Free Essay

Transit Oriented Development

In: Other Topics

Submitted By wiredsky
Words 1416
Pages 6
CRP 1017 Introduction to Community and Regional Planning
April 30, 2009

Growing environmental awareness and a renewed interest in city living, combined with the negative connotations of sprawl, has generated more interest in New Urbanism and its philosophies regarding growth and development. Transit-Oriented development, a specific New Urbanist transit village framework, prioritizes the 3-D’s—density, design and diversity. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is credited with ending government-sponsored inequality in the United States but “equality in transportation has been established in name only.” In urban areas in the United States, the best explanation for racial housing segregation is discrimination and prejudice against minorities.[1] Transit-Oriented Development aims to create lasting communities of mixed income, race and lifestyle and return populations to the city but must overcome discrimination and prejudice and sustain a variety of housing opportunities to avoid neighborhoods from relapsing into isolated poor enclaves scourging current cities.
Lack of access to public and private transportation networks limits millions of people from growth civically, socially and economically. Today consumer housing demand is very different from post World War II America. Condo sales are booming, 37% of all households want dense “modest” homes and 71% of older households want to live within walking distance of transit.[2] Postwar migration to the suburbs was not wholly based on race: “many middle-class families became suburbanites because older cities lacked the dream houses at affordable prices in good neighborhoods with good schools. Others went to the suburbs to flee high city taxes and low city politics or to live nearer new, suburban-based jobs.”[3] People had not recognized the progress of their cities, as they were becoming cleaner, safer and healthier with better transportation, housing and standards of living, and because, albeit because of indirect racial fear, whites had been displaced from the city, undeniably partially racially motivated hence the term “white flight.” Daniel Moynihan describes in “Crisis in the City:”
The appearance, as of a sudden, of large numbers of lower class Negroes in Northern cities has led many persons to assert that we are in the grip of a unique problem. …Only a limited number of Americans can see contemporary problems as a result of the malfunctioning of that system of economic and social relationships which are defined as urban. … The problem of objective evaluation of urban programs must become even greater, now that the Federal government is moving beyond its original concern (to improve the physical equipment of cities) towards an effort to improve the human beings who live in them. No one need be told that people are harder to rehabilitate than buildings, although we begin to learn that the process is expensive and frustrating in buildings as well. [4] In the 50’s and 60’s subsidized assistance and VHA or VA financing catapulted millions of families into a largely white only new suburbia. Even the new interstate highway system acted as an indirect subsidy, connecting commuters to inexpensive land. During the early 1960s, conversation concerning urban issues centered on the problems of metropolitan growth, but as the decade progressed urban issues became associated with issues of racial conflict. Minorities felt that, “Black labor built wealth for a white America—while their communities have been later used as dumping grounds for the negative externalities produced by industrialization.”[5] Low-income whites were granted access to the suburbs with assistance that minorities could not obtain instigated through redlining, racial steering and other discriminatory practices, building racial instead of economic barriers. As the suburbs multiplied and sprawled, funding was funneled to their new infrastructure instead of to the cities, leaving them to rot.
Cities emptied by white flight and the “American dream” idealization of the suburbs sub-sequentially surrounded by an exploding metropolis, had lessons to learn if they wanted to survive. As Philadelphia has discovered, a city needs to remain competitive with its suburbs and if it does not it will not retain enough of a tax base to supply its remaining citizens with the services they need and demand and will spiral into higher taxes, loss in even more population and more blight. The exodus to the suburbs countless cities experienced in decades after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and after improvements in public and private transportation (first the streetcar, later the automobile), has begun to show signs of reversal. The picturesque suburb has slowly devolved into development after development of McMansion’s—meant to wow, not to last—packed into tiny lots on wide disconnected streets, with huge walls blocking the serenity-turned-highway-strip-malls that surround. Gas prices add vehemence during the traffic jams and long commutes to the work, the highway full of cars and SUVs, each occupied by only one person, all going the same place. People miss walking to stores, knowing their kids are safe walking to friends because neighbors would look out for them, being able to hop on the streetcar to get downtown and many other amenities cookie-cutter sprawl does not offer. “A recent study by the Center for Transit Oriented Development found that more than 16 million households will want to live near transit by 2030.” Change is happening in response to these wishes—“communities have been designed as traditional towns within auto-oriented suburbs, but there are now many examples of successful compact, mixed use developments in suburban downtowns located on commuter lines.” Just as urban areas experienced blight, suburbs unable to evolve can, too: “a modest-cost suburban neighborhood can plunge into a depression when its residents lose either the means or will to maintain its quality.”[6]
Cities and suburbs in the United States are at a crossroads and urban planners across the world are working for solutions. “As planners viewed existing cities plagued by decay and new suburbs seemingly developed at random, they often dream of ‘doing it right next time.’ …The results have been ‘new town’ movements on various scales.”(108) In combination with market forces and public policy, “new towns” (or smart growth) are coming to life, often in the form of Transit-Oriented development. The Transit-Oriented development and its benefits—safety, density, access to transit, to name a few—is making a stand against sprawl. New Urbanists have been suggesting smart growth, Transit-oriented development and their desirable facets for years. “Improved mass transit systems and more TODs are crucial geographical components of making compact, mixed, and diverse urban environments more livable—that is, more diverse and more just urban spaces.”
Research led by Cervero, Calthorpe and other pioneers of TOD pinpointed and prioritized the 3-D’s—density, design and diversity.
How, exactly, do advocates of Transit-Oriented development expect to achieve this density, design and diversity? For starters,
Supporting this effort is the Livable Communities Initiative of the Federal Transit Administration, which is intended to enhance community life through innovations in mass transportation. It provides planning and implementation grants from ISTEA and other funds for projects that incorporate child care facilities.[7] In Philadelphia, groups like the Delaware Valley Smart Growth Alliance, the Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission and PenTrans all work to bring all involved parties together to facilitate making Transit-Oriented development possible, as it is a combination of both public and private funding and infrastructure. Funding and design for a Transit-Oriented development is an issue only in the beginning, as once its built its built, but maintaining diversity and density in the area is an ongoing issue. Once an area is planned, it, like all neighborhoods, acts organically in its direction. Retaining populations and maintaining diversity and affordability (for at least a percentage of future residents) are issues that cannot be guaranteed without an ecumenical awareness.

