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Trade Union Crisis in Nepal

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काठमाडौ, जेष्ठ २५ - राजनीतिक दलका भ्रातृ संस्थाका रूपमा स्थापित ट्रेड युनियनको आपसी प्रतिस्पर्धाले औद्योगिक क्षेत्रको विस्तारका सम्भावना फेरि कम हुँदै गएको छ ।

सरकार र रोजगारदाताले गरेको हरेक सहमतिलाई एक न एक टे्रड युनियनले बखेडा झिकेर बन्द, तोडफोड र आक्रमणको शृंखलामा उत्रने गरेपछि मुलुकको औद्यौगिक वातावरण सुध्रन नसकेको हो । ट्रेड युनियनको प्रवृति रोकथाम गर्ने कुनै विकल्प नदेखेर सरकार र रोजगारदातासामु धान्नै नसक्ने चुनौती सिर्जना भएको छ ।
त्यसको उदाहरण पछिल्लो समयमा नेकपा-माओवादी निकट टे्रड युनियनले गरिरहेको शृंखलाबद्ध आक्रमणलाई लिन सकिन्छ । तुलनात्मक रूपमा अन्य मजदुर युनियनसँग रोजगारदाताको सम्बन्ध सुध्रँदै गए पनि नेकपा-माओवादी निकट मजदुरसँगको दूरी भने टाढा भएको देखिन्छ ।

अखिल नेपाल क्रान्तिकारी ट्रेड युनियन महासंघले अन्य ट्रेड युनियन, सरकार र रोजगारदाताबीच सहमति भई सिफारिस गरेको न्यूनतम ज्याला नमान्ने भन्दै मुलुकभरका उद्योगधन्दा बन्दको आह्वान गरेको छ । युनियनले बिहीबार मुलुकका तीन प्रतिष्ठान तोडफोडै गर्‍यो । 'टे्रड युनियनले राजनीति एजेन्डा पूरा गर्न पटकपटक गर्ने यस्तो गतिविधिले निजी क्षेत्रलाई निकै दुःखी तुत्याएको छ,' उद्योग वाणिज्य महासंघ अध्यक्ष सुरज वैद्य भन्छन्, 'चित्त नबुझेको कुरा विधिवत् ढंगले राज्यसँग राख्नुपर्ने हो ।'

उक्त ट्रेड युनियनले दैनिक ज्यालादारीमा काम गर्नेको ७ सय रुपैयाँ र मासिक न्यूनतम १५ हजार तलब हुनुपर्ने माग राखेको छ । उक्त विषय दर्ता भइसकेका ट्रेड युनियनहरूको छाता संस्था संयुक्त ट्रेड युनियन समन्वय केन्द्रका प्रतिनिधि, सरकार र रोजगारदाताबीच सहमति भइसकेको हो ।

उनीहरूबीच मासिक तलब ८ हजार र दैनिक ज्याला ३ सय १८ रुपैयाँमा सहमति भइसकेको छ । सहमतिको मसी सुक्न नपाउँदै नेकपा- माओवादी निकट ट्रेड युनियनले उद्योग चल्नै नदिने गतिविधि सुरु गर्‍यो । 'यो ट्रेड युनियनहरूबीचको नाटक हो । कहिले कसले विरोध गर्ने कहिले कसले,' एक उद्योगीले भने, 'अब हामीले कुनै पनि विषयमा कुनचाहिँ ट्रेड युनियनसँग सहमति गर्ने ?'

न्यूनतम तलब निर्धारणको विषयमा असहमति जनाउन बन्द र आक्रमण गर्ने शैलीको विरोध गर्दै ज्याला निर्धारण भने वैज्ञानिक आधारमा गर्नुपर्ने अर्थविद् विश्वम्भर प्याकुर्‍याल बताउँछन् । उनका अनुसार सरकारले न्यूनतम ज्याला विनिमय दरअनुसार निर्धारण गर्नुपर्ने थियो । 'यो विषयमा हरेकपटक राज्य चुकेको छ । किन ८ हजार तोकियो, राज्यसँग स्पष्ट उत्तर छैन । अब न्यूनतम तलब १५ हजार नै कायम गरिए पनि अर्को ट्रेड युनियनले आफ्नो ख्यातिका लागि यस्तै गतिविधि नगर्ला भन्ने ग्यारेन्टी छैन,' उनी थप्छन्, 'न्यूनतम ज्याला निर्धारणको स्पष्ट मापदण्ड चाहियो । अहिले हचुवाको भरमा गरिएको छ । आधारभूत मापदण्ड अपनाएर तोकेपछि पनि पालना नगरे राज्यले त्यस्ता ट्रेड युनियनलाई कारबाही गर्न मिल्छ ।'

