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Treating Diabetes Mellitus Type Ii

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Treating Diabetes Mellitus Type II

Treating Diabetes Mellitus Type II
Type II diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronically elevated blood glucose levels. It characteristically results from a surplus caloric intake, as compared to energy consumption, combined with inadequate insulin secretion, due to dysfunction of the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells (Pfeiffer & Klein, 2014). Type II diabetes has reached pandemic levels, despite efforts to slow its progression. In a society where healthcare is ever-changing, primary care physicians, along with advanced practitioners are now treating this disease more readily, as compared to specialist and endocrinologist in the past. As with many disease processes, there are several options when choosing a treatment plan for type II diabetes. Combining knowledge and evidence-based research, the practitioner will be able to establish an individualized treatment plan for treating type II diabetes mellitus.
Pathophysiology
Type II diabetes is a very complex, non-communicable disease that effects more than 370 million people throughout the world. The symptoms of this disease can vary from patient to patient. Without intense and concentrated efforts to address the pathogenesis and treatment of this syndrome, the destructive macrovascular and microvascular outcomes of type II diabetes will remain a major problem for years to come (Kahn, Cooper, & Del Prato, 2014).
In T2D plasma insulin levels may be low, normal, or high and although the specific etiology is unknown, autoimmune destruction of beta cells does not occur (Woo and Wynn, 2012). This is a distinguishing factor between type I and type II diabetes. The main physiological variation in T2D is insulin resistance. This resistance causes a sub-optimal response in insulin-sensitive tissues to insulin. This results in increased glucagon levels,...

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