[2] Center for Transit Oriented Development; Reconnecting America; Center for Neighborhood Technology. "Hidden in Plain Sight: Capturing the Demand for Housing Near Transit." Reconnecting America. Center for Neighborhood Technology. Apr. 2009 <>.
[3] Rusk, D. (1993, 1995). Cities without Suburbs (2nd Ed.): The Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
[4] Moynihan, D. P. (1967). Crisis in the city. The Massachusetts Review, 8(3), 492-498.
[5] Derrick, Muhammad, and Collins Chuck. "Race, Wealth and the Commons." Poverty & Race 163 (2007): 3-7.
[6] C., Johnson, William. Urban planning and politics. 2nd ed. Pg 106 Chicago: Planners P, 1997.
[7] C., Johnson, William. Urban planning and politics. 2nd ed. Pg 127 Chicago: Planners P, 1997.

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Aspect-oriented programming is a way of modularizing crosscutting concerns much like object-oriented programming is a way of modularizing common concerns. AspectJ is an implementation of aspect-oriented programming for Java A join point is a well-defined point in the program flow. A pointcut picks out certain join points and values at those points. A piece of advice is code that is executed when a join point is reached. These are the dynamic parts of AspectJ. AspectJ's aspect are the unit of modularity for crosscutting concerns. They behave somewhat like Java classes, but may also include pointcuts, advice and inter-type declarations. AspectJ provides for many kinds of join points, but this chapter discusses only one of them: method call join points. A method call join point encompasses the actions of an object receiving a method call. It includes all the actions that comprise a method call, starting after all arguments are evaluated up to and including return (either normally or by throwing an exception). when a particular method body executes execution(void Point.setX(int)) when a method is called call(void Point.setX(int)) when an exception handler executes handler(ArrayOutOfBoundsException) when the object currently executing (i.e. this) is of type SomeType this(SomeType) when the target object is of type SomeType target(SomeType) when the executing code belongs to class MyClass within(MyClass) when the join point is in the control flow of a...

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Urban Geography

...unplanned urban development 1. Problem Identification As suburban communities continue to expand, typically in a random pattern generated by the availability of cheap land that can accommodate large numbers of housing , lack of planning does not only require the concurrent expansion of community and commercial services , also scatters plague of urban extensions and environmental degradation . A lack of proper planning and urban development community also makes it harder to bring together members of the community, because the infrastructure is decentralized. * Deforestation As communities continue to expand without a well- prepared for the integration of residential areas, agriculture and business, buying and selling property plan will most likely lead to deforestation of the surrounding environment. To cut trees to clear building lots, soil often erodes. If construction zones are located near sources of water, eroded soil dry these sources, causing pollution and eliminating aquatic life forms. Depending on the topography of the area, deforestation caused by urban sprawl can increase the likelihood of flash floods and landslides. * Management of water resources Human life and health of the planet depend on a clean and healthy channels. Urban development puts pressure on aquatic ecosystems, including water supplies, which may endanger the health of waterways. Resource management is another problem for communities that do not properly plan their development......

