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Tourism and Transport

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Submitted By conrusty
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International Tourism and Transport

Assignment One: BX660020


By: To: Word count: 2,459 Date: 23/03/2012

1.0 Introduction

The purpose of this report is to examine and discuss land, air and sea transport modes with reference to examples of each type of transportation. The importance of these transport modes will be analysed with reference to regional, national and international networks including supply and demand. The importance of these networks will then be critically evaluated. The country that will be analysed will be Scotland.

Scotland is the most northerly of the four parts of the United Kingdom and occupies about one third of the island of Great Britain. “Scotland is bounded by England to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and north, and the North Sea to the east”(Alice Brown 2012) . A map of Scotland can be seen below in blue.


With a population of 5,169,000 (2008), a total land mass of 77,925(sq. km) and the fact that it is made up of over 790 islands an extensive transport system is needed for locals to get around and tourists to see the country (Alice Brown 2012). As stated in the Scotland National Transport Strategy
“Transport is an essential part of economic activity. Infrastructure, roads, rail, airports and ports – and the businesses that use these assets - are all vital components of Scotland’s economy. Transport has a significant and positive contribution to make to economic growth, and to the prosperity and quality of life of Scottish people”(Astron 2006).

Scotland strives to achieve a transport network that develops transport infrastructure and services in innovative ways that anticipate future needs and challenges (Astron 2006).

2.0 Land Transport

Scotland has an extensive railway network which creates links not only around Scotland but also to England. They are used for both travel and freight. There are trains for cross country, intercity (including a rapid transit (underground) train in Glasgow) and small scale tram and train operations.
Scotrail known more commonly as ‘Scotland’s Railway’ is a member of FirstGroup which is Britain's leading transport provider. They operate 95% of passenger rail services in Scotland and provide 2000 services a day. Scotrail also operates all but 3 of Scotland's 344 passenger stations, of which 142 are staffed (Scotrail 2012).
There are two different fleets of trains Scotrail have in commercial operation, diesel and electric.
An example of a diesel train that Scotrail have in operation is the Class 156 Sprinter. This train was built in 1989 and has a top speed of 120km per hour. Many upgrades have taken place on the train over the years to increase capacity and efficiency for the public.

An example of an Electric train that scotrail have in operation is the Class 380 desiro. This train was built in 2009 and is far more efficient than the diesel trains and has a top speed of 161km per hour.

The Scotrail network is very extensive and creates access too many areas of Scotland as can be seen below in their network map.

In 2005 Rail transport included 2.7 thousand km’s of rail routes which carried 73 million passengers per year, averaging a total of 2.35 billion km’s per year. This was behind road transport as the most popular form of land transport.
The rail service networks are considered inconvenient and/or perceived as not reliable for some people and because of this they tend not to use them. For business professionals “Rail journeys of 4 hours 30 minutes are not regarded as competitive”(Transport 2011). Because of these factors and the reduction in people choosing sustainable transport such as cycling and walking there has been a dramatic increase in personal car use.

If these current trends of high personal car use continue and road traffic continues to grow there will be significant on-going impacts for Scotland unless something is done to change this. This has already been identified by the Scottish government with them stating:

“As road traffic levels increase, congestion may become more of a problem in Scotland, with longer delays where there are existing problems, and congestion occurring where traffic currently flows freely. As parts of the road network reach capacity, it becomes less resilient to shocks, such as accidents and road works, which in turn increase problems of congestion”(Astron 2006).

“The growth of road traffic levels is unsustainable in the longer term – it is already resulting in a range of problems that affect our economy, our environment and our quality of life. Most of us are aware of these problems, but our car use continues to rise”(Astron 2006).

Scotrail have realised this and now pride themselves in their performance and reliability is their top priority. They have accomplished these values by having a set of standards for the punctuality and reliability of services based on seven service groups (seven different areas of Scotland). They have a target percentage of trains arriving within the proposed arrival times and graph the data for all customers to see. So far they have meet and exceeded their target consistently. They also do this for reliability (How often the trains run)(Scotrail 2012). Scotrail have also adopted sleeper trains for overnight trips which have included in the tickets a small room with a bed and bathroom. They have also adopted a kids go free approach to encourage family travel (Scotrail 2012).

