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Trends in Chemical Reactivity

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Trends in Chemical Reactivity in the Periodic Table
Observations:
Reagent | Reagent Description | Water | Clear, Colourless, Liquid | iron (Steel Wool) | Opaque, chrome colour, Wire-like | calcium Metal | Silver, Soft, Opaque, Easily cut | magnesium | Strip of silver, thin, opaque | zinc | Lester, grey, opaque |

Metal | Water | lithium | -Pink water, bubbles, Water temperature raised 1.9 degrees Celsius | sodium | Water temperature increased 1.8 degrees Celsius, Steam/smoke, Pink water | potassium | Temperature of water increased 2.2 degrees Celsius, pink water, purple tinted flame | zinc | No observable change, no immediate reaction the zinc sunk to the bottom of the test tube, the zinc had no reaction with the phenolphthalein | iron (steel wool) | Little reaction, a pink dot at the bottom of the tube, | calcium metal | Completely pink tube, increased temperature, bubble formed | magnesium | No observable reaction, the magnesium sunk to bottom of test tube, no reaction with phenolphthalein. |

Analysis: 1. a) lithium, sodium and potassium all reacted the same way because they all only have a single valence electron therefore making the ionization energy low resulting in the elections of the alkali metals being able to transfer to other elements easier.
b) No not all metals in group 1 react at the same speed for example lithium would be a much slower reaction because the electrons are closer to the protons resulting in a stronger attraction from the protons to the electrons making the electron affinity higher. Potassium on the other hand has more energy levels resulting in the pull from the protons to the electrons weaker making it easier to strip away that electron resulting in a faster reaction.
2. a) Potassium, sodium, lithium. These are ordered from most reactive to least reactive because the energy required to strip the valence electron increases as you go up in the group b) The order from to most reactive to least reactive would be francium, cesium, rubidium, potassium, sodium, lithium and hydrogen.
3. The solution is acidic because the phenolphthalein indicator turns pink after the element reacts with the water.
4. The most reactive chemicals ranging from greatest to least would be; radium, barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, beryllium.
5. a) lithium + water lithium hydroxide + hydrogen gas b) sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen gas c) potassium + water potassium hydroxide + hydrogen gas d) magnesium + water magnesium hydroxide + hydrogen gas e) calcium + water calcium hydroxide + hydrogen gas
6. a) 2Li(s) + 2H2O(l) 2liOH(aq) + H2(g) b) 2Na(s) + 2H2O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H2(g) c) 2K(s) + 2H2O(l) 2KOH(aq) + H2(g) d) 2Mg(g) + 2H2O(l) 2MgOH(aq) + H2(g) e) 2Ca(g) + 2H2O(l) 2CaOH(aq) + H2(g)
7. Potassium is like calcium because between the samples that we got they were the most reactive out of them however when potassium reacted with water it created a much more “explosive” reaction than calcium with water. However sodium also had a much larger reaction than magnesium because the sodium changed the colour and fizzled while the magnesium reaction with water had a very little observable reaction. The data from this experiment can conclude that group 1 is the more reactive group than group 2.
8. The most reactive metal in the periodic table is francium because it has the largest atomic radius meaning that the valence electron is the farthest from the nucleus as possible while the francium only has one valence electron meaning that it is easier to take the electron.

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