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Need Assessment Report on Need Assessment Report on

Trainers’ Skills Trainers’ Skills In Vocational Employability
In Vocational Employability

Building Building

NSDC engaged MART to conduct the study and prepare this report, which is based on independent research and analysis done by MART. This report is not based or derived from any other report or research paper. Any similarity with any other paper may purely be a co-incidence. All rights reserved. All copyright in this report and related works is solely and exclusively owned by NSDC. The same may not be reproduced, wholly or in part in any material form (including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this presentation), modified or in any manner communicated to any third party except with the written approval of NSDC. This report is for information purposes only. While due care has been taken during the compilation of this report to ensure that the information is accurate to the best of MART’s and NSDC’s knowledge and belief, the content is not to be construed in any manner whatsoever as a substitute for professional advice. MART and NSDC neither recommend nor endorse any specific products or services that may have been mentioned in this report and nor do they assume any liability or responsibility for the outcome of decisions taken as a result of any reliance placed in this report. Neither MART nor NSDC shall be liable for any direct or indirect damages that may arise due to any act or omission on the part of the user due to any reliance placed or guidance taken from any portion of this report.

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We are thankful to Mr. Dilip Chenoy, CEO&MD National Skill Development Corporation, New Delhi for giving us an opportunity to undertake the study. We are extremely grateful to Mr. Basab Banerjee, Ms. Ranjani Vaidyanathan, Ms. Bhavna Chopra, Ms. Gouri Gupta of NSDC for sparing their time and feedback on the study findings and recommendations. Our special thanks to all the training institutions covered in the study, including NSDC partners, who gave generous time for focused and intense discussions. We are indebted to all the trainers who participated in the study and gave their perspective, which gave us vital insights towards developing appropriate recommendations. We also wish to thank all the thought leaders and experts met during the study especially Mr. Nalin Jena, The World Bank, Ms. Neeti Sharma, Teamlease, Mr. Sanjay Shivnani, Career Launcher, Mr. Navin Bhatia, Mr. Mahesh Muzumdar, Jobcorp, Ms. Aishwarya N, Laqsh, Mr. Dr. Santanu Paul, Talentsprint who helped us build practical understanding of the situation in a very short span of time. Finally, our gratitude to all who have in some way or other contributed to this report

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Page No. Executive Summary Abbreviations Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Scenario - Vocational Training Chapter 3: Findings and Analysis Profile of Trainers Profile of Training Institutes Practices and Challenges Chapter 4: Trainers and Sectors Chapter 5: Recommendations 7 8 14 20 21 26 29 49 71

Annexure Annex 1: Career path of artisan (technician) of select trades: Scenario in the Indian Railways Annex 2: Job creation through Employment Exchange Annex 3: Advanced Training Institute Annex 4: Certification for Trainers and Training Institutions Annex 5: Institute for Training of Trainers Annex 6: Trainers’ Projections Annex7: List of Training Institutes covered under the study

79 80 81 82 82 83 85 87

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Executive Summary
NSDC commissioned MART to study the existing scenario of the trainers’ as a critical player in the vocational employability space and understand functioning of the training institutes across categories to generate learning and recommend a road map to develop trainers’ capacity. The study interviewed trainers located both in the urban and rural areas across 6 potential sectors viz. Textiles and Clothing, Construction and Building, Gems & Jewellery, Organized Retail, Tourism and Hospitality, and Banking Financial Services & Insurance in 8 states (NCR, Karnataka, Gujarat, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Maharashtra). In depth interviews were conducted with heads of Government, Private and NGO run training institutes. MART also interacted with Thought Leaders, Advanced Training Institutions, Accreditation & Certification Bodies and Enablers. Purposive sampling was the methodology used to generate learnings. Findings and Recommendations 1. There is a lack of standardization of eligibility criteria for trainers both for entry and advanced levels resulting in varying criterion adopted by training institutes to select trainers. Government training institutions follow certain standard norms and procedures for selection of trainers while private training institutes and those run by NGOs have developed their own ways of selection, commensurate to their business models, sectors/trades and location. 2. Trainers attributed various reasons for choosing ‘training as a profession’, social respect (40%), self esteem (35%), gaining work experience and comfortable environment (34%), good salary (29%). 3. Among the training institutes, two distinct schools of thought exist around the role of trainers. The first school of thought believes that trainers should provide only training while the second school of thought believes that trainers should perform all activities from mobilization to placement. In the changing scenario a trainer who can perform roles beyond ‘delivery of training’ is considered ‘value for money’ by Private and NGO training institutes. 4. While majority of trainers possess technical skills, many lack teaching skills, soft skills and entrepreneurship development skills. Training Institutes prefer trainers who can impart both theory and practical training. Sectors like Organized Retail, Banking Financial Services & Insurance and Tourism and Hospitality require extensive public relations eliciting need for soft skills trainers but the sectors of Textile and Clothing and Gems & Jewellery being highly dependent on manufacturing resort to deployment of technical trainers exclusively for practical classes. 5. The more organized the sector, the greater the preference for certification. But in traditional sectors like Gems & Jewellery training institutes place greater importance on the practical aspects of training and therefore employ practically experienced trainers than certified ones. 6. 52% trainers believe that certification improves probability of higher salary increases and 42%feel it leads to faster promotions. Trainers with NGO run training institutes felt certification is most beneficial for continuous engagement (49%), enhanced motivation (53%), higher roles & responsibilities (51%) and recognition among trainees and peers (53%). But certification and accreditation mechanism for trainers is lacking. Page 4 of 91

7. India has severe shortage of training infrastructure to ensure continuous and regular skill development of trainers. The 5 Advanced training institutes that exist can train only 1200 trainers a year under their flagship courses. Similarly dedicated trainers’ training facilities in the private domain is also low. As the current system produces very few certified trainers, training institutions are flooded with non-certified trainers. 8. The assessment and evaluation criteria for trainers vary from one institute to another. While some private training institutes conduct online tests and take feedback from trainees, NGO run training institutes conduct regular internal discussions, take feedback from team leaders and conducts internal written and/or oral tests to assess and evaluate performance of their trainers. In government institutes, assessment and evaluation is usually based on the number of years of service and generally not on performance. Method of evaluation and assessment of trainers lacks standardization across training institutes. 9. Extent of technology used is based on training type, target segment of trainees, sectors, trades and recruiters’ requirements. Use of technology allows institutes to enhance reach and span of trainers leading to better utilization of scarce human resource, faster scale-up and assists in standardizing the content and delivery mechanism. 10. Trainers change jobs for better prospects. Attrition rates are high in Customer relations, Fashion Design, and Soft skills as these are lucrative and offer better opportunities in the market. Training Institutes have not invested in motivational courses, except for a few NGO training institutes who conduct such courses on a periodic basis. 11. Trainers’ knowledge has to be contemporary for him to be relevant. 50% trainers accord very high importance to regular training, 52% to exposure & seminars on technical and soft skills and 26% to industry interface. 12. Majority of trainers preferred being trained in a classroom setting only a few preferred online modes. This is primarily due to low exposure to computers and IT among trainers. 54% trainers reported the need for advanced teaching skills, 63% wanted training on use of computers and audio-visual aids for imparting training, while 26% trainers sought enhancement of soft skills. 13. There is no well defined career path for a trainer and few growth opportunities in their institute. Vertical movement across levels of training is also restricted. Movement from one institute to another is also limited due to lack of standardization of eligibility criteria. Efforts under the National Vocational Education Qualification Framework will help the cause of making ‘Trainer’ a recognized profession. 14. 70% of our population (and workforce) lives in rural India where wage employment opportunities are limited and we need to focus on self employment. For training institutes located in urban areas, 42% of the trainees come from rural areas and therefore trainers need to have cultural sensitivity. Even in training institutes located in rural areas, 85% of trainers are from urban areas. The cultural sensitivity together with the course curriculum needs a change when the training is to be conducted in rural areas including small towns. 15. The study recommends trainers should have teaching skills, soft skills and entrepreneurship development skills particularly for sectors with huge potential of self employment. They should acquire supporting skill sets in business development, career counselling and placement support, module development and management of Training unit. 16. Training Institutions face low availability of trainers. For sourcing trainers there is need for establishing information and communication channels between the training institute and

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18. 19.



trainers. SSCs should create sector-wise trainers database leading to creation of a trainers pool. A comprehensive Information System on Trainers (TIS) should be created. Recruitment and selection procedure need to be standardized across training institutes for which some incentive system for training institutes can be considered. SSCs should design common entrance test for Trainers and introduce “Rating of Training Institutions” based on the quality of trainers engaged. Key Result Areas (KRA) should be defined for trainers. Career Development Path of trainers and promotion systems should be established. NSDC should develop a plan for creating and augmenting trainers’ training infrastructure in the private space. Skill development of trainers should be graded for fundamental and advanced levels. NSDC should support Train the Training institutions to develop and impart career advancement courses. Standard norms and guidelines for certification of trainers based on level of training, type of training (soft/teaching/technical/entrepreneurship development) in correlation with sector specific Fundamental Trainers’ Training and Advanced Trainers’ Training should be developed by SSC. Promotion of certification (similar to ISO) for training institutes with specific thrust on trainers qualification, training delivery, TOT plan and use by trainers, industry acceptance of trainees, etc. should also be introduced and popularized. SSCs should standardize Assessment and Evaluation of Trainers by designing and standardizing assessment parameters and introduce periodicity for assessment and evaluation of trainers. It should also introduce a system of ‘license to practice’ for the trainers with scope for periodic renewal. NSDC should introduce system of reward and/or incentive for its partner training institutes and trainers to make adoption of the practice attractive.

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AeA ATI ASSOCHAM BFSI BPO CAB CB CAIT CAGR CoE CII CREDAI DRF DGET DTET F&B FICCI G&J GJEPC ITI ITC IIJT ICA KVTSDC LMIS NCVT NIIT NITTTR NSDC NVQF NCR OR PPP RAI SCVT SSC TAC TAH TIs ToT TTT VET VSAT : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Aide et Action Advanced Training Institute The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry in India Banking Financial Services & Insurance Business Process Outsourcing Construction and Building Capacity Building Confederation of All India Traders Compounded Annual Growth Rate Centre of Excellence Confederation of Indian Industry Confederation of Real Estate Developer’s Association of India Dr. Reddy’s Foundation Directorate General of Employment and Training Directorate of Technical Education & Training Food & Beverages Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Gems & Jewellery Gems and Jewellery Export Promotion Council Industrial Training Institute Industrial Training Centre Indian Institute of Job Oriented Training The Institute of Computer Accountants Karnataka Vocational Training and Skills Development Corporation Labour Market Information System National Council for Vocational Training National Institute of Information Technology National Institute for Technical Teachers Training & Research National Skill Development Corporation National Vocational Qualification Framework National Capital Region Organized Retail Public Private Partnership Retailers Association of India State Council for Vocational Training Sector Skill Council Textile and Clothing Tourism and Hospitality Training Institutes Training of Trainers Train The Trainers Vocational Education Training Very Small Aperture Terminal

