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Words 3869

Pages 16

Gerald Recktenwald∗

March 16, 2006†

1

Overview

This article documents the numerical evaluation of a well-known analytical model for transient, one-dimensional heat conduction. The physical situation is depicted in Figure 1. A sphere of uniform material is initially at a uniform temperature Ti . At time t = 0 the sphere is immersed in a stream of moving ﬂuid at some diﬀerent temperature T∞ . The external surface of the sphere exchanges heat by convection. The local heat ﬂux from the sphere to the ﬂuid is q = h(Ts − T∞ )

(1)

where h is the heat transfer coeﬃcient, and Ts is the local surface temperature.

The problem is greatly simpliﬁed by assuming that the heat ﬂux on the surface is uniform. Under this condition, Ts = T (r0 ) is also uniform and the temperature inside the sphere depends only on the radius, r, and time t, i.e.,

∗ Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department, Portland State University, Portland,

OR, 97201, gerry@me.pdx.edu

† Corrections made 10 September 2011

h

T

ro

Figure 1: A sphere immersed in and exchanging heat with stream of ﬂuid.

1

2

T = T (r, t). The temperature ﬁeld is governed by the heat equation in spherical coordinates ∂T α∂ 1 ∂T

=2

(2)

∂t

r ∂r r2 ∂r where α = k/(ρc) is the thermal diﬀusivity of the sphere material, k is the thermal conductivity, ρ is the density, and c is the speciﬁc heat. The boundary condition on the surface is k ∂T

∂r

= h(T∞ − Ts ).

(3)

r =r0

The initial condition is

T (r, 0) = Ti .

(4)

The remaining condition is that the temperature at all points in the sphere is bounded. These three conditions are suﬃcient to obtain a solution to Equation (2).

2

Analytical Solution

The analytical solution for Equation (2), subject to Equation (3), Equation (4), and the condition of bounded T (r, t) is given in several heat transfer textbooks,

e.g. [1, 2]. A universal solution is obtained in terms of the dimensionless variables θ∗ =

T − T∞

,

Ti − T∞

r∗ =

r

,

ro

Fo =

αt

.

2 ro (5)

The dimensionless form of the boundary condition in Equation (3) is

∂θ∗

∂r∗

∗

= Bi θs

(6)

r ∗ =1

where the Biot number is

hro

(7)

k

∗

and θs = (Ts − T∞ )/(Ti − T∞ ). If Bi

1 the internal temperature gradient is small compared to the scaled diﬀerence between the surface temperature and the ﬂuid. In that case the temperature in the sphere is spatially uniform.

The analytical solution is the inﬁnite series

Bi =

∞

∗

2

Cn exp(−ζn Fo)

θ= n=1 where

Cn =

1 sin(ζn r∗ ) ζn r ∗

4 [sin(ζn ) − ζn cos(ζn )]

.

2ζn − sin(2ζn )

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

(8)

(9)

3

20 f(ζ) 0

−20

0

5

10

15

20 f(ζ) 0

−20

0

10

20

ζ

30

40

50

Figure 2: Plots of f (ζ ) = 1 − ζ cot(ζ ) − Bi for Bi = 5 showing roots (*) and singularities (o) of Equation (10). Upper plot shows the range 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 15.

Lower plot shows the range 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 50.

The ζn are the positive roots of

1 − ζn cot(ζn ) = Bi.

(10)

Equations (8) through (10) provide a compact representation of the solution.

Obtaining numerical values from these formulas is a nontrivial eﬀort except in the case where Fo

1 when a one term approximation is suﬃcient. In general, at least the ﬁrst few terms terms in the series are needed.

3

Evaluating the Solution in Matlab

In this section, a procedure for evaluating Equation (8) is presented. The Matlab programs, or (for long programs) the function prologues, are listed in the appendix. 3.1

Finding the Roots of Equation (10)

The ﬁrst task is to ﬁnd the roots, ζn , of Equation (10) for a given Bi. This is a standard root-ﬁnding problem, with two important complications. First, there are an inﬁnite number of ζn on the positive real line. To evaluate Equation (8) a large number of roots must be available and sorted in order of increasing ζn . A missing root will cause erroneous evaluation of the series. The second complication is that Equation (10) has a singularity between successive roots.

