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Transports- an Important Economic Factor

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Şcoala Naţională de Studii Politice şi Administrative

TRANSPORTURILE- APORT SEMNIFICATIV LA CREŞTEREA ECONOMICĂ?!

| |
|Cuvinte cheie: transporturi, pib, economie, Piaţa Unică, Uniunea Europeană, România, coeziune socială, coeziune |
|economică. |

Piaţa Unică a fost realizată în anul 1993 si a jucat un rol important în procesul de integrare. Când vorbim despre Piaţa Unică primul lucru la care ne gândim este libera circulaţie a bunurilor, a persoanelor, a serviciilor şi a capitalurilor. Oricât de simplu ar părea, pentru realizarea unei pieţe unice nu este îndeajuns doar enumerarea acestor libertăţi într-o legislaţie deoarece pot apărea în interiorul acestei circulaţii libere foarte multe bariere netarifare ce ar sta în calea acestui deziderat.[1] Am putea spune că punctul de plecare spre crearea unei pieţe unice a fost apariţia Comunităţii Economice a Cărbunelui şi Oţelului(CECO) prin care se dorea crearea unei pieţe comune sectoriale cu obiective comune, aceasta bazându-se pe: interzicerea oricăror taxe de intrare sau de ieşire a produselor care făceau obiectul tratatului şi a oricăror restricţii cantitative în scopul asigurării liberei circulaţii a produselor şi persoanelor care lucrau în aceste sectoare; interzicerea oricăror măsuri ce discriminau producătorii, cumpărătorii sau utilizatorii atunci când acestea se refereau la preţ, tarife de transport sau alte măsuri sau practici care împiedicau libera alegere de către cumpărător a furnizorului, toate acestea urmând să ajute la stimularea dezvoltării schimburilor internaţionale reciproce.[2] Un al doilea moment şi poate mai important a fost semnarea Tratatului de la Roma prin care a apărut şi noţiunea de Piaţă Comună[3] ce se baza pe cele patru libertăţi fundamentale ale pieţei: libera circulaţie a bunurilor în regim de concurenţă loială şi liberă, libera circulaţie a persoanelor şi seviciilor, libera circulaţie a capitalurilor şi libertatea cetăţenilor Comunităţii (astăzi UE) de a se stabili în oricare dintre statele acesteia.[4] Cu timpul au început să se accentueze barierele protecţioniste în ceea ce priveşte comerţul transfrontalier cum ar fi: norme tehnice, standarde de siguranţă, de sănătate etc. Actul Unic European (1986) a fost momentul în care au fost modificate Tratatele de la Roma şi s-a înfiinţat efectiv Piaţa Unică prin care se extindeau competenţele Comunităţii în domenii precum: politica socială, de cercetare şi de mediu; urma să se instituie treptat piaţa unică până la sfârşitul anului 1992 prin punerea în aplicare a unui program legislativ complex care presupunea adoptarea mai multor directive şi regulamente precum şi luarea deciziilor pe baza votului prin majoritate calificată în Consiliul de Miniştri înlocuind unanimitatea.[5] Domeniul trasporturilor, care de altfel mă interesează în această lucrare, este unul din cele mai importante parţi componenete a ceea ce înseamna o piaţa unică, o uniune vamală între statele membre, politica europeană a trasporturilor fiind una din primele politici comunitare comune. Transporturile contribuie la realizarea a trei din cele patru libertăţi fundamentale pe Piaţa Unică, respectiv circulaţia liberă a persoanelor şi bunurilor, şi cea a circulatiei libere a serviciilor, pe care o consider necesară pentru realizarea unei politici de transport pan-european, în vederea sustinerii concurentei în plan economic pentru toti operatorii de transport din Uniunea Europeana. Prin semnarea Tratatului de la Roma din 1957 [6] care prevedea reguli si condiţii comune în ceea ce privea siguranţa sau posibilităţile de îmbunătăţire şi dezvoltare a transporturilor pe teritoriul ţărilor membre, s-a dorit deschiderea pieţelor, acest lucru fiind vital în rezolvarea problemelor sociale (siguranţa călătorilor, a mărfurilor) a problemelor economice ( politici de taxare), cu atât mai mult cu cat domeniul transporturilor asigura la nivelul Uniunii Europene 7% din PIB [7]. În 1985 se semnează Cartea Alba[8] privind finalizarea Pieţei Interne care stabilea o lista cu toate piedicile care stăteau in drumul Uniunii Europene către o piaţa unică şi liberă. dar si principalele reglementări aduse pentru a rezolva aceste probeleme. Astfel adoptată această Cartă nu a mai fost nevoie să existe în legislaţiile naţionale legi şi standardizări diferite faţă de cele comune si oficiale ale Uniunii Europene.