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Chapter 1


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India's emergence as a potential economic and social power rests on the Indian youth. The skills development initiative is designed to leverage potential of the youth population (19% of India’s population is in between 15-24 years of age)1 by developing their employability skills. However, the challenge remains in developing right skill sets among these youth matching global standards with relevance to both local and global job markets. It will ensure that Indian enterprises remain globally competitive based on the growth trends of various industrial segments and enable its youth to avail these opportunities. Under this context, Government of India has undertaken a target of creating 500 million skilled work force in India by 2022. India now contemplates the challenges and solutions related to the above target to be achieved during the next 10 years. This makes it necessary to address the issue of creating and/ or improving the skills and capacity of cadres for trained workforce in the country. As skill development on a large scale takes off, implementing agencies face challenges of the skill development value chain. However, these challenges can be addressed to a large extent by creating cadres of competent trainers to deliver quality training. The major challenges to be addressed are related to capacity building of the trainers, their career path and a robust policy support framework. In order to achieve the target of 500 million skilled workforce by 2022, the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), India was set up with an objective to contribute significantly (about 30%) to the overall target of skilling workforce, mainly by fostering private sector initiatives in skill development programmes and providing viability gap funding. NSDC has been funding various private sector parties in the form of loan, equity and grants to develop skills of the required workforce. It has also partnered with various private support agencies to generate knowledge for the skills development domain. Besides this, NSDC is mandated to constitute robust Sector Skills Councils with functions including occupational mapping, determining competency/skills standards & qualifications, standardization and accreditation process, develop sector specific LMIS, plan and execute the Training of Trainers. The trainers form a critical part in the whole institutional delivery mechanism of vocational skills development and their inadequacy in numbers and low quality led NSDC to initiate a study to understand the current status of trainers, identify gaps & challenges and to recommend actions to strengthen the trainers. Thus, NSDC commissioned MART, a leading research and consultancy organisation, to conduct a study on need assessment for building Trainers’ Skills in Vocational Employability space. The purpose of the study is to understand the existing scenario of the Trainers’, as a critical player, in the entire institutional delivery arrangement for


Page viii, Population Projections for India and States, 2001-2026, Report of the Technical group on Population projections constituted by the National Commission on Population, May 2006

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vocational skills development with a view to generate learning and recommend a road map for NSDC to build Trainers’ capacity and development. Training that emphasizes skills and knowledge required for a particular job function (such as typing or data entry) or a trade (such as carpentry or welding) is called Vocational Training. Internationally, the terms “Vocational Education” and “Vocational Training” are used interchangeably or the use of combined term “Vocational Education and Training” (VET). However, in the Indian context, education and training have been traditionally separated. A ‘Vocational Trainer’ is one who imparts training for Skill Level 12 and Skill Level 23 courses and is employed at ITI/ITCs, Private including Industry in-house and NGO Training Institutes which offer either a diploma or a certificate course for the identified trades across sectors. Director General Employment and Training, Ministry of Labour and Employment currently have a requirement of 76,500 trainers of which currently around 70,000 trainers are in the system. DGET alone needs additional 20,000 trainers every year. (Please refer Annexure 5 for details). NSDC’s report on Human Resource and Skill Requirements for the selected 6 sectors has projected number of skilled workforce with specific focus on vocational skills training for the major sectors. The projections for the selected 6 sectors under the study have been taken from these reports and used to project number of trainers required till 2022. The total requirement of trainers for the 6 selected sectors is estimated at 48,905. (Please refer to Annexure 6 for details.)


skills which can be acquired with a short/modular and focused intervention and thereby enhancing employability of those with minimal education (source: Human Resource and Skill Requirements in the Gems and Jewellery Sector, NSDC-IMaCS) 3 skills which require technical training inputs, knowledge of complex operations and machinery, skills of supervision (source: Human Resource and Skill Requirements in the Gems and Jewellery Sector, NSDC-IMaCS)

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Objectives of the Study
The key objectives of the Study are as stated below:  Assess the environment and variables of vocational and employability skills scenario in the context of trainers both in urban and rural India. Assess changes in environment, its impact and the needs of contemporary economic situation Assess the roles of institutions and stakeholders for policy and standards framework Understand the institutional mechanism, infrastructure, delivery, curriculum, methodology and needs gaps Build a comprehensive strategy and roadmap for building trainers’ capacity in order to impact the vocational employability scenario

   

Coverage and Sample
Given the objectives of the study the process started with a team orientation on the subject & assignment, review of secondary reports & documents and preparation of discussion guides and structured interview schedules for various stakeholders identified for the study. In the process meetings with thought leaders and pioneers in vocational employability space was conducted to build the perspective and enhance knowledge on the subject. Structured interview schedules were prepared for Trainers and Training Institutes while Discussion Guides were prepared for other support agencies and thought leaders. Structured interview schedules for trainers and training institutes were then pilot tested in Delhi for finalization and then shared with NSDC for approval. After the approval from NSDC, the field study was conducted. The study was conducted by an experienced and multi disciplinary team of MART. The study sample consisted of geographical areas (urban & rural), sectors & its trades, trainers and various types of training institutions (Government, Private, NGO / Society). Purposive sampling was the methodology used to generate learnings. Geographical area of study The study was conducted in 8 regions of India. The details are as below S.N 1. State/Region National Capital Region (NCR) Karnataka Location New Delhi Noida Ghaziabad Bangalore Mysore Tumkur Surat Urban & Rural representation Urban Urban Urban Urban and Rural Rural Rural Urban and Rural Page 11 of 91






5. 6. 7.

Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh West Bengal



Valsad Ahmedabad Gandhinagar Vadodara Rajkot Bhubaneswar Balasore Cuttack Khurda Puri Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Kolkata Howrah Kalyani Barasat Mumbai Pune 

Rural Urban Urban Urban and Rural Urban and Rural Urban and Rural Rural Rural Rural Rural Urban Urban Urban Urban Urban Rural Rural Urban Urban

 Rural: Areas having less than 1 million population Urban: Areas having greater than 1 million population

Sectors and Trades covered Six sectors with high growth potential were identified for the study. These sectors are a mix of manufacturing and services oriented trades and have its presence both in rural and urban pockets. Three common trades were identified for each sector thus covering a total of 18 trades. The following table captures the Sectors and Trades covered under the study. Sectors Building and Construction Textiles and Clothing Gems and Jewellery Organized Retail Banking Financial Services and Insurance Tourism and Hospitality Trades Plumbing, Civil Draughtsmanship, Construction Electrician Cutting & Sewing, Embroidery, Dress Making Gem Cutting Assistant, Finishing & Polishing, Moulding & Setting Customer Sales Executives, Back office data feeder, Cashier Accountant, Data Entry Operator, Customer Care Assistant F&B services, Housekeeping, Front office

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Stakeholders Covered A total of 360 trainers and 71 training institutes were covered across sectors and geographical regions for the study. Along with these, Train the Trainer Institutes, Accreditation and Certification bodies, Thought leaders were covered during the study. The table below captures the details. Stakeholders Trainers (No.) Training Institutes ATIs Accreditation & Certification Bodies Thought Leaders and experts Other Enablers across states No. 360 71 2 3 10 5

Break up of Trainers & Training Institutes Institution Type Government Private NGO/Society Total No of Trainers covered 75 234 51 360 No of Training Institutes covered 11 38 22 71

Break up of Trainer and Training Institutes covered in Rural and Urban areas Presence Urban Rural Both Urban & Rural No of Trainers 270 90 No of Training Institutions 28 14 29

Sector wise break up of Trainer and Training Institutes covered Sector Tourism & Hospitality Textile & Clothing Construction & Building Gems & Jewellery Banking & Financial Services and Insurance Organized Retail Total No of Trainers covered 40 55 116 30 68 51 360 No of Training Institutes covered* 17 16 20 09 34 35

* Training Institute imparts training in multiple sectors

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Chapter 2

Scenario – Vocational Training

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Skill Requirement in India

The current Indian economy growth is 6.8 percent and is expected to further grow in the coming years. According to Goldman Sachs, India is projected to become the second largest economy in the world by the year 2050. It is considered that the Indian economy will thrive on its demographic profile. The current population of India is 1.2 billion and is expected to rise to 1.8 billion by 2045. This expansion in population is indicative of the fact that there would be increase in the working age (15-64 yrs) population. In order to achieve high growth rates with a growing population, skill development has emerged as an important aspect that needs strategic and planned policy cum intervention. The figure below depicts the sector wise projections for incremental human resource requirement till 2022.

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Together with the above projections, decline in agriculture will directly impact the employment scenario. This would pose the need for alternate livelihood options. No doubt the employment market is rising rapidly and opening opportunities for both the urban and rural pockets. This employment market either in organized or unorganized sector demand different set of skills and competencies. The growing sectors require huge quantity of workforce with limited formal education and lowend skills. According to a study by CII – Planning Commission, it has been projected that 2/3rd of the jobs will be for low-end skills. This brings out the importance of short or medium duration vocational training to a large number of youth enabling them to get an access to skill-based employment. Many of these jobs can also be transformed into self employment. Thus the skill development will not only generate job employment but many of the trades can emerge as micro-enterprises wherein the trainees can exercise an option of self employment. The recent development history indicates fast growth in the service sector. Increasing urbanization, access to newer gadgets, facilities and services by rural people has opened up doors for micro-enterprises for repairs and maintenance services. Financial inclusion services also will lead to not only increase in consumption requirements but also in increased infrastructure development which will again lead requirement of newer services. Thus the manufacturing sector as well as service sector growth will create employment opportunities. Such employability requires creation of large number of youth having varied skills that can help to gain sustainable employment. The same is well recognized at policy level and a number of initiatives have been taken up by GOI. The global competition and thrust on efficiency and quality improvement will demand induction of qualified as well as certified trainees in the industry.

Initiatives on Skills Development
Prime Minister’s National Council on Skill Development, under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister has been set up as an apex institution for policy direction and review. The policy envisions the establishment of a National Skill Development Initiative with the following Mission: “National Skill Development Initiative will empower all individuals through improved skills, knowledge, nationally and internationally recognized qualifications to gain access to decent employment and ensure India’s competitiveness in the global market”.

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The aim of the of the national policy on skill development (March 2009) is to support achieving rapid and Inclusive growth through;  Enhancing individuals’ employability (wage/ self employment) and ability to adapt to changing technologies and labour market demands Improving productivity and living standards of the people Strengthening competitiveness of the country Attracting investment in skill development

  

The relevance and quality of the skill development has been highlighted in the Policy document. Quality assurance has been based of five key functions – Validation of Qualifications, Validation of Training process, Quality Assured Assessment of Learners, Accreditation of Training Providers & Training Institutions and Research & Information. The objective of enforcing quality and relevance in skill development is to be realized through improving infrastructure, improving quality of trainers and developing a National Vocational Quality Framework. The Policy clearly highlights the importance of improving the quality of trainers by;       Innovative ways of recruiting trainers Innovative skill development schemes (trainees acquiring technical training at TI and practical skills at the work place) Retired employees mainly from Defence Forces to be retrained to become Trainers Award and incentive mechanisms to be developed A system of granting Accredited Trainers status for a limited period Improvement in gender balance of trainers

Role of Institutions in Vocational Training
Major Activities Funding Support Institutions Involved Ministry Of Rural Development/ Tribal Development / Youth, Culture and Sports NSDC Intl Agencies & DONORS Industry Bodies (CII, FICCI, NASSCOM etc) Social Sector Council CII, FICCI, ASSOCHAM, NSDC,  Major Role Funding through various schemes (SGSY, NRLM etc.)