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

3.1

Finding the Roots of Equation (10)

4

Figure 2 shows the function f (ζ ) = 1 − ζ cot(ζ ) − Bi for Bi = 5 in the range

0 ≤ ζ ≤ 50. Note that f (ζ ) = 0 when ζ is a root of Equation (10). The top half of Figure 2 shows f (ζ ) (for Bi = 5) in the range 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 15. The roots are identiﬁed with the * symbol, and the singularities are identiﬁed by vertical dashed lines and the o symbol. The bottom half of Figure 2 shows f (ζ ) over the larger range 0 < ζ ≤ 50. As ζ increases the spacing between roots approaches a constant, and the roots are located midway between the singularities. At small ζ the spacing between the roots is not equal.

The zRoots function in Listing 1 uses the zfun function (Listing 2), the bracket function (Listing 3), and the built-in fzero function to ﬁnd the roots of Equation (10). fzero is a very eﬃcient root-ﬁnding routine, but it converges equally well to roots and singularities. The strategy used in zRoots is to ﬁrst use fzero ﬁnd all the roots and singularities in order of increasing ζ , and then

ˆ

ˆ discard the singularities. A singularity ζ is easily identiﬁed because f (ζ ) is large.

The zRoots function can be called with two optional input arguments. The ﬁrst input, Bi, is required. The ﬁrst optional input, zmax, speciﬁes the upper limit of the range of ζ to search for roots. The second optional input, verbose, speciﬁes whether the roots and singularities are printed, and whether a plot of f (ζ ) is created. For example, the top plot in Figure 2 is obtained with

>> z = zRoots(5,15,true);

5 good zeta values found in zRoots()

4 potential zeros are suspected to be singularities

All roots found by fzero k zleft z 1

2.5301

2.5704

2

3.1325

3.1416

3

5.3012

5.3540

4

6.2651

6.2832

5

8.2530

8.3029

6

9.3976

9.4248

7

11.3253

11.3348

8

12.5301

12.5664

9

14.3976

14.4080

zright

2.5904

3.1928

5.3614

6.3253

8.3133

9.4578

11.3855

12.5904

14.4578

f(z)

3.128e-08

6.740e+07

2.485e-11

-1.015e+08

3.864e-12

9.273e+07

-1.298e-07

-1.450e+08

-2.699e-07

Good roots retained by zRoots n z f(z) 1

2.5704

3.128e-08

3

5.3540

2.485e-11

5

8.3029

3.864e-12

7

11.3348

-1.298e-07

9

14.4080

-2.699e-07

Singularities eliminated from list of roots n zbad f(zbad) 2

3.1416

6.740e+07

4

6.2832

-1.015e+08

6

9.4248

9.273e+07

8

12.5664

-1.450e+08

Note that the roots and singularities are interleaved, and that zRoots correctly identiﬁes the roots.

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

3.2

Evaluating θ∗ (Bi, F o)

5

In practice, a plot of the roots is not always necessary or desirable. To obtain only the ζn for Bi = 5 in the range 0 ≤ ζ ≤ 50 use

>> z = zRoots(5,50);

16 good zeta values found in zRoots()

15 potential zeros are suspected to be singularities

To facilitate manual calculation, Incropera and DeWitt [2] provide a list of the ﬁrst roots of Equation (10) for a range of Bi values1 . The zRootFirst function produces a similar list of ζ1 values. There are some discrepancies in the ζ1 values created by zRootFirst and the list given by Incropera and DeWitt.

The ﬁrst few rows of output from zRootFirst are

>> zRootFirst

Bi

z1

0.01

0.1730

0.02

0.2445

0.03

0.2991

0.04

0.3450

0.05

0.3854

0.06

0.4217

0.07

0.4551

0.08

0.4860

.

.

.

.

.

.

f(z1)

-2.064e-14

-9.368e-17

-7.494e-16

-4.517e-15

-2.179e-15

4.857e-17

-1.665e-16

-8.042e-14

.

.

.

(0.2989)

(0.3852)

(0.4550)

The third column gives f (z1 ) = 1 − ζn cot(ζn ) − Bi as a check on whether z1 satisﬁes Equation (10). The numbers in parenthesis to the right of the third column are ζ1 values from Incropera and DeWitt that diﬀer from those created by zRootFirst. (Those values are not printed by the Matlab function.) The discrepancies are small (all less than 0.07 percent) and are likely due to rounding errors in the calculations used to produce the table in the textbook by Incropera and DeWitt. The Matlab calculations with zRootFirst are all in double precision2 . The z1 values produced by zRootFirst all give very small residuals, and therefore are accurate.