Words: 1484 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Linking Urban Transport and Land Use in Developing Countries.Pdf

... Linking urban transport and land use in developing countries Robert Cervero University of California, Berkeley a e mobility challenges of the developing world are considerably different than those in wealthier, advanced countries, and so are the challenges of coordinating transportation and land use. Rapid population growth, poverty and income disparities, overcrowded urban cores, poorly designed road networks, spatial mismatches between housing and jobs, deteriorating environmental conditions, and economic losses from extreme traffic by congestion are among the more vexing challenges faced by developing cities that could be assuaged through improved coordination of transportation and urban development. is is underscored by examples reviewed in this paper from South Asia, Southeast Asia, China, India, Africa, and South America. It is concluded that whatever is done to improve transportation and land-use integration must be pro-poor. e cardinal features of integrated and sustainable transport and urbanism everywhere—accessible urban activities and safe, attractive walking and cycling environs—are particularly vital to the welfare and prosperity of urbanites in the world’s poorest countries. Abstract: Keywords: Urban transportation; land use; Developing cities; Air quality; Poverty 1 The challenges of rapid growth in developing cities e mobility challenges of the developing world are considerably different than......

Words: 11398 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

The People and Politics

...Despite all the planning programs and projects, designed by the successive governments, the situation is getting worse day by day. Hence, some underlying questions related to traffic and transport system of the Dhaka city are quite important here. Whether transport planning and management were given proper attention in the past years? What were the past planning efforts regarding transport and traffic in Dhaka city? Why these efforts have proved to be unsuccessful for better transport management of Dhaka city and what are the shortcomings of those plans? However, Strategic transport plan (STP) for Dhaka city has been approved in 2005 for an period of twenty years up to 2025. STP has proposed for installation of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) as a solution of transport problems of Dhaka City among ten alternative transportation strategies. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the existing plans and programs designed for efficient transport system of Dhaka city, to examine the root causes of failures of the previous and current programs to have any significant impact on the present situation. Some recommendations have been given according to the findings for efficient transport system of Dhaka city. Introduction The Dhaka city’s urban transport system is unique among cities of comparable size in the world, being predominantly road-based with a substantial...

Words: 7569 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

Pice Premium in Bangna Condomeniums

...Research Paper List of content Page Summary of the Research 1 Introduction Introduction and Motivation 2 Research Question 3 Conceptual Framework 3 Contribution Literature Relevant literature review 3 Empirical 4 Methodology and Data Methodology 4 Data Collection 5 Econometric Specification 5 Hypothesis ...

Words: 3718 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Policies Used to Tackle Illicit Drug Markets.

...selling drugs. States and international communities are making efforts to eradicate drugs from the society spending substantial parts of their budgets. As to international community’s efforts, the United Nations is the prime organization that “controls” drug flows around the globe. Since 1912 Hague Opium Convention, the international community decided to focus on supply side of the global drug market. They decided to allocate all resources on battling the supply side, because they thought that once they control supply side they would prevent drug use and abuse. Such supply-centric policies are damaging countries in which drugs are produced (hereinafter “producer countries”) and countries via which drugs are transited (hereinafter “transit countries”) to final market countries (usually developed ones). Countries of first two types must spend a lot of money on preventing such crimes and “the supply-centric strategy not only unachievable, but in many cases actively damaging to human...

Words: 3772 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Public Transport Recommendation

...5.3.1 Recommendation from the Findings The recommendation from the findings is to overcome the modal shift from private vehicles to public transport. Also, from that make the suggestion to improve the services of the public transport to make it work better and focused on the safety aspect, so that, the public transport become efficient and effective. i. Located several stations to make easy to interchange Most the location of the station only focuses to the centre of the cities from the outer areas. To make the system be more efficient the transit stop also can provide in the outlying areas. It’s easy for people to move from rural area to the cities centre. Besides, it does not make the user need to stay in the city with a high standard living solely far from work places. Although, it’s give other alternatives for the public transportation, if transit line have a problem. So, the problem in the study areas that the public transport does not serve the destinations will overcome and the number of the use public transport can...

