * Innovation: Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas.
As Touch’ In Dublin is a restaurant, having one qualified chef is primordial for the development of the business. If the chef doesn’t have all these skills, capabilities and knowledge, the restaurant could be in a difficult situation by not responding to the high demand of customers in terms of quality, taste and time for example. Thus, the recruitment of a chef must be efficient for the future of the restaurant. b) Kitchen Assistants
Kitchen assistants may do basic food preparation, make sure that chefs have everything they need and be responsible for cleaning the kitchen. Touch’ In Dublin will be composed of 2 kitchen assistants when the restaurant will open its doors. The number of employees could increase if the restaurants is successful and makes profits.
Kitchen Assistants usually do the following: * Preparation of basic food * Unloading deliveries from suppliers * Washing utensils and dishes and making sure they are stored appropriately * Organizing the storeroom * Washing kitchen appliances, work surfaces, floors and walls * Disposing of rubbish
What skills, interests and qualities are required for Kitchen Assistants in Touch’ In Dublin? * Energy and enthusiasm * Independence: Ability to carry out tasks quickly and competently * Interest in food * The ability to follow chef instructions * Good spoken communication skills: Talking to others to convey information effectively especially during peak dining hours. * Work in a team
What knowledge is needed to be a Chef in Touch’ In Dublin?
Kitchen assistants don’t need particular knowledge to work as a kitchen assistant, but globally a good general secondary education would be useful.
What abilities is needed to be Kitchen Assistant in Touch’ In Dublin? * Stress Tolerance: Job requires accepting criticism and dealing calmly and effectively with high stress situations especially during peak dining hours. * Integrity: Job requires being honest and ethical. * Initiative: Job requires a willingness to take on responsibilities and challenges. * Cooperation: Job requires being pleasant with others. * Innovation: Job requires creativity and alternative thinking to develop new ideas.
As Touch’ In Dublin is a restaurant, all members of the kitchen staff are essential to the development of the business. The recruitment of kitchen assistants should be determinant for the reputation of the restaurant. c) Waiters or Waitresses
As Touch’ In Dublin is a service, frontline employees are of central importance for the guest experience in the hospitality industry (Onsoyen et al., 2009). The success of hospitality organizations as well as service organizations in general depends upon the performance of its frontline employees (Chung and Schneider, 2002). Indeed, a great server will guarantee return diners to the restaurant. Waiters or waitresses from Touch’ In Dublin must be welcoming, friendly, attentive, responsive and smiling during all the service.
Making guests feel comfortable and welcomed at the restaurant really makes all the difference. Indeed, if customers don’t have a pleasant experience, they probably won’t return.
Kitchen Assistants usually do the following: * Great guests and make them feel comfortable. * Learn menu items and be able to describe them appropriately to guests. * Explain how works the interactive table to guests. * Take beverage and food orders. * Enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff. * Deliver beverages and food in a timely manner. * Check-in with guests to ensure that everything is going well. * Clear dirty dishes from table. * Refill beverages throughout the meal. * Deliver guest’s bill and thank them for dining at the restaurant. * Work with other servers and be a team player.
What skills, interests and qualities are required for Kitchen Assistants in Touch’ In Dublin? * Professional and friendly. * Excellent customer service skills. * Interest in food and drink * Effective communication skills with guests and staff. * Quick thinking * The ability to remain calm under pressure * An awareness of health and safety issues * High standards of personal hygiene * Basic math skills for dealing with bills and payments. * The ability to memorize orders * Great attention to detail
What abilities is needed to be Waiter/Waitress in Touch’ In Dublin? * Remain calm under pressure * Memorize orders * Work on your own and as part of a team

Appendix 7.2: Cost of Food Preparation

Eating out is an integral element within the hospitality industry. The restaurant industry in Ireland is a sector comprised mainly of SMEs as Touch’ In Dublin (Failte Ireland, 2009). The aim of this following part is to analyze the food production costs in the Irish restaurant sector and to consider the impact of government regulations on the sales price. I. Input Costs.
The price of a meal is commonly associated in the customers mind with the cost of the food used to create the meal. In general, customers tend to think that the difference between the food cost and the menu cost is mostly profit.
In this part, the relationship between the principal costs and the final product will be analyzed (Figure n°) according to component inputs such as raw materials, labour costs, consumables, fixed costs, VAT and Rent.
Figure: Cost Components of the Standard Meal (Failte Ireland, 2009). Component | Percentage of Sales Price Incl VAT | Percentage of Sales Price Excl VAT | Raw Materials | 30.8% | 37.0% | Labour Costs | 25.2% | 30.4% | Consumables | 2.7% | 3.3% | Fixed Costs | 11.3% | 13.6% | VAT | 16.9% | --- | | 86.9% | 84.3% | Available for Rent/Interest/Capex/Return | 13.1% | 15.7% | Sales Price | 100.0% | 100.0% |

Thus, the sales price is directly influenced by the input costs that are required to deliver the meal. a) Raw materials (Food and Beverage Inputs) 30.8% including VAT
The raw materials for a meal comprise the direct food and beverage inputs. Food and drinks are the largest single cost component with 30.8% including VAT of the sales price.
Fresh, premium product is used in the vast majority of restaurants in Ireland rather than less expensive lower quality options (Failte Ireland, 2009). The main meal ingredients in restaurants are beef, chicken and fish. There is globally a significant difference between the selling price and the ingredient cost (including vegetables and accompaniments) in each case (Figure n°). However, these figures exclude labour costs, consumables, fixed costs, VAT and rent.
Figure n°: “Standard Meal Pirce” versus Retail Price

Restaurants survive on the quality and reputation and the value they offer and consequently their cost of sales, as a percentage of the menu price is high.

b) Labour Costs 25.2% including VAT
Labour costs account for a considerable portion of the overall cost structure within a restaurant with 30.4% of revenue excluding VAT. It means that just over 30% of the price of a meal is spent on payroll.
Moreover, the cost of labour is governed by a large amount of legislation intended to protect the rights of employees. For example, the minimum remuneration for the sector is set by the Joint Labour Committees (JLC). The effect of the JLC’s provision is to set a rate of pay for the sector that is higher than the minimum wage (Hospitality, 2016).