3.2

Evaluating θ∗ (Bi, F o)

Once the ζn are known for a given Bi, the dimensionless temperature is computed from Equation (8). The Tsphere function in Listing 5 calls zRoots to ﬁnd the required ζn , and then evaluates Equation (8). In other words, the user only needs to call Tsphere to obtain numerical values of θ∗ .

Tsphere has a number of optional input and output arguments so that it can be called in the following ways.

T = Tsphere(Bi,Fo)

T = Tsphere(Bi,Fo,nr)

T = Tsphere(Bi,Fo,nr,verbose)

[T,r] = Tsphere(...)

1 For

large t a one-term approximation to Equation (8) is suﬃcient. ﬁfteen decimal digits of accuracy.

2 Roughly

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

3.3

Evaluating T (r, t)

6

The required inputs are Bi, the Biot number, and Fo, the Fourier number. The

Fo input can be a scalar or vector. The third input nr is optional and speciﬁes the number of radial positions at which θ∗ is to be evaluated. If nr= 1 then only θ∗ at r∗ = 0 is evaluated. If nr> 1 then θ∗ is evaluated at nr equally spaced values on the interval 0 ≤ r∗ ≤ 1.

The default output T is a matrix of θ∗ values. If Fo is a vector, each column of T corresponds to an element in Fo. If nr> 1 the rows of T correspond to the nr equally spaced r∗ values.

For example, to evaluate θ∗ (r∗ , Fo) at 11 uniformly spaced radial locations for Fo = [0.1, 0.15, 0.2] and Bi = 5, use

>> [T,r] = Tsphere(5,[0.1 0.15 0.2],11,true);

16 good zeta values found in zRoots()

15 potential zeros are suspected to be singularities

Dimensionless Temperature Profile dTmax = 9.65003e-105

| Fo = r* | 0.1000 0.1500 0.2000

---------------------------------0.0000 | 0.8459 0.6447 0.4722

0.1000 | 0.8393 0.6383 0.4672

0.2000 | 0.8194 0.6192 0.4523

0.3000 | 0.7858 0.5879 0.4281

0.4000 | 0.7380 0.5451 0.3953

0.5000 | 0.6758 0.4921 0.3551

0.6000 | 0.5997 0.4303 0.3091

0.7000 | 0.5114 0.3619 0.2587

0.8000 | 0.4136 0.2892 0.2060

0.9000 | 0.3102 0.2151 0.1527

1.0000 | 0.2059 0.1423 0.1009

3.3

Evaluating T (r, t)

The Matlab programs presented in this article produce dimensionless results.

To solve a problem in dimensional units follow these steps

1. Convert the dimensional inputs to Bi and Fo.

2. Obtain the dimensionless solution θ∗ (Bi, Fo).

3. Compute the temperature from the deﬁnition of θ∗ , viz., T (r, t) = T∞ + θ∗ (Ti − T∞ ).

3.3.1

Example

(From Incropera and DeWitt) A 5 mm radius metal sphere initially at 400 ◦C is plunged into a water bath at 50 ◦C. Assume that the heat transfer coeﬃcient is 6000 W/(m2 ◦C), the thermal conductivity of the metal is k = 20 W/m · K, and the thermal diﬀusivity of the metal is α = 6.66 × 10−6 m2 /s. Plot the variation of the centerline temperature with time for the ﬁrst ﬁve seconds after

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

REFERENCES

7

Center

Surface

Oil bath

400

350

T ( C)

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

1

2

3

4

5

Time (sec)

Figure 3: Center and surface temperatures versus time for Example 3.3.1 the sphere is plunged into the water bath. Plot the radial temperature variation at t = 0.5, 1, and 5 seconds.

The solution is implemented in the sphereExample function in Listing 6.

Figure 3 shows the variation of the center temperature with time. Figure 4 shows the radial temperature variation at t = 0.5, 1, and 5 seconds.

References

[1] E. Eckert and J. Drake, Robert M. Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer.

McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972.

[2] F. P. Incropera and D. P. DeWitt. Introduction to Heat Transfer. Wiley,

New York, ﬁfth edition, 2002.