    

Research and Demand Assessment Networking

Funding in the form of equity, loan and grant Providing grants for skills development Up-to-date information and data to industry and government Create skill database Provides a platform for sector specific Page 17 of 91

Major Activities

Institutions Involved SSCs 

Standardization and Certification


    



   

Export promotion Council (Sector wise)


 

Curriculum Development and its up gradation Train the Trainers Implementers

SSC, NCVT, PSSCIVE PSSCIVE, CII, FICCI, ASSOCHAM ATI, NITTTR, CSTARI Training Institutes – Govt., NGO/Society, Private including Industry

   

Major Role consensus building and networking Involvement of the industry for skill assessment and certification Develop sector specific competency standards Benchmark international Standards Streamline certification framework Certification tests for employees and Trainers at institutes Accreditation of sector specific and related courses Setting common standards and procedures, training of instructors and trade testing Prescribe standards in respect of syllabi, equipment, and scale of accommodation Duration of courses and methods of training; Arrange trade tests in various trade courses and lay down standards of proficiency required Prescribe qualification for the technical staff of training institutions Professional advice to their members in areas such as technology up-gradation, quality and design improvement, standards and specifications, product development, innovation, etc Testing as per the standards set and certification To ensure uniformity and maintain quality standards in vocational teaching and learning Curriculum Development Provide inputs for curriculum Development Training the Trainers Providing training for different trades and placement of trainees in various sectors

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Chapter 3

Findings and Analysis

Trainers’ Profile Profile of Training Institute Studied Practices and Challenges

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Profile of Trainers
Interactions with 360 trainers across the six selected sectors during the course of the study had given rich information and understanding about their profile. The following section captures the profile of trainers across 3 major categories of training institutes – Government, private and NGO. The profile is generated on various components including age group, experience, qualifications, skill and certification possessed etc. Overall, 29% of trainers covered in the study were in the 2529 year age group followed by 20% in the 35-44 year age group. While, in the Government institutes maximum (29%)

trainers were in the 35-44 year age group, Private institutes had maximum (33%) trainers in the 25-29 year age group. In NGO led training institutes maximum (31%) trainers were in the 25-29 year age group closely followed by trainers aged below 25 years (27%). More than 55% of the trainers in private & NGO training institute are in the < 25 to 29 years of age. These young trainers who form a significant part of vocational training space demand a definite career path.

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While 32% of the total trainers had an experience of 35 years, 25% had experience of 1-2 years followed by 19% who had experience of 510 years. Only 10 % trainers had more than 20 years of experience followed by 5% who had 16-20 years of experience. While, in the Government Training Institutes maximum (25%) trainers had more than 20 years of experience, Private Institutes had maximum trainers (35%) having 3-5 year experience, NGO led training institutes also had 33% of trainers with experience of 3-5 years. Quite clearly more than 60 % of trainers with 1-5 years of experience are employed by both private and NGO training institutes. These trainers join private & NGO training institute in the early part of their career to use it as launching platform. Overall 43% trainers covered in the study reported Graduation as their highest educational qualification. While NGO led training institutes had a maximum of 67% of trainers as graduates, Government led training institutes had 44% and Private had 39% trainers as graduates.

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Overall 28% of trainers reported of Certificate (private run courses) as their highest professional qualification followed by 22% reporting 3 year old diploma (government recognized courses) as their highest professional qualification. In the government run training institutes 33% trainers reported of Certificate (government run courses) and 3 year Diploma (Government run courses) as their highest professional qualification. In private institutes 37% trainers reported having a Certificate (private run courses) and 26% reported having a Certificate (government run courses) and 2 year Diploma (Government recognized courses). While 67% of the trainers were male, only 33% trainers were female. While, Private training institutes and NGO had 70% and 69% male trainers respectively, Government training institutes had only 57% male trainers. Quite clearly dominance of male trainer was observed at the Training Institutes.

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92% trainers possessed technical skills followed by 32% who possessed teaching skills. Majority of trainers are technically sound but teaching, soft skills and entrepreneurship development skills are lacking.


On an average 16% trainers (across the technical, teaching, soft and entrepreneursh ip development skills) had government certificates followed by 12% who had no certificates. Only 10% trainers had certificates issued from private institute. While in the Government institutes on an average 26% trainers had government certificates for skills (technical, teaching, soft and entrepreneurship development), in the private training institutes 13% trainers had government certificates across skills. In training institutes run by NGOs, 10% trainers had government certificates across skills.

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Overall majority of (90%) trainers were involved fulltime with a single training institute. An overwhelming majority of trainers across the categories of institutes viz. Government, Private and NGO were involved fulltime with single training institute.

Overall, 78% of trainers associated with any of the type of training institutes imparted technical (both theory and practical) training. While 76% trainers do so in the Private run training institutes, 84% in Government run training institutes 86% in NGO run training institutes.

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Profile of Training Institutes studied
The performance potential and growth prospects for trainers directly depend on the operational environment. In this light, the importance of the training institutes is paramount as they are the end users of the services of trainers either as employers or clients. This study has tried to understand the operational environment of the trainers by profiling the training institutes (government, private and NGO). The profile developed using sample study data shows that ½ of the TIs belong to the private run TIs, 1/3rd belong to NGO run TIs and 1/6th belong to government run TIs.

Age-wise distribution of the training institutions studied show that around 2/5th of TIs are in operation for over 10 years whereas around 1/4th of the TIs are in operation for 46 years.

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The overall picture shows that almost 2/5th of the training institutes cater to both rural and urban areas while another 2/5th cater exclusively to urban areas and the rest cater exclusively to rural areas. While around ½ of the Government training institutes exclusively catered to rural areas, only 1/7th of Private and NGO TIs exclusively catered to rural areas.

54 training institutes out of 71 training institutes were found to run short term courses (duration up to 6 months) only, with no private or NGO run TI exclusively offering long term courses. 1/5th of the government run TIs exclusively offer long term courses.

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Majority (around 55%) of the training institutes depend on full time trainers along with the involvement of part-time trainers (~27%) and the guest faculty. Further, the study shows that 1/3rd of the TIs exclusively depend on full time faculty while 3/4th and ½ of the TIs never used guest and part-time faculty respectively. 55 out of 71 training institutes showed no gender preference irrespective of the sectors or the category to which these institutes belong. While 9 training institutes showed preference for female trainers, only 6 training institutes showed preference for male trainers.

Overall around 3/4th of the training institutes look for certification while recruiting trainers. While 1/4th of the training institutes exclusively look for trainers having certification from government, around th 1/10 training institutes exclusively look for trainers having th certification from private. Around 1/4 of the NGO run training institutes didn’t look for certifications while government training institutes invariably insisted on some form of certification either government recognized or from private sources.

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Practices and Challenges
Trainers and Training Institutes form the backbone of vocational training domain as they are service providers to the trainees as well as the industry fulfilling their requirement for skilled human resource. This section deals with select parameters that include sourcing of trainers, selection & recruitment, Job responsibility, capacity building, career path development, use of technology, certification & accreditation, assessment & evaluation, attrition and choice of profession as trainer. The key information area for each parameter includes current practices followed by a short description on effective practices found during the field study and then highlights the key challenges and gaps.

1. Sourcing of Trainers
With the growing demand for skilled workforce there is increasing demand for trainers as well. Non-availability of quality trainers in adequate numbers is a concern aired by most of the training institutes. Hence, sourcing of trainers becomes critical wherein creation of a resource pool and methods adopted by training institutes to create awareness about job opportunities assuming significance. The very basis of training gets diluted by such lack of reliable sourcing mechanisms. It is quite clear that without proper sourcing mechanisms, delivery of training will remain dependent on ad-hoc means.

“In a mainly distributed environment the biggest challenge is getting quality trainers and the price you want to pay and keep them till the time you want them to be there” “The more remote you go the more difficult to get the trainer” “Rural India must become the back office of Urban India”

Current Practice
The primary findings indicate that around 10% trainers are registered with employment exchange while one-fourth of the trainers have never registered with employment exchanges in spite of awareness about such facilities. Newspaper and internet are the major sources of job information for trainers followed by friends and colleagues. Government and NGO run institutes use newspaper advertisements to share information and vacancies. However, information about current job opportunity was reported to be known through friends and colleagues by 50% trainers excluding those in government institutions. Page 28 of 91

Majority of training institutes have been sourcing trainers through referrals (by staff, well wishers, industry experts, etc) and press for a robust mechanism which can serve their immediate needs. In a bid to overcome the problem of unemployment and to create skilled manpower, the Odisha government has decided to take up placement-linked Training Programme through the State Employment Mission by conceiving Autonomous Employment Exchange. (Refer Annexure 2 for more details). Interestingly, the study shows that though 42% of the trainees come from rural areas, 85% of the trainers are from urban locations. It was further observed that even for training institutes located in rural areas 85% of trainers come from urban areas.

Effective practice
Training Institutes like Dr. Reddy’s Foundation and India Can have developed employee reference policies with financial incentive schemes. The staff of these institutes has the opportunity to refer a potential candidate as trainer, when intimated about such requirements by the institutes. The proposed candidate goes through the recruitment procedure and if selected the concerned referrer is financially incentivized. India Can pays Rs. 3000 to the concerned referrer on selection of a referred candidate. The referrer gets Rs. 2000 as additional incentive if the said recruited candidate continues with India Can for 3 months. A staff can earn one referral incentive during a period of six months. Many established institutes, prominent being IIJT, ICA, NIIT tap the potential candidates from their trainee pool for trainer’s positions. These institutes have established a mechanism whereby the sourcing department liaises with the placement division of the institutes to identify suitable candidates.

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These policies and mechanisms have helped these institutes to save on recruitment costs and time as well as reach quality human resource easily.

Key Challenges and Gaps
The major gap identified is the lack of established information channels between recruiters and recruited i.e. the training institute and the trainers. This is primarily due to the absence of platforms where the trainers can register themselves leading to creation of a trainer’s resource pool. The reference policy suffers from outreach limitations wherein vacancy information does not reach the mass. Training Institutes in vocational training space are often characterized by limited scale of operations making it financially unviable for them to invest in infrastructure, human resource and processes for sourcing of trainers. This leads to sub-optimal focus on sourcing as an important business practice.

2. Selection and Recruitment
The selection procedure for trainers varies across all types of training institutions. Government training institutions follow certain fixed norms and procedures for selection while private and NGO run training institutions have developed their own ways of selection, commensurate to their business models, sectors/trades and location. “Before administering tests Team Lease gave prospective trainers a trainer training session and equipped them enough to face the test”

Current Practice
Personal interview is the primary selection procedure across all categories of training institutions. One-third of the trainers in government institutes reported of written tests as part of the selection procedure. Practical test is another important instrument for selection of trainers adopted by 40% institutes across categories. Trainers reported technical skills followed by teaching skills as the major strengths aiding their selection across the categories of training institutes. Lack of eligibility criteria for (entry level and advanced) adds to complexity where in training institutes resort to varying criterion to select trainers.

“Within the NSDC framework one could define three levels of programs which is entry, intermediate and advanced… and the trainer criteria has to be different from an entry level training to an advanced level training”

Effective Practice
Aide et Action follows a four step selection procedure which is as below; Page 30 of 91

1. Community mobilization: The aspiring candidate has to visit the targeted community of the organisation and has to build a rapport there. His/ her capacity to mobilize candidates for the training programmes is also assessed. 2. Written Test: The aspirant has to go through the written test to prove his or her technical knowledge about the trade 3. Interview: The training institute organizes an interview for the aspirant where the knowledge, interest and aptitude of the trainer is assessed 4. Practical test: This includes the mock test in class room teaching and also practical exercises Key Challenges and Gaps    There is lack of a standardized criteria fixed for trainers to provide training in a particular trade Lack of institutes that provide options for specialization/ common entrance test to become a trainer Lack of institutes that provide simulating mock exercises for aspiring trainers to face interviews and compete in the market

3. Roles and Responsibilities of Trainer
Trainers have been given different kinds of roles & responsibilities across different types of training institutions. As emerged from the study, two schools of thought exist, first school of thought believes that trainers should provide only training and second school of thought believes that trainers should perform all the activities in the conduit from mobilization to placement. Perceptions of different TIs for the roles to be performed by the Trainers are as follows  Private and Govt. Training Institutes prefer their trainers to provide both theoretical and practical training and career guidance to the trainees In certain Private and Govt. TIs (large scale), there are separate departments for Business development, counselling and placement. Society/ NGO managed TIs look for Trainers who can perform multiple roles e.g. trainee mobilization,

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counselling, career guidance, curriculum development, placement and post placement tracking. In the changing paradigm a multifaceted trainer who can perform roles beyond delivery of training is considered as 'value for money' by Private and NGO training institutes.