The supply is there for the public and they are using these initiatives to create a demand and create a better image of themselves.

Regionally these train networks are important as if they are used they will create a more sustainable Scotland, helping reduce road user’s. This also applies to freight as it is a far more sustainable method of transport than road transport. Nationally these train networks are important as they create cross border links to England for business, trade and tourism. Internationally train systems like this are seen worldwide and are very efficient and sustainable forms of land transport. Scotland’s rail networks are very extensive and are up there with some of the best in the world. 3.0 Sea Transport

Ferries in Scotland are both subsidised and non-subsidised and are a very essential part of the transport network of Scotland. They have a key role in enabling and sustaining economic development both on Scotland and on the remote rural island communities. They also create and support tourism both locally and internationally (Scotland 2012).

There are several different ferry companies operating in Scotland all with different routes and purposes. These ferry networks make trade, tourism and community economic growth achievable domestically and internationally. Transport Scotland state:

“Ferries are an essential part of Scotland’s transport network. They provide access to schools and healthcare for the communities in some of the most remote and fragile parts of Scotland. They enable the movement of freight to and from those communities. The correct transport links can encourage people to stay in their communities and can encourage economic growth”(Scotland 2010).

The network of ferry routes is extensive as can be seen below.



The types of ferries in operation are all very different. Some are very old and some are very new. An example of a ferry that operates in the western islands of Scotland is the MV Isle of Lewis. This boat is owned by Caledonian Maritime Assets limited and is the largest in there fleet. The boat was built in 1995 and is over 100m in length. The ship has a max speed of 19 knots and can carry a total of 970 passengers and 114 cars (Leòdhais 2012).

(Leòdhais 2012)
There is a strong element of seasonality to the demand for ferry travel and freight throughout Scotland. “During the winter season, except for some peak sailings, most of the vessels serving Scotland’s islands operate under capacity. During the peak tourist season there are regular instances where vessels are fully booked and operating ‘waiting lists’”(Scotland 2010).
The ferry services are hugely important in Scotland as over 2,000 jobs are supported by ferry operations generating an annual income of over £65m. Over 60% of those jobs are held by residents of the Highlands and Islands who would otherwise struggle to generate sufficient income (Scotland 2010). Scotland’s national transport strategy states:

“Ferry services have the potential to be key enablers of economic growth for Scotland’s islands, allowing them to contribute more to the national tourism economy. We agree with the consultation’s view that they are an essential part of Scotland’s transport network and that the correct transport links can stimulate and encourage economic growth”(Astron 2006)

Nationally and internationally these ferry services create tourism opportunities and enable freight and trade of huge supply. Ferry ventures are seen worldwide and are a very common form of transport.

4.0 Air Transport

Scotland has four international airports. The: * Edinburgh airport * Glasgow international airport * Aberdeen airport * Glasgow Prestwick international airport
Scotland’s connections are improving. Between 1999 and 2005 the amount of international travel destinations direct from Scottish airports increased from 32 to 71 and continues to grow today further opening up the market (Astron 2006). Today these airports serve 107 destinations internationally to places such as Wales, England, Europe and even places far away such as Asia and the United States.

Scotland since 2002 has had a national airline called Air Scotland. However they have never had the full market share in Scotland. The routes flown by Air Scotland can be seen below.

(Travel 2012)

The main commercial flyer in Scotland however is British Airways. This is because the main Scottish airline was brought by British airways in the 1980’s. There are also some Scottish airlines that operate at smaller levels such as BMI regional, Eastern airways, Logan air and Scot airways.

The planes used in Scotland a very variable depending on the extent of the flight journey. British airways the leader in air transport in Scotland have a huge variety of planes for commercial transport and travel. “British Airways operates one of the largest and the most modern fleets of any airline in the world”(Airways 2012).

The biggest of the planes is the Boeing 777-400, seen below.

(Airways 2012)

These planes can seat up to 345 passengers in 4 separate classes. They can travel at a maximum speed of 988km per hour which makes it the world’s fastest commercial jetliner and they can cover a range of 13,450 km. They are mainly used for commercial long haul journeys or high demand trips (Airways 2012).