Appendix: Listings of Matlab Codes

The Matlab source code for the mﬁles described in the article are listed on the following pages. Two of the mﬁles (zRoots and Tsphere) are too long to ﬁt on a single page. For these functions the last lines of code are omitted. The reader is encouraged to download the complete code from http://web.cecs. pdx.edu/~gerry/epub/. The code omitted from zRoots and Tsphere deals with optional printing of results, so the listings provided here allow the reader to study the essential parts of the calculations.

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

REFERENCES

8

t = 0.5 sec t = 1 sec t = 5 sec

Oil bath

400

350

T ( C)

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

1

2

3

4

5

r (mm)

Figure 4: Radial temperature variation at three times for Example 3.3.1

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

REFERENCES

9

function z = zRoots(Bi,zmax,verbose)

% zRoots Find all roots to 1 - z*cot(z) - Bi over a range of z

%

% Synopsis: z = zRoots

%

z = zRoots(Bi)

%

z = zRoots(Bi,zmax)

%

z = zRoots(Bi,zmax,verbose)

%

% Input:

Bi = Biot number. Default: Bi = 10

%

zmax = upper limit of a range. Roots are sought in the

%

range 0 < zeta <= zmax. Default: zmax=50

%

verbose = flag to control print out

%

Default: verbose = 0 (no extra print out)

%

% Output: z = Vector of roots in the interval 0 < z <= zmax if nargin<1 if nargin<2 if nargin<3

isempty(Bi), isempty(zmax), isempty(verbose),

Bi = 10; zmax = 50; verbose = 0;

end end end

% --- Find brackets for zeros of 1 - z*cot(z) - Bi zb = bracket(@zfun,10*eps,zmax,250,Bi);

% zb is a 2 column matrix

% --- Find the zero (or singularity) contained in each bracket pair mb,nb = size(zb); zall = zeros(mb,1); % Preallocate array for roots

% Call optimset to create the data structure that controls fzero

% Use no messages (’Display’,’Off’) and tight tolerance (’TolX’,5e-9) fzopts = optimset(’Display’,’Off’,’TolX’,5e-9); for k=1:mb zall(k) = fzero(@zfun,zb(k,:),fzopts,Bi); end % --- Sort out roots and singularities. Singularites are "roots"

%

returned from fzero that have f(z) greater than a tolerance. fall = zfun(zall,Bi);

% evaluate f(z) at all potential roots igood = find(abs(fall)<5e-4);

% vector of indices of good roots ngood = length(igood); z = zall(igood); f = fall(igood); zbad = zall(:); ibad = (1:length(zbad))’; % First copy all data zbad(igood) = ; ibad(igood) = ;

% then throw away good parts nbad = length(ibad); fprintf(’%d good zeta values found in zSphereRoots()\n’,ngood); if nbad>0 fprintf(’%d potential zeros are suspected to be singularities\n’,nbad); end .

.

.

% Omitted code for printing and plotting of roots

Listing 1: Partial listing of the zRoots function.

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

REFERENCES

10

function f = zfun(z,Bi)

% ztest Evaluate f = 1 - z*cot(z) - Bi for root-finding algorithm f = 1 - z.*cot(z) - Bi;

Listing 2: The zfun function evaluates f (z ) = 1 − z cot(z ) − Bi. This formula is used with the built-in fzero function to ﬁnd the roots (zeros) of Equation (10).

function xb = bracket(fun,xmin,xmax,nx,varargin)

% brackPlot Find brackets for roots of a function.

%

% Synopsis: xb = bracket(fun,xmin,xmax)

%

xb = bracket(fun,xmin,xmax,nx)

%

% Input: fun = (string) name of function for which roots are sought

%

xmin,xmax = endpoints of interval to subdivide into brackets.

%

nx = (optional) number of subintervals. Default: nx = 20.