Current Practice
Overall, 70% of the trainers share responsibilities of counseling and career guidance out of which about onefourth are engaged in providing placement support. This is more prevalent in NGO run training institutions followed by government and private institutes. Overall, just over onethird of the trainers are engaged in curriculum development while in case of NGO run institutes this goes up to 41%. Centre management is a responsibility for about one-fourth of trainers in private and NGO run training institutes. Interestingly about 15% trainers are engaged in business development activities in all types of training institutes barring the ones run by the government.

Effective Practice
No specific standardized practice was observed during this study that shows innovation at the training institute level to capacitate and engage trainers in responsibilities beyond training. Desired Skill set of Trainers Based on the findings of the study, the main and supporting skills of trainers along with the role of training institutes in helping the trainers to acquire these has been suggested in the matrix below
Main Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. Domain / technical knowledge Teaching skills Soft skills Entrepreneurship development Supporting Skills 1. 2. Business Development Career counselling and placement support Module development Management of Training unit (logistic support) Role of Training Institutes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Involve trainers in market understanding and marketing exercise Supply industry / employer level information; own initiative by the trainer Support trainer to generate this information MoU with employers Institutional tie ups Exposure to industry – assess needs of industry and integrate it in the module

3. 4.

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Key Challenges and Gaps
There is lack of support mechanism for counseling and guidance of trainers to keep them abreast of changing needs of the training institutes and the vocational training. There exists lack of institutions providing specializations in Course Designing & Curriculum development, Business development, Assessment & Evaluation constrains the trainers to build their skills, knowledge and remain contemporary in the vocational training space.

4. Reason for choice of the Profession
40% of the trainers said that the choice of ‘training as a profession’ was due to the social respect attached to it. While most trainers (40%) from government institutes identified self esteem as the main reason for selecting the profession, around 45% of trainers from private institutes chose social respect and gaining work experience as the main reasons. 33% of trainers from Government Training Institutes, 30% from Private Training Institutes and 10% from NGO Training Institutes said that good salary was the most important factor for selecting training as a career. The salary of trainers in government institutes (ITIs) covered under this study shows a high variation with those of private and NGO. While the average pay of a trainer associated with Govt. TI was Rs. 21800, it was Rs. 6900 and Rs. 5900 for trainers associated with Private and NGO TI (please refer fig in the Addendum). This is due to the structured salary system of the government coupled by the fact that trainers of Government TIs have longest organisational association among the 3 categories thus drawing higher pay.

5. Attrition amongst Trainers
Attrition can have worst impacts on the functioning of the training institutions. Although many private training institutions reported of facing the issue, non-availability of trainers overcrowds that of attrition.

Current Practice
It has been observed that attrition rates are high for trades that are lucrative and have more opportunities in the Page 33 of 91

market like Customer relations, Fashion Design, Soft skills, etc. Training Institutions have developed strategies to address the issue of attrition. Generally, part time trainers that are empanelled by TIs are utilized during the crisis period. Some of the training institutes like Dr. Reddy’s Foundation (DRF) and Aide et Action (AeA) even arrange periodic motivational sessions on Career Path development so that trainers can be retained for longer periods.

Effective Practice
DRF has developed a strategy to address attrition amongst trainers. It hires an extra trainer for every 6 centres to address the issue of attrition. Whichever centre falls short of a trainer, this extra trainer replaces the vacant position, thus preventing the discontinuity of the vocational course.

Key Challenges and Gaps
The issue of attrition among trainers arises out of the constraints faced in remuneration drawn, career development and issues related to the work environment at the training institute level. Most of the trainers move for better prospects.

6. Assessment and Evaluation
Assessment and evaluation of trainers is very critical for making them aware of his/her performance & lacunae and suggesting a corrective action. It is usually done once in a year. The assessment and evaluation of trainers vary as per the role of the trainer in a training institute and the systems/parameters /criteria of assessment vary from one institute to another.

Current Practice
– Private Institutes: The process followed in private institutes (Team Lease) includes conducting online tests, evaluation, and taking feedback from trainees. Government Institutes: It is compulsory for trainers to obtain the “Principles of Teaching” (POT) certification within 1 year of joining job in case not certified earlier. Page 34 of 91

Typically in government institutes, assessment and evaluation is based on number of years of service and generally not on performance. NGO / Society run institutes: Although these TIs (e.g. (Cap Foundation)) are found to have internal evaluation and assessment systems for trainers, like written tests and interviews, these systems are not as professionally managed as that of private institutions.

It was also found that no standard verifiable instruments like certificates are issued for internal assessment and evaluation of trainers.

Effective practice
DRF follows an annual assessment and evaluation process for its trainers and has designed incentive structure for the centre Parameter Quality of teaching and progress as per plan Batch to batch gap Evaluation Methodology Surprise checking from head office once every 3 months: checks progress with respect to plans, takes trainee feedback on sessions and checks documents and records Online records which are updated daily At least 75 enrollments necessary for any batch to commence Incentive to centre Possible grades are ideal, good, average and below average. The centre with ideal grades is called for felicitation at Hyderabad. Rs 143, Rs 115 and Rs 90 per candidate for starting batch within 0 – 10 days, 11-15 days and 16 – 20 days respectively. No incentive for more than 20 days gap. For 30 days and 90 days retention after 92 days of initial placement, Rs 245 and Rs 333 per candidate respectively.

Retention of trainees after placement

Online trainee tracking information updated daily. At least 75% placements necessary with at least 70% retention.

Key Gaps and Challenges
There is lack of uniform method of evaluation and assessment of trainers across training institutes. As reported by training institutes, there is a lack of technically sound assessors and evaluators in the vocational space.

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7. Certification and Accreditation
Certification and Accreditation is considered as an important aspect in vocational space. There are distinct systems and processes followed by government & private institutes for certification and accreditation.

Current Practice
Government Institutions – National level bodies have been formed and tasked for developing the curricula, evaluation, assessment and certification by government (Both Central Government & State Governments) This system is followed by all ITIs, ITCs and polytechnics affiliated to national and state level vocational councils like NCVT, DTET, SCVT, and special projects like KVTSDC in Karnataka ITIs, ITCs and polytechnics under private management at times adopt dual certification involving specialized private organizations There exists standalone certification e.g. certificate is issued for teaching skills as an independent module through Principles of Teaching

Private institutes – – – – – A single standard framework is not being used by training institutes all across Institutes using franchisee models prefer an in-house systems for certification and accreditation Often certification services are achieved through affiliation with reputed specialized organizations The training institutes market their certifications directly to the industry for trainee placements Regular standalone certification for teaching skills are not found There are standalone certification and accreditation bodies in private space provided by – Foreign universities & Indian universities Page 36 of 91

– –

Specialized organizations (mostly foreign) like City & Guilds Induction process valued more that outside certificates

It was explored that ISO/IEC 17024 accreditation has been developed to establish an internationally accepted benchmark for organizations assessing and evaluating the skills of personnel. In addition, ISO has created a standard 29990:2010 with an objective to provide a generic model for quality professional practice and performance, and a common reference for Learning Service Providers (LSPs) and their clients in the design, development and delivery of nonformal education, training and development refer Annexure 4 for more details). NSDC should take the initiative to popularize its adoption among training services providers in India especially its partner TIs. It has been found that there is a higher dependence and acceptance of internal induction training as against certification by external agencies at the Training Institutes. Perception of Trainers on Certification: 52% of trainers across all categories of institutes say that certifications lead to a higher probability of salary increment followed by scope for promotions (42%). However, it was found that trainers working with NGO institutes also find certification most beneficial for continuous engagement (49%), enhanced motivation (53%), higher roles & responsibilities (51%) and recognition among trainees and peers (53%).

Effective Practice
While government institutes believe and religiously follow the government certification process as mandated by NCVT and DGET, other institutes depend heavily on private certification agencies mostly with international collaboration or knowhow. Some institutes like IIJT, India Can and NIIT have their own trainers’ training courses with in-house certification mechanisms. This has helped these institutes to overcome the absence of a universally acceptable certification process in the country.

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Key Challenges and Gaps
There is no well defined Certification and accreditation for trainers. As the current system produces very few certified trainers training institutions are flooded with non-certified trainers. Trainers envisaged responsibilities are much beyond single certification process and market readiness to pay for external certification hampered due to existing business culture.

8. Use of Technology
Technology is viewed as an enabler in the vocational training domain. It cuts across all major functions of the training space covering recruitment and capacity development of trainers, training delivery and quality control.

Current Practice
The extent of technology usage varies by the investment made by training institutes. It was found that institutes make such investments based on training type, target segment of trainees, trades and sector and recruiters requirements. Training institutes need to make substantial financial investments to create appropriate infrastructure for leveraging technological advances. Private training institutes are leaders among the three categories of institutes having invested in developing technology infrastructure and process innovation through which they have adapted various technologies for use in the vocational training space. The most prominent use of technology is in training delivery where numerous classroom teaching aids are used by trainers to facilitate the learning process for the trainees. Usage of technology is high for the trades wherein the recruiting industry is largely technology dependent. It is observed in the fact that technology usage in training related to BFSI, Gems & Jewellery and Textile and Clothing is high as these sectors are technology intensive while training related to Construction and Building, Organized Retail & Tourism and Hospitality is less technology dependent as these sectors are themselves not highly technology dependent. The possibility of using technology also depends Page 38 of 91

on the basic education and technology exposure of the trainees. Overall, vocational training has a low adoption of technology. The following factors put forth the reasons for low adoption; 1) Inability to allocate adequate resources by most training institutes as their business base is small. 2) Lack of initiative on part of the industry to invest or support in upgrade of training institutes. 3) Government institutes like ITIs and polytechnics suffer from system constraints that include decision making and procurement delays leading to slow upgrade of established systems. 4) Project based training especially those run by NGOs often don’t have financial provision for technology infrastructure. 5) Requirement for extensive re-skilling of existing trainers for using new methods and processes as primary findings showed that only 29% of the trainers are trained to use technology for training delivery purposes.

Effective Practice
This study could identify some training institutes like IIJT, TalentSprint, NIIT and India Can who have leveraged technology to a larger extent. These institutes have invested substantially on developing a modern infrastructure that allows deployment of technology for all training related purposes starting at recruitment of personnel and ending with certification. These institutes use centralized information sharing mechanism connecting all departments through an online collaborative process. Most institutes use VSAT technology for communication that allows them to reach out to far-flung areas with poor telecommunication facilities. While all these institutes use technology as a medium to deliver training IIJT and NIIT have established systems of trainers’ training by leveraging the same. It was found that trainers at satellite centres were regularly trained by master trainers located at central facilities using real-time Page 39 of 91

collaborative systems. IIJT has also created a trainers’ forum for knowledge sharing among its own trainers. These institutes derive twofold benefits from the use of technology. It allows them to enhance the reach and span of the trainers leading to better utilization of scarce human resource, faster scale-up and extended reach. Second, it assists in ensuring quality by standardizing the content and delivery mechanism.