Words: 1246 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Environment and Urbaization

...Environment and Urbanization The eco-city: ten key transport and planning dimensions for sustainable city development Jeffrey R Kenworthy Environment and Urbanization 2006 18: 67 DOI: 10.1177/0956247806063947 The online version of this article can be found at: Published by: On behalf of: International Institute for Environment and Development Additional services and information for Environment and Urbanization can be found at: Email Alerts: Subscriptions: Reprints: Permissions: >> Version of Record - Apr 4, 2006 What is This? Downloaded from by guest on August 13, 2012 The eco-city: ten key transport and planning dimensions for sustainable city development JEFFREY R KENWORTHY Jeffrey Kenworthy is Professor in Sustainable Cities at the Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy at Murdoch University in Perth. He is best known for his international comparison of cities around the theme of automobile dependence. He has published extensively in the transport and planning fields for 26 years and is co-author with Peter Newman of Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence (1999) and The Millennium Cities Database for Sustainable Transport (2001) with Felix......

Words: 11633 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

Pleasantville, New Bus Terminal and Garage a Case Study

...Transit Authority New Bus Terminal and Garage The city of Pleasant Ville has seen an increment of population of a 12% in urban and suburban areas in the past two years. There is an immediate need to further extend the public transportation flow in this areas to cover the demand of the population growth. The Transit Authority of pleasant Ville (TAPV) will have to open a new terminal that will service new routes to the areas where this population has concentrated, as well as a garage, to service the bus fleet that will offer the new services. With growth in population there are several benefits that a city experiences, Pleasant Ville has seen a major change in its job market as a product of new development of recreational areas in the communities, new housing development and, thriving new businesses, all to supply the demand of the increasing city’s population. The TAPV has several options to place the new terminal and garage, however as it was expected the communities surrounding the land for possible placement have presented opposing points each one of the communities claiming possible quality of life challenges. There are three option to place the garage and terminal, two being located in mostly residential areas and one located in the inner city. The TAPV must open a terminal and garage keeping the integrity of the community so that each community center remains natural to its origins; cost of land purchasing must remain low for TAPV can invest in a reliable fleet......

Words: 1369 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Chapel Hill Light Rail Expansion Plans

...Economic Indicators Property Values Business Development Transportation Times and Costs Environmental Indicators Air Quality Indexes (AQI) Carbon Monoxide Concentration Trends Ozone Concentration Trends Health Indicators Asthma Rates Traffic Fatalities Results and Conclusion II. Executive Summary This paper serves as an addendum to the previously existing Transit Oriented Development in the Triangle Region report compiled by the Triangle J Council of Governments. It analyzes the impacts of light rail transit in regions that are comparable to the Triangle Region (as defined by the region surrounding Duke to NC State to UNC). This study focuses on the effects of Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) as a result of light rail implementation. Additionally, we examine how light rail impacts the following sub-categories: environment, economic, and health indices. These indices shape our assessment of whether or not light rail is a worthwhile investment in the Triangle Region. In order to enable politicians to make the best decisions regarding light rail, we provide a comprehensive analysis of peer corridors that are similar to the Triangle Region. Based on population growth projections for the Triangle Region, we find it necessary to offset the corresponding increases in traffic rates and the detrimental health effects that are associated with this growth of automobile usage. We found that building a light rail transit system generates additional tax revenues......

Words: 4300 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Resource Guide

...PA WALKWORKS Resource Guide A guide on incorporating public health into master transportation plans and utilizing local and countywide resources. * December 14th, 2014 Contents Introduction3 County Profiles4 Clearfield4 Elk5 Fayette6 Indiana7 McKean8 County Regulations and Jurisdictions9 Government Stakeholders11 Transportation12 References13 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this resource guide is for local government officials to assess the structure of local and countywide transportation plans and resources. This will act as a framework or reference to assist in the planning and development of transportation services and infrastructures. The report also highlights potential resources and recommendations for the planning of master transportation improvements that will incorporate public health. As part of the effort to integrate health into transportation planning, it is crucial to consider the capabilities and resources of your own community in conjunction with private sectors and different levels of government. In addition, the goal of the program is to promote physical activity, and the connection between the environment we live in can both indirectly and directly impact our health. “Health is a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. It is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities,” as defined in WHO’s “Health Promotion Glossary” (Nutbeam 1998). Comprehensive transportation......