Figure n°: Summary of JLC Basic Pay Rates (Failte Ireland, 2009). Summary of Basic Pay Rates as per current JLC provisions | Hourly Rate | Catering JLCCounty Borough of Dublin and Borough of Dun LaoghaireEffective 1 November 2008 | | Trained Chef (Cook) | €9.51 | Waiter/Waitress/Barperson/Clerical/General Assistant | €9.27 | Areas other than areas known, until 1 January, 1994, as the County Borough of Dublin and the Borough of Dun LaoghaireEffective 1 December 2008 | | Cook | €9.38 | Short Order Cook/Counter | | Assistant/Waiter/Barperson/Clerical/General | | Worker/Cleaner/Wash up | €9.27 |

Globally, the term chef is used to describe a competent chef to work as part of the kitchen team. The average hourly rate for those employees is €11.67 in Ireland because restaurants will seek chefs with high training and competency. However, kitchen porters’ average hourly rate is €9.59 because the work is largely unskilled. Indeed, they provide the back-up to chefs in a kitchen, fulfilling the cleaning and some basic preparation duties (Failte Ireland, 2009).
Waiting staff are the employees with the most customer contact. Trained, friendly and efficient staffs are required and the hourly rate paid is €9.78 on average in Ireland (Failte Ireland, 2009). Waiting staff can also expect to receive tips to augment their pay.
Furthermore, premium payment for Sunday work is required under the Organisation of Working Time Act 1995. The act does not set out a minimum level of premium payable; the JLC is left to make this choice (Figure n°).
Figure n°: Summary of Current JLC Sunday Premiums (Failte Ireland, 2009). JLC | Payment for Sunday Working | Catering JLC (Dublin) | Time plus one third for hours worked on Sunday | Catering JLC (excluding Dublin) | Double Time for hours worked on Sunday |

c) Consumables and Fixed Costs 14% including VAT
The other significant costs are consumable variable costs (such as materials, tableware, cleaning products), utility costs (such as electricity/gas, local authority rates and water chargers) and administrative overheads (such as repairs, maintenance, insurance, and marketing).

d) VAT 16.9% including VAT
The food and drink component of the meal is impacted by 9% of VAT rates since 2011 (Revenue, 2016).

e) Total Inputs 86.9%
The balance of 13.1% is available to the restaurateur to cover property costs (either owned or rented – in other words mortgage or lease payments), capital expenditure on equipment and fittings, taxation and provide return. Thus, the previous results demonstrate that, in general, the returns within the industry are relatively modest. Furthermore, it means that the price of a meal is ultimately determined by the cost of the individual component inputs.

To conclude, Irish restaurants operate in a highly competitive market with an estimated 2.500 licensed restaurants (Failte Ireland, 2009), and cost volatility. Thus, the restaurant sector is vulnerable to fluctuations in demand. Moreover, Irish restaurants are subject to higher input costs than many of their neighboring countries across all cost headings such as higher VAT charged on alcoholic products, higher food and beverage costs the Europe average, and higher labour and energy costs (Failte Ireland, 2009).
Thus, Touch’ In Dublin offers meal from €8.00 to €16.00 established through these different costs, and the competitors prices (medium prices).

Minutes of Meeting Date | Attendance | Topics | Actions | 28.10.2015 | A, H, M, R | Research on potential companySelection of company (Touch’ In Paris) | Gather Information | 30.10.2015 | A, H, M, R | Research on Touch’ In Paris | Read Touch’ In Paris | 04.11.2015 | A, H, M, R | General FindingsFamiliarisation with models (PRIMEFACT & ICEDRIPS) | Research on Touch’ In ParisWorking on models | 02.12.2015 | A, H, M, R | Discuss on general content for the assignment | All: Formatting the layout | 23.12.2015 | A, H, M, R | Distribution of tasks | (Individual Contribution) | 15.02.2016 | A, H, M, R | Discuss on our findings | All: Referencing and formatting of models | 01.03.2016 | A, H, M, R | Work on: Executive Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations | All: Writing on one document | 15.03.2016 | A, H, M, R | Check Referencing, Finish all models | | 30.03.2016 | A, H, M, R | Appendix, Layout | All: Formatting put together all models into one document | 04.04.2016 | A, H, M, R | Final Touch, Submission | All: Read through, corrections |

Description: |

Individual Contribution Name | Task | | | | | | | | | | |

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A Map in Your Head

...hidden waterfalls, by traveling together with the tourist groups from point A to point B, and left without the landscape behind the car window. The best way to travel is alone. Standing alone on the dusty platform, I fill my lungs with the smell of a strange city perfumes. My map is adjusted to the north. Once the first steps are taken in a strange land, it becomes yours. I will never forget the days-long train trip to Omsk (Russia), when I woke up in the morning in my tiny cabin and I know – few more days to travel, I am not leaving train today, have to keep myself busy with anything that is around me. I will never forget the old Indian woman in New Mexico at the Red Cliffs selling turquoise jewelry. I will never forget wandering through Paris when early in the morning after waking up, after six hours founding myself close to the Eiffel Tower. Only then I realized that I cannot go to it, because it seemed that all my blood was in my foot and my head...

Words: 863 - Pages: 4