Key Challenges and Gaps
The following gaps and challenges have been identified during the study process. – Lack of research with specific focus on the use of technology for vocational training purposes leading to absence of suitable products in the market that are techno-economically acceptable to the training institutes. Inadequate funding avenues for small training ventures to develop technology intensive infrastructure. Lack of trained personnel within the existing trainers’ pool with expertise on using technological aids for training and allied purposes. Overall availability of trainers’ training facility is inadequate to build skills of greater no. of trainers on technology usage

– – –

9. Skill Development
Enhancing the knowledge and skill levels of vocational trainers is imperative for overall development of skilled workforce and employment scenario in India. The relevance of vocational training to industry requirements is dependent on the contemporariness of the trainer’s knowledge and understanding of the sector and the occupational skills. In this light, the importance of continuous enhancement of trainers’ capacities has grown due to rapid changes in the Indian economy and employment space.

Current Practice
Knowledge and skills enhancement is perceived to be a direct outcome of education and training. It involves various means like classroom teaching, demonstration, exposure Page 40 of 91

and hands-on practice. Numerous initiatives by government and private bodies are directed at developing infrastructure and systems for trainers training. These initiatives cut across the entire spectrum starting at curriculum development and accreditations and ending with training and certification. Government initiatives have targeted establishment of national level authorities, certification bodies and advanced training institutes while private bodies have tried to develop and promote voluntary standards often using technical know-how from foreign institutions. However, these standards vary widely and are promoted individually by different reputed brands of training institutions. However, the current situation is not favourable in terms of number as the present infrastructure is much short of the desired level. While the 5 Advanced Training Institutes across the country (Please refer Annexure 3 for details) manage to provide training to only 1200 trainers every year under their flagship courses, presence of dedicated trainers’ training facilities in the private domain is also low. This short fall is mostly met through ad hoc means whereby training is arranged for training staff by the institutes using open market resources. Private training institutes having large scale of operations with substantial number of trainers on their roll have set up in-house training department. Such institutes have also invested heavily in infrastructure especially on the information technology solutions for trainers training. It was further observed that standardization of trainers training courses and teaching skills is difficult as numerous competing certifications are available in the market. However, in the government space the major certification is based on the ‘Principles of Teaching’ course as mandated by NCVT. The important primary findings are presented below.  While 57% of all trainers surveyed recognize the need for capacity building among trainers, over 70% trainers from institutes run by government and NGO voiced the same. Around 47% of all trainers surveyed said that internal trainings are held for their skill development. Only 41% of trainers associated with Government TIs, 18% trainers associated with Private TIs and 53% trainers Page 41 of 91

“Hiring (of the trainers) is not the answer, hiring is a part of answer, you have to hire the best but you have to grow the rest”

associated with NGO reported of receiving skill building inputs under the planned initiatives of the Training Institutes.  Training is a learning activity that a trainer has to do from wherever he or she is coming because X training institute’s way of delivery could be very different from Y training institute (from where the trainer has come). With training becoming modular if the trainer doesn’t understand the methodology he will not be able to implement it right, hence reskilling/orienting becomes imperative … Overall, it was found that training institutes (77% of all trainers surveyed) bear the costs for skill development. Only 10% trainers from private institutes have undergone training using own sources of finance. 61% of the trainers undergoing training through own finance had done so with the primary motive of enhancing their expertise. Overall, 78% of the trainers said that training increases their ability to design delivery tools and use better methods of training. Further, about 40% trainers overall also said that training increases their ability to take up new responsibilities. Overall 65% of trainers prefer to undergo training in a classroom setting. Around 25% trainers from private institutes (highest among all categories of institutes) expressed willingness to learn through online mode. This is due to insufficient exposure or low adeptness at using computers and other IT based solutions among trainers. Only 29% of the trainers (overall) are trained to use modern technological aids (computer & IT based) in delivering training. Overall, 54% trainers across categories reported the need for advanced teaching skills while 63% of all trainers wanted training on the use of computers and audio-visual aids for imparting training. This was followed by the need for soft skill (presentation & language) enhancement sought by 26% trainers. Overall, only 7% trainers said that they don’t need any training for using advanced tools in training. The skill development needs as perceived by trainers show that 50% of all trainers accord very high importance to regular training with more (over 60%) trainers from government and NGO institutes ranking it at the highest level. Exposure & seminars on technical and soft skills is rated as very important by 52% of trainers across all categories with 58% of private institute trainers rating it as very important. Industry interface is given very high importance by 26% trainers across all categories of institutes while 70% trainers from NGO institutes rate it high in importance. Regular

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evaluation is perceived as very important by 31% of trainers overall.

Effective Practices
Training institutes both in the government and private space have devised mechanisms to overcome the challenges posed by lack of trainers’ training infrastructure and systems. Under this study, specific practices leading to effective capacity development solutions were noted with an eye on their potential to address the issue through innovative means. A few of the promising practices identified during the study are noted below.

1. Human resource policy: a. Aide et Action has an organizational mandate to encourage women as Trainers b. Preference is given to skill up gradation of in-house trainers for vacancies at higher positions instead of hiring external resources by IIJT (Team Lease) 2. Use of Information Technology: a. Use of VSAT Training and communication mechanisms adopted by India Can & IIJT for trainers training by using a master trainer for pan India training b. Internal Assessment Techniques for trainers through pre and post online evaluation test of trainees for Trainers Evaluation is adopted by NIS Academy & India Skills. c. Updated information and modules regarding training maintained in the server of the Head office which can be accessed by trainers of various centres across India by IIJT d. Facilities for E- Learning developed to learn anywhere for trainees and trainers alike by IIJT 3. Collaborations & convergence: a. Trainers are provided opportunities (paid leave) or linkages with industry for exposure to modern technology (7 days on the shop floor including operations) by AISSMS College of Catering Technology & Hotel Management

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b. Tie up with State level NITTTR established by Maharashtra Institute of Hotel & Catering technology & Management for the technical teachers training programme for capacity building c. Re-skilling of Trainers at ATI by George Telegraph Training Institute d. Maharashtra Institute of Hotel & Catering technology & Management has a policy of “Upgrade” in which after every 3 years each employee will be sent to a 5 Star hotel for industry exposure to learn new trends of hotel & hospitality industry 4. Standardization & Quality Control: a. Certification on ‘Principles of Training’ is mandatory for Trainers for all ITIs b. India Can has a system of using Regional and National auditing teams to evaluate trainers for quality maintenance and standardization 5. Networking a. An in-house Trainers forum is functional at IIJT (Team Lease) and provides a platform for internal discussions (both formal and informal) among trainers and sharing of knowledge and ideas.

Key Challenges and Gaps
The following gaps and challenges have been identified during the study process. a. Absence of a focus on capacity development of trainers at the training institute level b. Sub-optimal resource allocation at training institute level for training of trainers. This includes investment on systems and processes, human resource and planning exercises. c. Lack of basic trainers’ training infrastructure all across the country aggravated by poor market orientation of the existing institutes in the trainers’ training space. d. Lack of research and standardization of trainers profile leading to absence of appropriate standards and certification processes.

10.Career Path Development

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Two distinct schools of thought exist in the vocational training domain. The first looks at the trainer only as a medium of content delivery while the second seeks a more rounded personality capable of handling multiple responsibilities covering business development, unit management, course development, training and placement. However, both these schools have limited their thoughts to the functional boxes created for the trainers thus forestalling the possibility of developing the trainer as a profession. This is reflected in the fact that trainers in the vocational space have few growth opportunities. This has resulted in a poor public image of trainer as a profession and hinders entry of talented people.

Current Practice
It was observed that government training institutes depend on established norms that rely on experience over performance or qualification of trainer. Thus a trainer in a government institute has to wait for over 10 years to progress to the immediate higher level in the organisation hence most trainers don’t make it beyond the position of course coordinator. In the other 2 categories of institutes, trainers gain higher positions mostly by shifting from one organisation to the other as growth opportunities within the organisation is restricted due to the small unit size (less than 10 trainers) and flat organizational structure. The primary findings show that 45% of the trainers opted for trainer as a profession due to the social respect attached to the profession while 43% said they wish to use it as an opportunity to gain experience for furthering their career elsewhere. Further, the study found that a substantial number of trainers from private (36%) and NGO (31%) run institutes are looking for promotion to elevated positions of responsibility during the next 12 months. This desire is more prominent among trainers providing training in Organized Retail (57%), Gems & Jewellery (36%), Tourism and Hospitality (36%) and BFSI (29%) as these sectors are vibrant and provide more job opportunities in the industry. The desire for a shift was most pronounced (38%) in trainers with experience up to 5 years while trainers with experience

IIJT does the Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) program and helps the trainer to take the MCSE exam and get certified. Tomorrow when he leaves IIJT, he goes out as a Microsoft certified systems engineer and takes the value to the industry.

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of over 16 years mostly (40%) prefer to continue in the same position and same company.

Effective Practice
It was found that IIJT has a policy of giving priority to its trainers for filling vacancies at higher levels. The trainers are provided mentors who guide and upgrade their skills for delivering responsibilities at higher positions. However, such practices are hindered due to the formal education norms that act as ceilings in the vocational training space. Key Challenges and Gaps The following gaps and challenges have been identified during the study. a. Absence of focus on career development of trainers at training institute level b. Absence of a framework for career development for trainers in the vocational training domain c. Perceived lack of process controls for certification and accreditation leads to low preference of certified trainers among trainers

TalentSprint - Model of Experiential Learning
Step One: TalentSprint believes instructors should be people who have actually been part of the industry, having done real work with real life experience, rather the people who have come out of the academic system. TalentSprint attracts people from industry who are trainers, or people who are working in the industry and have a passion for training. Hence, the first is identification of such people and then attracting them by giving them very competitive wages. Step Two: One can’t get such people by the hundreds, because there aren’t that many there and even if they are there not everyone wants to become a part of a Skill Development Company. These limited numbers of people can’t be in every classroom at all times so TalentSprint devised a technology solution. It has built a virtual classroom model wherein if an instructor is teaching in this (hub) classroom, quite likely they are also in a classroom somewhere far away. So a classroom in Anantapur which is a remote learning center where the instructor appears on a large screen and the smart board appears in front of them what that is spoken right here (at the hub) is transmitted there. So this gives TalentSprint the much desired reach: if one instructor can be in front of fifty students at a time this can be 5 times as much so one can have a leverage of 5x. This ensures leverage and scale for TalentSprint. Step Three: TalentSprint takes people with 3-5 years of industry experience who also have a love for teaching. It brings them as junior trainers and they become apprentice to the senior trainers. They will first be in a classroom with a master trainer and after going through one or two cycles they fairly adapt to the material and become ready to handle a remote classroom and become a teaching assistant. While the master trainer teaches from the hub he will still need a local guy as a teaching assistant in the classroom, so the junior trainer who has been groomed overtime aids the process. He comes as the master trainer apprentice, learns the material, learns how to teach, then he becomes a remote trainer as an assistant then he comes back again to become a master trainer.