Comunicare asupra dezvoltării viitoare a politicii comune de transport [9](1992) prevedea că politica de transport a Uniunii Europene s-a transformat dintr-o abordare sectorială bazată pe moduri de transport, intr-o politică integrată bazată pe mobilitate durabilă , astfel încat transportul să se organizeze în vederea unui consum de energie optim, al timpului si al calitaţii drumurilor si căilor de transport ca acestea să fie la standarde cât mai înalte. S-a dorit o îmbunătăţire a calităţii trasporturilor si dezvoltarea de noi tehnologii, neuitând să se pună accentul pe protecţia mediului, toate aceste decizii au fost implementate într-un cadru legislativ foarte strict din punct de vedere ecologic. Alte măsuri luate au fost cele de încurajare a îmbunătăţirii operării pieţei unice cu ajutorul concurenţei loiale, prin resprectarea standardelor sociale si legislative, dar nu în ultimul rand s-a dorit o îmbunătăţire vizibilă a legăturilor de transport între ţarile membre cu cele non-membre, prin operatorii comunitari pe pieţele externe. În “Taxare echitabilă pentru utilizarea infrastructurii: o abordare pe etape a unui cadru comun de taxare pentru utilizarea infrastructurii în Uniunea Europeană”[10] din 1995 s-a dezbătut pentru prima oara latura fiscală a politicii de transport si abordarea comunitară armonizată a taxarii în sectorul trasporturilor. În “Mobilitate durabilă: Perspective pentru viitor” [11] (1998) s-au stabilit perspective pe termen lung (2000-2004) “Cartă Albă privind Politica Comunitară de Transport”[12] din 2001 a revizuit politica de transport astfel încât aceasta să devină mai durabilă si mai eficientă prin evitarea costurilor pentru pierderile economice datorate poluării, ambuteiajelor din trafic si accidentelor rutiere. Comisia a propus 60 de măsuri pentru a dezvolta un sistem de transport capabil să echilibreze balanta între modalităţile de transport, controlând căile aeriene, restructurând autostrazile, promovând trasportul pe mare. Deciziile Comisiei au fost destul de dificil de implementat datorită ascendenţei inegale între modalităţile de transport ( pentru transporturile de marfă: 44% căi rutiere, 8% căi feroviare şi 4% pe căile maritime sau fluviale, în timp ce pentru trasporturile de persoane: 79% căi rutiere,5% căi aeriene şi 6% căi feroviare). În plus, au existat anumite probleme de natură ecologică în implementarea acestei Carte, deoarece s-au înregistrat efecte nesănătoase pentru natură ( poluare fonică, defrişări de copaci pentru construcţia de drumuri sau căi ferate, etc) .
În anul 2004 se adoptă “O constituţie pentru Europa”. [13]Atunci Consiliul a reglementat regulile comune ce urmau să fie aplicate trasportului internaţional şi inter-statal şi măsurile de creştere a siguranţei transporturilor . Obiectivele propuse de Consiliu în privinţa trasportului erau: pentru transportul rutier: îmbunătăţirea calităţii drumurilor şi pedepse mai aspre pentru cei care încalcă prevederile legale; pentru transportul feroviar: înfiinţarea unei retele interconectate şi îmbunătăţirea infrastructurii; pentru transportul aerian: menţinea standardelor de siguranţă şi asigurarea controlului; pentru transportul maritim şi fluvial: dezvoltarea infrastructurii şi simplificarea cadrului de reglementare. Având în vedere modul de formare şi evoluţia politicii în domeniul transporturilor, în cele ce urmează, vreau să evidenţiez scopul acestei lucrări, şi anume, demonstrarea faptului că domeniul transporturilor reprezintă unul din cele mai