न्यूनतम ज्याला निर्धारण समितिका संयोजक तथा श्रम मन्त्रालयका सहसचिव धनबहादुर श्रेष्ठले राष्ट्र बैंकको मुद्रास्फीतिकै आधारमा ज्याला निर्धारण गरिएको दाबी गरे । 'त्यसका लागि राष्ट्र बैंकका कर्मचारीहरूसँग समन्वय गरी निर्धारण गरिएको हो,' उनी भन्छन्, 'दर्ता भएका युनियनहरूले पठाएको प्रतिनिधिहरूकै सहयोगमा तलब तोकिएको हो ।'
अर्कोतर्फ केही उद्योगीको भनाइ मान्ने हो भने नेपालका सबै ट्रेड युनियनका सबै नेता मजदुर हैनन् । माउ पार्टीका नेता र कुनै उद्योगको लगानीकर्ताकै रूपमा स्थापित भइसके । 'तिनीहरूले श्रमिक र रोजगारदाताको वास्तविक समस्याबारे वकालत गर्न छाडिसके,' प्याकुर्‍यालको भनाइ छ, 'उनीहरूलाई माउ पार्टीसँग अलग नगरिएसम्म कहिल्यै समस्या सामाधान हँुदैन । अलग भएर उत्पादनमा आफ्नो हिस्साको आधारमा श्रमिकले पारिश्रमिकबारे विवाद गर्न मिल्छ ।'

अर्थविद्, निजी क्षेत्र र श्रम मन्त्रालय सम्बद्ध अधिकारीहरूका अनुसार पनि नेपालमा अन्य मुलुकमा भन्दा धेरै ट्रेड युनियन छन् । अहिलेसम्म दर्ता भएका ११ वटा ट्रेड युनियन महासंघ छन् । तीन वटा दर्ता प्रक्रियामा छन् । 'यी ट्रेड युनियन अन्य मुलुकको अनुपातमा यहाँ धेरै हो,' श्रम मन्त्रालय आबद्ध एक अधिकारीले दाबी गरे, 'ट्रेड युनियनको संख्याले नै यिनीहरू प्रष्ठिानका लागि समस्याका विषय हुन् भन्ने पुष्टि गर्छ ।' ती अधिकारीका अनुसार संसारका सबै मुलुकमा ट्रेड युनियन, रोजगारदाता र सरकारबीच न्यूनतम ज्याला विषयमा प्रायाजसो सौदाबाजी हुने गर्छ । 'तर औद्योगिक वातावरण बनाउन सृजनात्मक काम पनि श्रमिकले गर्छन् । जुन कुरा मैले नेपालमा सुनेको र देखेको छैन,' उनले भने, 'नेपालका रोजगारदाता भने उदार छन् भन्ने हैन ।' ती अधिकारीले भनेझैं रोजगारदाताले पनि समयमै ध्यान पुर्‍याउन नसक्दा समस्या सृजना भएको हो । पछिल्लो समयमा माउ पार्टीसँगै फुटेको माओवादी निकट ट्रेड युनियनले फरक धार लिएर हिँडेको छ । उसको एजेन्डामा फरक धारण बनाई निर्णय प्रक्रियामा सहभागिताको माग गरेको छ । यस्तो अवस्थामा सरकार, ट्रेड युनियन र रोजगारदाताले उक्त युनियनलाई बेवास्ता गरी न्यूनतममा सहमति जनाए । तीन वटै पक्षलाई उक्त सहमतिको विरोध आन्दोलनरत ट्रेड युनियनले गर्छ भन्ने निश्चित थियो ।
'उनीहरू पनि महासंघ दर्ता गरेर वैधानिक रूपमा आए हामी निषेध गर्ने पक्षमा छैनौं । सरकारले महासंघहरू आबद्ध समन्वय केन्द्रबाट युनियनका प्रतिनिधिहरू बोलाएर ज्यालाको विषयमा समन्वय गरेको हो,' उनी भन्छन्, 'मजदुरको विषयमा केही समस्या भए आउनुस् सबै युनियन मिलेर संयुक्त मागपत्र पेस गरौं भनिरहेकै छौं ।'

यता आन्दोलनरत ट्रेड युनियनका संयोजक रामदीप आचार्यको तर्क छुट्टै छ । उनका अनुसार श्रम ऐनले दर्ता भएका र नभएका ट्रेड युनियनको दुवै अधिकार समान छ । 'माग राख्ने अधिकार दर्ता गर्ने र नगर्ने दुवैको युनियनको हो,' उनले दाबी गरे, 'हामीले पनि कानुनसंम्मत नै मानिने गरेको वार्ता, छलफलबाट न्यूनतम ज्याला निर्धारण गरौं भनेका हौं । त्यो नभएपछि अधिकार नै प्रयोग गरे बन्द र आन्दोलन गर्न बाध्य भयौ । आन्दोलनमा तोडफोड र धरपकट हुनु भनेको सामान्य कुरा हो ।'

प्रकाशित मिति: २०७० जेष्ठ २५ १०:१८
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