The planes range all the way down in capacity, speed and range to the smallest of the planes the Embraer 170 (BA City Flyer), seen below.

(Airways 2012)

These planes have a passenger capacity of 76 in 2 separate classes. They have a maximum speed of 890km per hour and can cover a range of 3,334 km. These are used for commercial short haul flights (Airways 2012).

Other airline operators in Scotland have very similar planes but not to the same hugely commercial extent of British Airways. They do however have another range of even smaller planes. There are also many other non-commercial air transport services for freight and recreational activities in Scotland.
The supply and demand for Air Transport in Scotland is huge and this is not just for Scotland but is a trend seen worldwide.
In the United Kingdom (Scotland included) the demand has grown substantially as can be seen in the below chart.

Increase in demand (passengers per year between 1990 and 2007): * Short-haul - increase of 128% (from 82 million to 187 million). * Long-haul – increase of 133% (from 22 million to 51 million). * Leisure - increase of 185% (from 63 million to 180 million). * Business - increase of 70% (from 35 million to 60 million).
(Change 2012)
“Around half of the UK adult population currently travels by plane each year. Since 1990, the number of passengers taking flights has increased by 130%, from 104 million passengers to 238 million today”(Change 2012). This is a huge statistic for air travel and shows that the demand is increasing and means that Airlines need to keep up supply. The two leading factors in the increase include the increase in average incomes of 54% throughout and the reduction in airfares which had fallen about 50% between 1990 and 2007 (Change 2012).
This shows that air transport is hugely important not only regionally in Scotland but also nationally in the United Kingdom and internationally throughout the world. It creates connections for business on a small and large scale and also is important for people’s pleasure. Scotland’s air transport is keeping up with the standards of the rest of the world and is meeting its demand.

5.0 Conclusions The supply for Rail services is extensive in Scotland however the demand is not there as people prefer personal car use and/or do not perceive the trains to be reliable, convenient or competitive. Rail is a very sustainable form of transport and has been adopted internationally.

The ferry services in Scotland are very extensive. There is a strong element of seasonality to the demand for ferry travel and freight throughout Scotland. 2,000 jobs are supported by ferry operations generating an annual income of over £65m. Nationally and internationally these ferry services create tourism opportunities and enable freight and trade of huge supply. Ferry ventures are seen worldwide and are a very common form of transport.

The supply and demand for Air Transport is hugely important not only regionally in Scotland but also nationally in the United Kingdom and internationally throughout the world. It creates connections for business on a small and large scale and also is important for people’s pleasure. Scotland’s air transport is keeping up with the standards of the rest of the world and is meeting its demand.

6.0 References

Airways, B. (2012). "Boeing 747-400." Retrieved 23/03/2012, from Airways, B. (2012). "Embraer 170 (BA CityFlyer)." Retrieved 23/03/2012, from Airways, B. (2012). "Fleet Facts." Retrieved 23/03/2012, from Alice Brown, E. A. C., Iseabail C. Macleod, Matthew James Moulton, John M. Simpson (2012). Scotland. Encyclopedia Britannica. Astron (2006). Scotlands National transport Strategy, Scottish Executive. Change, C. o. C. (2012). "
Demand for Air Travel." Retrieved 23/03/2012, from Leòdhais, E. (2012). "Welcome on board | MV Isle of Lewis." Retrieved 23/03/2012, from Scotland, T. (2010). "Scottish Ferries Review
Consultation Document." Retrieved 22/03/2012, from Scotland, T. (2012). "Ferries." Retrieved 22/03/2012. Scotland, V. (2010). "Consultation response: The Scottish Ferries Review." Retrieved 23/03/2012, from Scotrail (2012). "Performance and Reliability." Retrieved 21/03/2012, from Scotrail (2012). "Tickets and Offers." Retrieved 21/03/2012, from Transport, S. A. f. P. (2011). "Written evidence from the Scottish Association for Public Transport (HSR 36)." Retrieved 23/03/2012, from Travel, M. (2012). "AIR SCOTLAND, SCOTLAND AIRLINES, SCOTLAND AIR FLIGHTS." Retrieved 23/03/2012, from

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