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11.Entrepreneurship Development Skills / Self Employment
NSSO data shows that during 1983 to 2004, agriculture sector has lost 12% of its work force while manufacturing and services sectors have grown by 1.5% and 7% respectively. As per economic survey of 2010 the share of agriculture was 52.1% of the total workforce (a fall of another 4% during the preceding 6-year period). This trend of work force shift from agriculture to industry is predicted to accelerate during the coming decades creating concerns of employment generation in the manufacturing and services sectors. However, it is to be noted that the country’s manufacturing sector is adding to its workforce at a very slow pace having grown by only 0.6% in about a decade’s time. The service sector though growing rapidly is not equipped to absorb the bulk of the shifting workforce given the low level of skills and education in the population. Further, it is felt that the work force shift will lead to concerns of burgeoning migrant population in urban areas. It is therefore imperative to seek solutions towards upgrading skills and creating employment opportunities for this rural population in rural areas. A major chunk of this employment creation will depend on creation of successful entrepreneurs as wage employment opportunities are limited in the rural areas. The study looked into the current scenario of entrepreneurship skill development in the vocational skill domain and understood the potential for selected sectors in rural areas along with the possibilities of sourcing trainers for rural locations. Trainers (80%) find high relevance for entrepreneurship in the curriculum of Construction and Building and Gems and Jewellery sectors. Similarly 60% of trainers find it relevant in Organized Retail, Textile and Clothing & Tourism and Hospitality sectors

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Chapter 3

Trainers and Sectors

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Trainers and Sectors
All the trainers interviewed during the study were selected from 6 major sectors (illustrated in the figure below). In each sector, 3 common trades were identified which formed the basis of selection of trainers.

The following table details the sector wise coverage of trainers covered in the study Sector 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Tourism & Hospitality Textile & Clothing Construction & Building Gems & Jewellery Banking & Financial Services and Insurance Organized Retail Total No of Trainers covered 40 55 116 30 68 51 360

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Trainers Variances across Sectors

The following section brings out trainers perspective and variance across the 6 selected sectors. Findings across trainers’ age group, their experience, highest educational & professional qualification and gender distribution across the 6 sectors have been detailed. Along with this, association of trainers with training institute types, skills and certifications possessed by trainers, use of simulation techniques by trainers, career aspirations have also been reflected.

Trainers across the 6 sectors have shown significant variances. Except for the sectors of Textile and Clothing and G&J, which are manufacturing based, wherein maximum trainers are above 35 years of age, all the sectors have maximum trainers in the 25-29 year age group. The traditional sectors and fledging sectors have an obvious variance wherein the traditional sectors (TAC, G&J and CAB) have the opportunity to employ relatively more experienced trainers. Maximum young trainers are seen to be employed in service based sectors of OR, BFSI and TAH which have relatively greater opportunities than the other 3 sectors.

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The employment of trainers in the sectors is characterized by its need. While TAC and G&J are relatively more innovation oriented sectors driven by the need for practical training. Hence, experienced trainers are generally employed in these sectors. On the other hand process and system oriented sectors of OR, BFSI, TAH, CAB employ younger trainers who can deliver the training within the predefined structure.

G&J, TAC and CAB sectors are characterized by technologies that don’t require much formal education on the trainers’ part. On the other hand OR, BFSI and TAH being service Page 51 of 91

oriented employ trainers with relatively higher educational qualification.

Trainer variance is defined by the existence of technical education providers across the sectors. Service based sectors of OR, BFSI and TAH are characterized by large presence of private technical education providers. This is reflected in a relatively higher professional qualification received through such providers. The sectors like CAB and TAH have matured and find decent presence of both Government and Private technical education providers.

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Except for TAC which has maximum female trainers, male trainers dominate the scene in other sectors. This holds true since majority of the trainees are female on the TAC sector. Strenuous physical requirements in G&J sector (manufacturing aspects) have resulted in less employment of female trainers.

Large majorities of trainers were engaged full time with a single Training Institute. Although Training institutes across sectors employ both full time and part time trainers, the majority of the trainers interacted during the study were largely full time engaged with one training institute. The Page 53 of 91

association of trainer with the TI is determined by the need of the TI. For fast growing sectors BFSI and TAH training institutes find it difficult to pay competitive remuneration and hence engage part time trainers.

Technical trainers are responsible for both theory and practical training. This is preferred by the Training Institutes since it allows (1) easy learning for trainees as one person delivers the complete module, (2) better batch management and easier coordination with other units like counselling and placements and (3) better utilization of human resources especially because of inadequate availability of quality trainers. Sectors like OR, BFSI and TAH require extensive public relations eliciting need for soft skills trainers. TAC and G&J being highly dependent on manufacturing necessitate deployment of technical trainers exclusively for practical classes.

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Majority of trainers possess technical skills with low focus on soft and entrepreneurship skills. Sectors like TAH and TAC where scope of self employment is more, relatively more trainers possess entrepreneurship development skills primarily for disseminating it to the trainees.

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The more organized the sector, the greater the valuation of certification. G&J places greater importance on the practical aspects of training and therefore requires practically experienced trainers than certified ones.

Sectors like OR, BFSI, TAH and G&J provide more job opportunities leading to a greater desire for promotion. OR, BFSI and TAH have more trainers with higher formal education leading to higher career aspirations. The following section provides snapshot of each sector

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Tourism and Hospitality
Key features of the sector
1. Growth Projections: - Volume/Value: US$ 76.65 billion (2 per cent of GDP) for 2011-2021 period - CAGR: 8.8 per cent per annum for 2011-21, accounting for 4.9 per cent of GDP 2. Work force projections: - 24.93 million jobs directly in 2011 and by 2021 industry will account for 30.44 million jobs directly 3. Potential occupation: - Low end: Travel Counsellors, Messenger/ Delivery Boys, Sales executives, Tourist Guide, Driver, Kitchen staff, Front Office - Bell boys, Waiters/Servers, Bartenders, Security Guards, Room attendants, housekeeping staff, Supervisors, laundry staff, Maintenance staff, etc. - High end: Branch Manager, Sales Manager, Operations Manager, Team Leader, Tourist guide (international), Housekeeping Executive, General Manager, Chief Engineer, Head Chef, Soups Chef, Director (F&B), Manager (Restaurant & Beverage), Front Office Manager, Bell Captain etc. 4. Industry Bodies/ Associations: - Federation of Hotel & Restaurants Association of India - Hotel Association of India 5. Organized / Unorganized nature: - Service: Most of the occupation enlisted above are service oriented except that related to food production; services related to housekeeping, laundry, guides & drivers, travel desk, security guards, etc are usually outsourced - Manufacturing: Food production falls under the category of manufacturing 6. Rural/urban spread: - Spread: The Rural pocket is the supplier of mostly low end job workforce while most of the high end jobs are undertaken by the urban work force Most of the trainers catering to this sector are also from the urban pockets. 7. Scope of self / wage employment: - Self: Scope exists for self employment (starting own catering or Tiffin business etc.) Page 57 of 91


Wage: more scope for wage employment (it being largely service oriented)

Training scenario
8. Presence of training /ToT infrastructure: - Most of the Hotel Management Training institutes are located in urban pockets, very few training institutes are offering short term certificate courses, more private training institutes are involved in running Hotel Management courses 9. Technology dependence: - Food production section has hi tech gadgets for storage, cooking and cleaning. - Usage of technology is limited in most training as it involves a lot of direct practical sessions and hands on experience to learn the skills. 10. Trainer-trainee ratio: - 1:25 for service oriented vocational training programmes while for food production 1:15 is preferred due to practical classes in kitchen 11. Focus on which levels of training - Services related to housekeeping, Laundry, Guides & Drivers, Travel desk, Security guards, etc that is usually outsourced falls in the category of L4. - The service providers themselves act as placement cum training agencies (in house trainings provided) - Services related to food production, bartending, waiters, front office management falls in the category of L3 training 12. Scale-up possibility: - There is huge demand for skilled workforce in this sector so there is scope for scale-up. - New hotels and tourism venues are increasing in small towns and rural pockets so scale up possibility in those potential areas. - Fast scale up possibility for training on food production and services, housekeeping and front office management

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Banking, Financial Services & Insurance
Key features of the trade
1. Growth projections: - Volume/Value: Banking : US $ 1.3 Trillion , Insurance :US $ 41 Billion - CAGR: Banking : 18 % , Insurance :- 32-34 % 2. Work force projections: - BFSI sector needs 8-9 million of skilled human resource by 2022. 3. Potential occupation: - Low end: Account salesman, insurance sales agent, relationship officer, Tele caller, Phone banking officer, data entry operator etc. - High end: Branch Manager, Corporate Banking Manager, Manager Relationship, Manager Banking -IT, ManagerHuman Resource, Manager Banking Officer, Credit Analyst, Forex dealer etc. 4. Industry Bodies/ Associations: - Indian Banks Association (IBA), CII, FICCI and ASSOCHAM 5. Level of formalization ( Organized / Unorganized) : - Retail banking, Corporate banking, Capital market instrument sales, Insurance sales all these markets are highly formatted, systematized and integrated to each other for inter & intra banking operations. 6. Rural/urban spread: - Spread: BFSI is having a very good hold over metro & metropolitan cities because of sufficient cash flow in urban area , but on the other hand rural is the another space where Banking , Financial & Insurance companies has started fuelling rural market penetration 7. Scope for self / wage employment:- Self: In BFSI sector self employment is an attractive career as Insurance agents , accounts salesman and relationship officer, majority of people use this profession as part time business based on relationship building and fetch good incentive from business - Wage: The Indian banking, Insurance & Financial services sector has entered new areas such as wealth management, private banking, doorstep banking, electronic banking, credit cards, investment, insurance advisory services, etc. All these services need skilled Page 59 of 91

and semi skilled human resources that indicate huge wage employment in BFSI future.

Training scenario
8. Technology dependence - The banking methodology is also changing with the change in technology, RTGS; NEFT & ATM has accelerated the banking operations. Today net banking has changed the meaning of banking transactions. 9. Trainer-trainee ratio: - 1:25 is the most preferred batch 10. Scale-up possibility: - Foreign institutional investment and foreign direct investment has increased the no. of skilled human resource requirement in the BFSI sector. - Featuring of Regional Rural Banks & Rural Cooperative Credit Institution and tremendous growth possibility in microfinance makes BFSI a potential sector for the future.

Organized Retail
Key features of the trade
1. Growth projections: - Volume/Value: The total retail sales is US$ 395.96 billion in 2011 to US$ 785.12 billion by 2015 , apart from this retail sector accounts for 22 per cent of the country's GDP. - CAGR: CAGR growth rate of retail sector is 5%. 2. Work force projections: - It is expected that the human resource requirement will increase from the current levels of about 0.3 million to about 17.6 million by 2022, leading to an incremental employment opportunity of about 17.3 million persons 3. Potential occupation: - Low end: Front liners like shop floor executives, sales executives, cashiers, stockists, logistics, operations, distribution etc. - High end: Marketing manager, Store manager, Logistics manager, HR executive, Floor manager, store manager & store planner etc. 4. Industry Bodies/ Associations: Page 60 of 91

- Retail Association of India (RAI), CII, FICCI, ASSOCHAM. 5. Organized / Unorganized nature - Service: Global retailers, such as Wal-Mart, GAP, Tesco and JC Penney, are stepping up and their level of formalization is very high in the organized retail. The rural retail giants like Hariyali Kisan Bazar, ITC Choupal Sagar and Future Aadhar have also formatted and systematized outlets that require skilled human resource to run their operations. Thus the need for standards & certification of training is required to produce quality employable human resources. 6. Rural / Urban spread: - Spread: Organized Retail is a feature of metros & metropolitan cities and now it is getting stronger because of increase in investment, market expansion strategies, merger & acquisitions and potential strategic alliances, but in the next phase of the retail revolution in India, retail companies are expected to tap the rural segment as their key driver of growth. With per capita income having grown by 50 per cent over the last 10 years, rural India is set to witness an economic boom, which promises appreciable growth in rural markets. FMCG players are focusing on the rural market as it constitutes over 33 per cent of India‘s FMCG consumer base. 7. Scope of self / wage employment : - Self: Currently, there is very little scope for self employment in organized sector domain - Wage: In organized retail domain maximum employment engagement exists as wage employee.