Words: 906 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gazprom Global Strategy and Russian Government

...the announcement saying that Russian Federation will become a leader in the world energy. A very coordinated move. Gazprom and government is a team. The Russian society reacted on the above with the development of two polar positions: the so called “imperialistic”, meaning finally a government and a business work together in order to protect and expand the country’s national interests and the “pessimistic”, meaning that Russian national resources will be sold out to the international businesses. In reality everything is not that black and white. A careful look at the same actions undertaken by Gazprom can be evaluated in the favor of both the above mentioned positions. Gazprom is playing a very complicated and delicate game, the strategic essence of which is to maximize its access to the liberalized European market and its end user, without trading off its monopolian advantages if possible. To reach this goal Gazprom has developed the following strategic concepts forming its general strategy: 1. Pricing. Price increase for the end users both internally and externally 2. Partial liberalization of the Russian gas market as a respond to the liberalization of the European market. 3. Diversification on the energy business and end products 4. Minimization of the transit risks 1. Pricing. Gazprom policy on pricing can be analyzed in two perspectives:...

Words: 2517 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Main Factors of Low Urbanisation of Bihar

...the goal of urbanization. Firstly, it is unplanned township and secondly, mismanagement in the urban governance. 3.This apart, the state has been failing to attain an efficient and equitable financial allocation for urban infrastructure. A government employee in the Urban Development department on the condition of anonymity explains how any project faces difficulties pre and post execution. [23/02 20:14] srmanjuprasanna: This apart three cities – Muzaffarpur, Biharsharif and Bhagalpur have listed under the ‘to be smart cities.’ Experts believe that Smart Cities and AMRUT would pace up the momentum of expanding urbanization in Bihar. context :of urbanization efforts, the 2031 Master Plan for Patna has highlighted some important guiding principles which show the direction for future urban planning process. The focus on concepts like multiple nuclei based urban planning, rural urban continuum and transit oriented development are the futuristic and long term approach which will go a long way in defining the urbanization effort of the state. Other states also need to follow these principles in their own urbanization drive. Conclusion :At the end of the day, urbanization is interplay of economic development, city planning and public service delivery. Bihar needs to work on all...

Words: 328 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...billions of dollars per year contributing to more than 9% of New Zealand’s GDP. In 1939, the amount of international travellers worldwide was one million and today there are over one billon each year. (Higham, 2013). This industry has seen major developments, improvements, and growth in just a single generation with the increase in advancements of technology and the introduction of affordable flights. Tourism is a complex system that is constantly changing. Due to this innovative nature, tourism is extremely challenging to define and confine. Generally, the technical definition of tourism, as explained by the UNWTO, is “tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.” (Page, S., 2007). This definition is extremely broad but it becomes difficult to make more specific as it is a fragile system and there are many interpretations of tourism, which are constantly changing. Tourism is a complex system that includes geographic, human, and industry elements. It includes the examining of the interplay of generating, transit, and destination regions, human behaviours and interactions, and the development and delivery of tourism products and services. Due to the increased availability of air travel, there has been significant increase in the ability to access areas of interest, even those of long haul travel such as New Zealand. Although......

Words: 1728 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Toronto's Metro System as a Cultural Landscape

...Toronto’s Growing Metro System as a Cultural Landscape Toronto’s Growing Metro System as a Cultural Landscape The metro system in Toronto can be seen as a very important cultural landscape; public transit is an integral part of the city’s culture, as it reflects the growth in the city’s economy, population, and urbanization. The metro system is a public space that is temporarily occupied by different people, travelling to different places. It is a public space that is part of our daily routine, and is a part of the city’s cultural geography that contributes to its expansion and growth. The following six reports can be used as a learning basis for the topic of the public transit metro system in Toronto as a cultural landscape. “Reviewing and assessing the Toronto metro system” by Sybil Derrible and “Toronto: A historical leader in transportation innovations” by Ron Stewart and Joanna Musters are two research reports that analyze the facts of the Toronto metro system and can be used to see how rapidly the public transit in Toronto has grown, along with the city. The next report by Christopher A. Kennedy, “A comparison of sustainability of public and private transportation systems”, further analyzes the impact of the metro system on Toronto and proposes that it is an important cultural landscape in urban sustainability. The next report, “Characterizing metro networks: state, form, and structure”, is written by both Sybil Derrible and Christopher A. Kennedy and can be......

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7