%

% Output: xb = 2-column matrix of bracket limits. xb(k,1) is the left

%

bracket and xb(k,2) is the right bracket for the kth

%

potential root. If no brackets are found, xb = []. if nargin<4, nx=20; end x = linspace(xmin,xmax,nx);

% Test f(x) at these x values f = feval(fun,x,varargin{:}); nb = 0; xbtemp = zeros(nx,2);

% Temporary storage for brackets as they are found for k = 1:length(f)-1 if sign(f(k))~=sign(f(k+1)) nb = nb + 1; xbtemp(nb,:) = x(k:k+1); end end

%

True if f(x) changes sign in interval

% -- Return nb-by-2 matrix of brackets. if nb == 0 warning(’bracket:NoSignChange’,’No brackets found. Change [xmin,xmax] or nx’); xb = []; else xb = xbtemp(1:nb,:); end Listing 3: The bracket function returns a list of intervals in which a function changes sign. This utility function is used to obtain initial guesses for rootﬁnding algorithms.

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

REFERENCES

11

function [zout,Biout] = zRootFirst

% zRootFirst List smallest roots of 1 - z*cot(z) = Bi for a range of Bi.

%

Compare to Table 5.1 in _Introduction to Heat Transfer_,

%

2nd ed., F.P. Incropera & D.P. De Witt, 1990, Wiley

%

% Synopsis: zRootFirst

%

z1 = zRootFirst

%

[z1,Bi] = zRootFirst

%

% Input: none

%

% Output: z1 = vector of first roots, i.e. roots closest to z=0,

%

of 1 - z*cot(z) = Bi for a range of Bi

%

Bi = vector of Bi values corresponding to z1 values

% --- Use Bi values from Table 5.1 by Incropera and Dewitt

Bi = [0.01:0.01:0.1, 0.15:0.05:0.30, 0.4:0.1:1, 2:1:10, 20:10:50, 100]’; z = zeros(size(Bi));

% Call optimset to create the data structure that controls fzero

% Use no messages (’Display’,’Off’) and tight tolerance (’TolX’,5e-9) fzopts = optimset(’Display’,’Off’,’TolX’,5e-12); zmax = 4; fprintf(’ Bi z1 f(z1)\n’); for i=1:length(Bi) zb = bracket(@zfun,10*eps,zmax,100,Bi(i)); % 2 column matrix z(i) = fzero(@zfun,zb(1,:),fzopts,Bi(i));

% Find root in 1st bracket fprintf(’ %8.2f %8.4f %11.3e\n’,Bi(i),z(i),zfun(z(i),Bi(i))); end if nargout>0, zout=z(:); end % Optional return arguments if nargout>1, Biout=Bi(:); end

% insure that both are column vectors

Listing 4: The zRootFirst function ﬁnds the ﬁrst root of Equation (10) for a set of Bi in the range 0.01 ≤ Bi ≤ 100.

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

REFERENCES

12

function T,r = Tsphere(Bi,Fo,nr,verbose)

% Tsphere Dimensionless T(r,t) for convective cooling of a sphere

%

% Synopsis: T = Tsphere(Bi,Fo)

%

T = Tsphere(Bi,Fo,nr)

%

T = Tsphere(Bi,Fo,nr,verbose)

%

T,r = Tsphere(...)

%

% Input: Bi = scalar, Biot number for the sphere

%

Fo = scalar or vector of Fourier numbers (dimensionless time)

%

nr = number of r values at which to evaluate T(r,t). If nr=1

%

only r=0 is used. Default: nr=1

%

verbose = flag to control printing. Default: verbose = false

%

% Output: T = matrix of dimensionless temperatures (theta). Column j

%

T(:,j) is a vector of theta values at the nr dimensionless

%

radial locations uniformly spaced in 0 <= rstar <= 1.

%

T(:,j) is the profile at dimensionless time Fo(j).

%

r = dimensionless radial locations: 0 <= r <= 1

%

verbose = flag to control printing. Default: verbose = false if prod(size(Bi))>1, if nargin<3, if nargin<4,

error(’Bi must be a scalar’); nr=1; end verbose=false; end

end

% --- Find zeta in range 0<zeta<=50, and compute coefficients of series zeta = zRoots(Bi,50); c = 4*(sin(zeta) - zeta.*cos(zeta))./(2*zeta - sin(2*zeta));

% --- Special handling for nr=1 to avoid creation of a vector if nr==1 rstar = eps;

% Use eps instead of zero to avoid else % division by zero in formula for T rstar = linspace(eps,1,nr)’; % rstar must be a columnn vector end % --- Vectorized loop to evaluate theta = f(Bi,Fo). T is nr-by-nf