Training scenario
8. Presence of Training /ToT infrastructure: - In Urban area certain institutions exists that provide Retail training at L2 & L3 level but in semi urban & rural areas , there is a deficit of training institutes that provide quality employability training in the Retail sector 9. Technology dependence: - The organized retailing is getting scientific in the sense of management, billing, shorting and storage - thus technology is prominent in squeezing better efficiency & productivity in different format retail set ups. Page 61 of 91

10. 11. -


Trainer-trainee ratio: Batch size of 1:20 is considered as the optimum Scale-up possibility: A huge scale-up possibility exists in the organized retail because till now organized retail only contributes 5-6 % whereas 95-94 % of retail market is unorganized which is a potential indicator of future growth in this sector. Infrastructural & technological advancement will speed up the organized retail set up and skilled human resource requirement.

Gems and Jewellery
Key features of the sector
1. Growth projections : Volume/ Value: i. The size of the global Gems and Jewellery industry was estimated at US $ 170 billion in sales in 2008. India is one of the eight key world markets, the others being the USA, UK, Middle East, Turkey, Japan, Italy and China. India is the also the largest consumer of gold in the world, and is estimated to hold nearly 16,000 tonnes of gold, accounting for nearly 12-15% of the world’s cumulative ‘above ground’ gold stocks. India is also the largest diamond cutting and polishing centre in the world. The major processes of the sector are divided into Jewellery fabrication and Diamond Processing; while the former includes processing and fabrication of all types of gold, precious stones, semi-precious stones and artificial jewellery, the later comprises of cutting and polishing of diamonds for primary exports. ii. The domestic demand for gold jewellery was estimated at Rs. 550 billion in 2007,which is around 80% of the Indian jewellery market of Rs. 690 billion; the balance comprised of diamond jewellery (Rs. 115 billion), and other fabricated jewellery (Rs. 25 billion). iii. While India dominates the gold and silver consumption globally with about 800 tonnes (around 22% of the world consumption in 2008), 11 Page 62 of 91

out of 12 diamonds are being cut and processed in India. In 2008, Gems and Jewellery exports accounted for about 12% of India’s total exports. The growth of exports between 2002-03 and 200708 was about 14% amounting to Rs. 837 billion in 2008. After a temporary slow down during the global recession after 2008, the share of Gems and Jewellery in Indian Exports in 2010 was around 18%. CAGR: The industry has grown at an average Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 5.2% since 2000.

2. Work force projections: ( Need to mention projected human resource) The industry provides direct employment to around 3.2 to 3.4 million {Gems and Jewellery Export Promotion Council (GJEPC), study on employment in Gems and Jewellery industry in India} people in India.

3. Organized / Unorganized nature: Service: A clear distinction of trades lacking in small units. The work force largely is in manufacturing trades. Manufacturing: The entry into the sector was restricted since traditionally the sector had a strong system of apprenticeship for skill dissemination. While diamond grading and polishing was restricted to Patel communities only, gold jewellery making was restricted to largely Bengali migrants from Hooghly, and Burdwan districts. Traditionally there have been very few specialized courses offered by some niche institutes, professional qualification never really added value to workers in the industry and practical experience in the sector was treated as the single most important criteria for entry. However, now both the areas of jewellery fabrication and diamond processing are gradually moving out from a traditional environment to more professional and standardized approaches. The secretive diamond processing industry which earlier used to source workers only from certain communities is facing severe crunches in low skilled manpower and hence is open to migrant workers from other states.

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4. Rural/urban spread: Apart from high end technology, the sector also commands expensive raw materials and specialized production processes with a very strong emphasis on perfection and quality of production. Thus the sector finds more concentration in secure urban pockets nearer to markets, although nowadays youth from both rural and urban areas are joining the sector.

5. Scope of self / wage employment : Self: The scope of self employment is low in the sector due to high cost of raw materials and traditional market setup with difficult entry. Wage: Wage employment potential is high since industries offer good remuneration to skilled manpower in the sector.


Training scenario
6. Presence of training /ToT infrastructure: Specialized training institutes like the Indian Institute of Gems and Jewellery at Jaipur and the Indian Diamond Institute Surat etc. have been promoted by the GJEPC. Also many private training institutions have come up over the recent years who are conducting 6-8 month courses. Although the institutes promoted by GJEPC are nationally as well as internationally acclaimed, most of the private institutions are not accredited or certified by any agency.

7. Technology dependence: The advent of high end technology in the production, processing and designing processes like Computer Aided Designs (CAD), use of special software like SARIN, sophisticated laser technology etc. have given birth to new trades and occupations along with the need for new skill sets. The use of technology is vivid in private and GJEPC promoted training institutes where 27% trainers use computer aided technology and another 24% use audio visuals for training delivery.

8. Trainer-trainee ratio: 1:20 due to predominance of hands on training Page 64 of 91

Textile and Clothing
Key features of the sector
1. Growth projections: - Volume/Value: At current prices, accounts for 4 percent of GDP USD 51.36 billion (India Knowledge Centre, 2010) - CAGR: Organized apparel segment expected to grow at CAGR of over 13 % between 2008-2020 - Growth of organized retail to fuel this growth 2. Work force projections: - Directly employs over 35 million people - Woolen textiles employ nearly 2.7 million - Sericulture employs 6.3 million people (in laborintensive cottage industry) - Jute industry directly employs about 260,000 industrial workers - Half of the work force is women - Specific thrust under National Textile Policy, 2000 on - Increasing employment opportunities - Integrated human resource development - Focus on adequate training and human resource development under the Comprehensive Power loom Cluster Development Scheme - 1243 ITIs with yearly intake of 33372 (2009). 3. Potential occupation: - Low end: Clear distinction of trades lacking in small units; Work force mostly in manufacturing trades - High end: Designer, merchandiser, engineers, 4. Level of formalization ( Organized / Unorganized ) : - Service: - Broad segments: Yarn and fiber (Organized) and Processed fabrics and readymade garments (getting organized fast) - Organized operations: Composite mills, Combing units, Spinning units, Knitwear and woven garment units, Machine-made carpet units - Decentralized operations: Hosiery and knitting units, Power loom units, Hand-made carpets and drugget (a coarse woollen fabric felted or woven, selfcoloured or printed one side) units, Independent dyeing and process houses, Shop floor personnel Page 65 of 91

mostly (>85%) not certified and have basic education (< class X) only. 5. Rural/urban spread: - Spread: The organized sector containing yarn and fiber manufacturing related activities found in major urban locations or in their immediate fringes - The unorganized sector with a focus on embroidery, cutting & sewing and dress making present in both urban and rural areas with large scope for selfemployment. 6. Scope of self /wage employment: - Self: Predominance of job work leads to more scope for self-employment especially in garment manufacturing. Scope of self-employment high as readymade garment segment growing fastest within this sector ( both export and Private Final Consumption Expenditure) - Wage: The organized sector also depends on and creates self-employment as most inputs (semi-finished goods) are done by job work. Machinists, fitters, finishers, packers etc. belong to the organized sector. Growth is dependent on government policy and nature of global competition.

Training scenario
7. Presence of Training /ToT infrastructure: - Ministry of Textiles to establish institutes under the PPP model (private sector participation in development of the industry). GoI proposes to establish several centre of excellence (CoE) to train workforce. CoEs (BTRA, ATIRA, SITRA, NITRA, IIT, SASMIRA and MANTRA) to have national and international accreditation, create testing and evaluation facilities and develop resource centres and training facilities 8. Technology dependence: - A rapid shift in technology in formalized (organized) processing units - The handloom sector is static with difficulty in enhancing skills (unorganized, wide spread locations, low financial incentive to upgrade etc.) 9. Trainer-trainee ratio: - 1:15 due to predominance of hands on training for heavy machinery operators; 1:30 or 1:40 for skills in the readymade garment segment. 10. Scale-up possibility Page 66 of 91



Slow scale-up potential due to high dependence on physical infrastructure and heavy machineries for occupations like Machinists, fitters, finishers, packers etc. Fast scale up possible for training on readymade garments, embroidery and similar skills

Construction and Building
Key features of the sector
1. Growth projections: - Volume/Value: Key growth driver of the economy. i. Major contributor is infrastructure at 75% of the sector(Economic survey 2007-08) ii. Among the highest FDI-attracting sector (over INR 403 billion during April 2000 - September 2010) iii. Rapid urbanization (590 million by 2030) and growth (91 million by 2030) of middle class households iv. India expected to have 91 million middle-class households by 2030. v. Shortage in housing estimated at 24 million units (2007) and 26 million units (2012). vi. The hospitality sector has shortfall of about 240,000 rooms. Over 15600 additional rooms built in 2010. vii. The growth is shifting to tier II & III cities as business (retail, BPO/ITES, hospitality, healthcare etc.) shifts slowly. viii. Real estate industry expected to reach INR 8,640 billion (2020) - CAGR: Difficult to estimate exact contribution of to GDP (Disaggregated and dispersed in National Accounts Statistics); 11.1% CAGR during 2001-2008 as per economic survey 2008-09; Projected CAGR at 9.5-10% between 2008-2022 (source: NSDC-IMaCS sector study) 2. Work force projections: - 33 million employed with the share of infrastructure being 70% and realty 30%. - Workforce is made up of over 82% unskilled, around 10% skilled and rest highly skilled workers - 70% of workforce is in operations (placed in worksites) - Work force requirement to grow from about 36 million (2008) to over 83 million (2022) Page 67 of 91

3. Potential occupation: - Low end: All helper positions for different occupational trades 4. Industry Bodies/ Associations: CREDAI, Plumbers Association of India a. Service: Low level of formalization with predominance of verbal job contracts b. Manufacturing: Major categories are low-cost housing, mid-market housing and premium housing for the residential segment. Also have retail, hospitality, commercial and infrastructure segments. The market is highly unorganized. 5. Rural/urban spread: a. Spread: Growth is shifting to tier II & III cities as business (retail, BPO/ITES, hospitality, healthcare etc.) shifts slowly. b. There is demand growth due to thrust on rural infrastructure development. c. A focus on affordable housing (both government and private) d. There is growth focus in suburban areas of large and middle tier cities. 6. Scope of self employment /wage employment : a. Self: Potential trades are Plumbing, Carpentry, tile fitters and painters. Opportunities exist due to the outsourced nature of work both in the consumer and business space. b. Wage: Potential trades are Bar Benders, Masons, Surveyors, minimally educated (physical labour), equipment operators as these are specific to large building projects and not applicable to the consumer space.

Training scenario:
7. Presence of Training /ToT infrastructure: a. There is a presence of basic courses for occupational skills like electrical, architecture present in most ITIs throughout the country. There is not much focus on skills like masonry, plumbing, bar bending in most ITIs. In private space, most institutes don’t focus on construction related courses as large physical setup is necessary. Large construction companies like L&T, CCC etc. have own setup to train people. Page 68 of 91

8. Technology dependence: a. Dependence is high for architecture and electrical course but low for courses like masonry, plumbing, carpentry, bar bending. However, large infrastructure development is necessary. 9. Trainer-trainee ratio: a. For most courses trainer to trainee ratio is 1:15 as hands on training is a major component. However, for architectural skills it may go up to 1:30 10. Scale-up possibility: a. Scale-up slow as infrastructure development is time consuming.