importante surse economice pentru dezvoltarea Uniunii Europene. Având în vedere faptul că, în prezent aproximativ 5% din populatia Uniunii Europene activează în acest sector, producând aproximativ 7% din PIB-ul UE14, putem afirma că transportul este vital pentru societatea în care trăim şi pentru dezvoltarea şi menţinerea pe un trend pozitiv al economiei. Transporturile reprezintă practic modul prin care atât oamenii cât şi mărfurile ajung la destinaţia propusă. Inexistenţa transporturilor ar duce şi la inexistenţa comerţului, care este unul dintre cei mai importanţi factori ai unei economii şi factorul care determină existenţa oraşelor. Aşadar, susţin faptul că transporturile reprezintă una din ramurile economiei mondiale care este indispensabilă pentru o societate. Aşa cum am menţionat mai sus, a fost nevoie de o perioadă destul de lungă de timp pentru a se ajunge la scopul iniţial, şi anume eficientizarea acestui sector. Este de la sine înţeles faptul că, în momentul în care sistemele de transport sunt eficiente, ele oferă oportunităţi şi beneficii economice şi sociale, care au ca rezultat mai multe efecte pozitive, cum ar fi o mai bună accesibilitate la pieţele de desfacere, ocuparea forţei de muncă şi pentru investiţiile suplimentare. Atunci când sistemele de transport sunt deficitare, în ceea ce priveşte capacitatea şi fiabilitatea, ele pot avea un cost economic, cum ar fi oportunităţi reduse sau pierdute- transportul eficient reduce costurile, în timp ce transportul ineficient creşte costurile. Totodată, acest sector influenţează atât factorii de mediu cât şi cei sociali care de asemenea nu sunt de neglijat. Politica Europeană în domeniul transporturilor, a fost un pion important în vederea realizării unui sistem de mobilitate comparabil, ca eficienţă şi eficacitate, cu cele din regiunile dezvoltate economic din întreaga lume. Totodată, prin stimularea coeziunii sociale şi economice, politica în domeniul transporturilor a ajutat la promovarea competitivităţii în industria europeană, contribuind astfel la implementarea agendei de la Lisabona pentru creştere economică şi locuri de muncă. Transporturile , de oricare tip, s-au dovedit unele dintre cele mai utile şi progresive modalităţi de a dezvolta relaţii fie ele la nivel interuman ori la nivel internaţional, reprezentând o soluţie pentru creşterea economiei chiar şi la nivelul Uniunii Europene , prin intermediul pieţei unice. Transporturile, bineînţeles că aduc în discuţie şi puncte slabe precum numărul accidentelor, siguranţa călătorilor şi a mărfurilor , ambuteiaje, poluare,însa acestea au încercat de-a lungul timpului să fie puse la punct în urma Reglementărilor propuse de Comisia Europeană şi aprobate apoi de către Parlament şi Consiliu. Pentru a demonstra eficienţa liberalizării pietei mărfurilor, capitalurilor şi totodată capacitatea transporturilor de a oferi creştere economică, îmi propun sa compar situaţia României înainte de aderare, respectiv 2002-2007 şi după 2009-2011. Aşadar, conform statisticilor oferite de Revista de Transport si Logistica RBT, în anul 2009, industria transporturilor ocupa o pondere în produsul intern brut de 9,8%, ţara noastră plasâdu-se aşadar printre cele mai bine poziţionate tări în ceea ce priveşte această ramură a economiei. Tot statisticile evidenţiază faptul că, în perioada 2002-2007, transporturile rutiere au cunoscut o evoluţie semnificativă de la 49,3% la 72,1%, cele de mărfuri au crescut cu 74%, iar cele navale cu 146,3%. În ceea ce priveşte transportul feroviar, acesta a cunoscut un declin semnificativ de la 32,2% în anul 2002 la 19,1% în anul 200715. Perioada 2009-2011, a adus de asemenea o majorare pentru produsul intern brut, sectorul de transporturi contribuind cu aproximativ 4,2 procente. Potrivit ipotezelor menţionate mai sus, susţin faptul ca o reţea a transporturilor competitivă, reprezintă fundaţia pe care se poate dezvolta societatea şi economia unei tări, datorită aportului pe care îl aduce la produsul intern brut.