%

matrix, where nf is number of radial locations and nf is number

%

of Fo values. Construct T by summing outer products of column

%

vector (sin(zeta1*rstar)./(zeta1*rstar)) with row vector

%

exp(-zeta1^2*Fo). rstar = linspace(2*eps,1,nr)’; % Avoid rstar exactly zero to avoid

% division by zero in formula for T

Fov = Fo(:)’;

% Local copy of Fo, guaranteed to be a row vector

T = c(1)*(sin(zeta(1)*rstar)./(zeta(1)*rstar))*exp(-zeta(1)^2*Fov); for k=2:length(zeta) dT = c(k)*(sin(zeta(k)*rstar)./(zeta(k)*rstar))*exp(-zeta(k)^2*Fov); dTmax = max(max(abs(dT)));

T = T + dT; end if dTmax > 0.005 warning(sprintf(’Series not converged: dTmax = %g\n’,dTmax)); end .

.

.

% Omitted code for printing of T(r,t) table

Listing 5: Partial listing of the Tsphere function.

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

REFERENCES

13

function sphereExample

% sphereExample T(r,t) for a metal sphere plunged into a water bath

% --- Specify constants h = 6000;

% heat transfer coefficent, W/m^2/C k = 20;

% thermal conductivity, W/m/K alfa = 6.66e-6; % thermal diffusivity, m^2/s ro = 5e-3;

% radius of sphere, m tmax = 5;

% stop time, s r = linspace(0,ro); t = linspace(0,tmax);

% --- Compute theta at center and at the surface of the sphere.

%

Characteristic length is r0 for the exact solution.

Bi = h*ro/k

Fo = alfa*t/ro^2; theta = Tsphere(Bi,Fo,2); % nr = 2 for r*=1 and r*=1

% --- Convert to temperature and plot

Ti = 400;

Tinf = 50;

T = Tinf + theta*(Ti-Tinf); plot(t,T(1,:),’b-’,t,T(2,:),’r--’,[0 max(t)],[Tinf Tinf],’k:’); axis([0 max(t) 20 Ti+20]); xlabel(’Time (sec)’); ylabel(’T ({}^\circ C)’); legend(’Center’,’Surface’,’Oil bath’,’Location’,’NorthEast’);

% --- Evaluate and plot the radial temperatures at t=0.5, 1, 5 t = [0.5 1 5]

Fo = alfa*t/ro^2;

[theta,rstar] = Tsphere(Bi,Fo,50);

T = Tinf + theta*(Ti-Tinf); rmm = 1000*rstar*ro; figure plot(rmm,T(:,1),’k-’,rmm,T(:,2),’b--’,rmm,T(:,3),’r-.’,...

[0 max(t)],[Tinf Tinf],’k:’); legend(’t = 0.5 sec’,’t = 1 sec’,’t = 5 sec’,’Oil bath’,’Location’,’NorthEast’); xlabel(’r (mm)’); ylabel(’T ({}^\circ C)’); axis([0 max(rmm) 20 Ti+20]);

Listing 6: The sphereExample function performs the sample calculations described in § 3.3.1.

Copyright c 2011, Gerald Recktenwald. All rights reserved.

Free Essay

...This page intentionally left blank SEVENTH EDITION Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer THEODORE L. BERGMAN Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Connecticut ADRIENNE S. LAVINE Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department University of California, Los Angeles FRANK P. INCROPERA College of Engineering University of Notre Dame DAVID P. DEWITT School of Mechanical Engineering Purdue University JOHN WILEY & SONS VICE PRESIDENT & PUBLISHER EXECUTIVE EDITOR EDITORIAL ASSISTANT MARKETING MANAGER PRODUCTION MANAGER PRODUCTION EDITOR DESIGNER EXECUTIVE MEDIA EDITOR PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES Don Fowley Linda Ratts Renata Marchione Christopher Ruel Dorothy Sinclair Sandra Dumas Wendy Lai Thomas Kulesa MPS Ltd. This book was typeset in 10.5/12 Times Roman by MPS Limited, a Macmillan Company and printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley (Jefferson City). The cover was printed by R. R. Donnelley (Jefferson City). Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulﬁll their aspirations. Our company is built on a foundation of principles that include responsibility to the communities we serve and where we live and work. In 2008, we launched a Corporate Citizenship Initiative, a global effort to address the environmental, social, economic, and ethical challenges we face in our business. Among the issues we are addressing...

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