BIBLIOGRAFIE

• Liliana Popescu Bîrlan, „Construcţia Uniunii Europene”, Editura C.H.Beck, Bucureşti, 2009. • Iordan Gheorghe Bărbulescu, „Procesul decizional în Uniunea Europeană”, Polirom, Iasi, 2008. • Egan Michelle, „The single market”, în Michelle Cini, Nieves Perez-Solorzano Borragan (eds), European Union Politics, Oxford University Press, 2010 • Simon Hix, „Regulation of the single market”, în The Political System of the European Union, second edition, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005 • http://www.europeana.ro/comunitar/tratate/tratatul%20cee%20partea%203.htm • http://www.cdep.ro/afaceri_europene/afeur/2009/fi_475.pdf • http://circa.europa.eu/irc/opoce/fact_sheets/info/data/market/principles/article_7187_ro.htm • http://eufinantare.info/Documente/Capitolele_negociere/09Transporturi.pdf • http://angeloblackw619.bravejournal.com/ • http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/transport/bodies_objectives/l24007_en.htm • http://europaindirect.ecosv.ro/download/ConstitutiaEU_RO.pdf • http://www.transport-business.ro/articol/Dezvoltarea-transporturilor-solutie-pentru-cresterea-competitivitatii-si-modernizarea-economiei-romanesti-2194 • http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Notice.do?mode=dbl&lang=en&ihmlang=en&lng1=en,ro&lng2=bg,cs,da,de,el,en,es,et,fi,fr,hu,it,lt,lv,mt,nl,pl,pt,ro,sk,sl,sv,&val=497301:cs
-----------------------
[1] Liliana Popescu Bîrlan, „Construcţia Uniunii Europene”, Editura C.H.Beck, Bucureşti, 2009, p.14
[2] Iordan Gheorghe Bărbulescu, „Procesul decizional în Uniunea Europeană”, Polirom, Iaşi, 2008, p.42
[3] Egan Michelle, „The single market”, în Michelle Cini, Nieves Perez-Solorzano Borragan (eds), European Union Politics, Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 258-260.
[4] Idem
[5] Simon Hix, „Regulation of the single market”, în The Political System of the European Union, second edition, Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, pp. 240-242.
[6] http://www.europeana.ro/comunitar/tratate/tratatul%20cee%20partea%203.htm
[7] http://www.cdep.ro/afaceri_europene/afeur/2009/fi_475.pdf
[8]http://circa.europa.eu/irc/opoce/fact_sheets/info/data/market/principles/article_7187_ro.htm
[9]http://eufinantare.info/Documente/Capitolele_negociere/09Transporturi.pdf
[10] http://angeloblackw619.bravejournal.com/
[11] idem
[12] http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/transport/bodies_objectives/l24007_en.htm
[13] http://europaindirect.ecosv.ro/download/ConstitutiaEU_RO.pdf
14 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Notice.do?mode=dbl&lang=en&ihmlang=en&lng1=en,ro&lng2=bg,cs,da,de,el,en,es,et,fi,fr,hu,it,lt,lv,mt,nl,pl,pt,ro,sk,sl,sv,&val=497301:cs
15 http://www.transport-business.ro/articol/Dezvoltarea-transporturilor-solutie-pentru-cresterea-competitivitatii-si-modernizarea-economiei-romanesti-2194

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