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Chapter 5


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The objective of this study is to identify and inform NSDC about the issues, challenges and gaps that hinder performance and hence the growth of trainers in the vocational training domain. Based on the challenges and gaps indentified under the section on findings and analysis recommendations have been drawn and presented in this section. The recommendations have been provided on attracting trainers and capacity development of trainers, systems for accreditation/standardization, creating funding for infrastructure development for TOT as well as a database of trainers/creating networks of trainers, sector specific standards for trainees creating space for improving trainer support/enhancement opportunity and recommendation on allocation of responsibility in existing institutions, creating an apex body/committee to take up review of trainers’ facilities, etc. The Assessment & Evaluation and Certification & Accreditation are listed separately due to their importance in turning vocational training into an organized domain. Component Sourcing  Key Issues Lack of established information and communication channels between recruiter and job seekers i.e. the training institute and trainers Creation of sector-wise trainers database and trainers pool development Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre NSDC with the support of SSC

Recommended Action Suggested Roadmap 

Sector specific database of trainers with complete information and making the same available in public domain for use. Creation of dedicated website for promotion of Trainer Information System (TIS) and enabling online registration of trainers


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Suggested Roadmap   Promoting membership of trainers at the Sector Skill Council level to create a Trainers Pool Undertake assessment of Sector wise skill gaps, map requirements of workforce and trainers (Trade, occupation wise) through a short study Promote private sector led employment exchanges for registration of trainers, job placement and career counseling. SSC should register trainers, communicate-create awareness and encourage trainers to register. They should advertise or hire an agency to undertake the task for creating a TIS (Occupation wise, age, gender, qualification, available skills set, work experience, industry exposure, expertise etc). NSDC should ensure reaching out to potential trainers from deprived sections of the society.

Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre SSC NSDC in collaboration with SSC


SSC with the support of NSDC


Recruitment and Selection  Lack of uniform recruitment criteria and selection procedure across training institutes Lack of institutional arrangement to prepare and recruit trainers Standardization of entry level eligibility (professional capabilities) criteria for trainers Promotion of training institutions to impart training on key sectors and trades for preparing and recruiting trainers Introduction of incentives on critical streams where trainer shortage is being experienced Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre SSC under the guidance of NSDC

Key Issues   Recommended Action  

Suggested Roadmap

Designing desired profile of trainers (occupation wise) and ensure training institutes to adhere to the same - The desired profile includes 4 skill sets i.e. Technical skills, soft skills, teaching skills and Enterprise development skills

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Suggested Roadmap

Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre

 

“Right trainers for right trades” to be selected on the basis of the aspirants interest and aptitude An Apex Body develop broad guidelines for recruitment ensuring inclusion of specific needs of sectors, geographies and deprived sections of society. This should be provided to all categories of training institutes. Identification of and support to institutions engaged in providing training in soft skills, teaching skills and Enterprise development skills Promoting modular courses for these skills so that existing trainers can take benefits of these Creating awareness and opening up opportunities with predefined selection criteria will help improve induction of good quality trainers Initiate pilot testing of policy with their partner training institutions to generate learning/ feedback and then upscale it across all training institutions through DGET Plan and design common entrance test for Trainers. It should also promote institutions for providing simulating mock exercises for aspiring trainers to compete in common entrance test and face selection interviews Introduce “Rating of Training Institutions” with ‘following specified norms of recruitment’ as one of the parameters Trainers Role/ Job Responsibility  






NSDC with the support of SSC



Key Issues

Lack of competency based role definition for trainers Lack of institutions providing career advancement courses for trainers like course designing, module development, curriculum development, assessment and evaluation, etc Development of Key Result Areas (KRA) Plan investment to support ToT institutions for career advancement courses building specific skills relating to curriculum development, module development, training pedagogy, communication, use of technology, assessment – evaluation etc.
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  Recommended Action

Suggested Roadmap

 Consultation with training institutes to capture the inputs/feedback for developing KRAs and role definition of trainers  Induct and associate professional support to each SSC to develop a framework (role + growth path) by engaging with domain experts from leading stakeholders (NCVT, DGET, SCVT, industry associations, TTIs-both government & private)  Creation of Centre of Excellence to run specialized courses for trainers

Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre SSC NSDC



Skill Development  Absence of standardization for trainers’ profile leading to lack of appropriate standards and certification processes Absence of focus on trainers’ skills development Lack of trainers-training infrastructure Lack of training institutions/ sources from which trainers can get entry into the sector Skill development of trainers through ToT Plan and demonstrate investments in ToT (infrastructure development in the form of TTIs, promote agencies & academies to deliver ToT) Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre NSDC by engaging experts from SSC SSC NSDC

Key Issues

  

Recommended Action

 

Suggested Roadmap

 


Development of Fundamental Trainer Training4 (FTT) and Advanced Trainer Training (ATT) to structure skill development initiatives at the TTI level Standardization of Courses and national certification for Trainers Selection and involvement of potential training institutes for creating cadre of master trainer for ToT (Technical, teaching, soft and Entrepreneurship Development skills) Investment in developing infrastructure (preferably in the private
Fundamental Trainers Training and Advanced Trainer Training


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Suggested Roadmap

Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre

   

space) and processes for running FTT and ATT by engaging the master trainers Setting up model ToT institute. Promote academies of excellence should identify institutions and partners to run ToT Manage a dedicated virtual space for information dissemination on ToT and TTI Promotion of trainers’ network. Initial funding support to be provided by NSDC for sector specific networks. Provision of scholarships and fund allocation for trainers and training institutes to access facilities designed for capacity building and career development


Component Key Issues Recommended Action Suggested Roadmap

Career Path Development  Absence of a framework for career development for trainers in the vocational training domain Devising a Career Development Path of trainers and promoting the same Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre NSDC

 Initiate and handhold the process of integration of vocational education with the mainstream (formal) education system. Creation of a forum for discussion and design of systems and processes by bringing together stakeholders from government, private, industry and civil society.  Draft a desired career upgrade plan with specific benchmark on performance based pay/incentive  Status/ current scenario of the existing career development opportunities followed by a project specifically planned to enhance their acceptability among the trainers and training institute (pilot support activity for select sectors/ select geographical area)


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Certification and Accreditation  Lack of standards for certification of trainers across categories of Training Institutions Low motivation of training institutes in hiring quality trainers and providing remunerative employment and career growth Create a standard/ certification for ToT Plan for utilization and promotion of accreditation of Institutions for benefits to trainees, trainers and TIs Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre SSC

Key Issues

Recommended Action Suggested Roadmap

 

Development of standard norms / guidelines for certification of trainers based on level of training (L1/L2/L3), type of training (soft/teaching/technical/entrepreneurship development) and correlate with sector specific FTT and ATT

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Suggested Roadmap

Development of standard norms for certification of trainers

 

Pilot this practice with their partner training institutes once SSC has developed the standards and guidelines NSDC Promotion of certification (similar to ISO) for the TIs with specific thrust on trainers qualification, training delivery, TOT plan and use by trainers, industry acceptance of trainees, etc. Assessment and Evaluation

Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre SSC with the support of DGET, NCVT and other private certifying bodies (City & Guilds) NSDC

Component Key Issue Recommended Action Suggested Roadmap 

Absence of third party assessment and evaluation mechanism for trainers Standardize Assessment and Evaluation of Trainers Recommended Institution as Responsibility Centre SSC

 

Design and standardize assessment parameters introducing periodicity for assessment and evaluation of trainers in consultation with DGET Standardize criteria for occupation wise selection of assessors and evaluators Set standards for identifying appropriate expert agencies including quality auditors for monitoring and assessing the impact of initiatives undertaken in skills domain based on quality, quantity, effectiveness, cost implications and sustainability parameters around trainers Introduce a system of license to practice with the scope for periodic renewal (once in 3-5 yrs) with the support of DGET Introduce a system of reward/incentive for partners training institutes and trainers




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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Career path frame in Railways Job creation through Employment Exchanges Advanced Training Institute Certification for Trainers and Training Institutions Institute for Training of Trainers Trainers’ Projections List of Training Institutes covered under the study

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1. Career path of artisan (technician) of select trades: Scenario in the Indian Railways
Helper Grade I & II (Entry Level Position) Pay scale: INR 5200-20200 (Grade pay: INR 1800/-) Education – Class X (Elec) & Class VIII (Mech) Tech. Qualification – Nil Promotion time: At least 12 years Promotion criteria: Work Experience & performance evaluation by superintending officers (division level) Recruitment: Open market advertisement Selection process: Written and physical examination Fitter Grade III Pay scale: INR 4860-20200 (Grade pay: INR 1900/-) Education – For external hires only (Class X pass) Tech. Qualification – For external hires only (ITI/Act apprentice with NCVT certificate) Promotion time: At least 6 years Promotion criteria: Work Experience & performance evaluation (division level) Recruitment: Open market (50%) and internal hires (50%) Selection process: Marks scored in Class X examination or written examination (Differ by Railway recruitment boards) with optional aptitude, psychology and physical examination. Fitter Grade II Pay scale: INR 4860-20200 (Grade pay: INR 2800/-) Education – For external hires only (Class X pass or class XII with physics and maths or 1st year B.Sc.) Tech. Qualification – For external hires only (ITI/Act Apprentice with NCVT certificate or 3 year diploma in relevant engineering trade for Class X pass candidates) Promotion time: At least 6 years Promotion criteria: Work Experience & performance evaluation (division level) Recruitment: Open market (50%) and internal hires (50%) Selection process: Written examination with aptitude and psychology tests (Zone Level) Fitter Grade I Pay scale: INR 8700-34800 (Grade pay: INR 4200/-) Education – For external hires only (Class X pass) Tech. Qualification – For external hires only; 10 years’ experience and certificate or 3 year diploma (preferred) in relevant trade with NCVT or AICTE accreditation Promotion time: At least 6 years Promotion criteria: Work Experience & performance evaluation by superintending officers (division level) Recruitment: Some (5%) posts filled by Open market advertisement Selection process: Written examination with aptitude and psychology tests (Zone level)

Apprentice Monthly Stipend: INR 1090/-, 1240/- & 1440/- for 1st, 2nd & 3rd year respectively Education – Class X (Most trades) & Class VIII (Painter) Tech. Qualification – Trade specific certificate issued by NCVT for Ex. ITI candidates & none for others Training duration: 1-3 years (Trade & tech. qualification based) Promotion criteria: No Employment guarantee post apprenticeship Recruitment: Open market advertisement for railway apprentices Selection process: Written examination/Marks in Matriculation

Junior Engineer Grade II Pay scale: INR 8700-34800 (Grade pay: INR 4600/-) Education – For external hires only (Class X pass) Tech. Qualification – 3 year diploma engineer in relevant trade with AICTE accreditation Promotion time: At least 6 years Promotion criteria: Optional examination (Zone level) Recruitment: Open market advertisement (In-service candidates may apply with departmental permission) Selection process: Written examination (Differ by Railway recruitment boards) with aptitude and psychology tests. Note: Optional examination (In-service quota for

diploma engineers)

Junior Engineer Grade I Promotion time: At least 6 years Assistant Engineer Tech. Qualification – B.E. or B. Tech Section Engineer Promotion time: At least 6 years Sr. Section Engineer Dy. Chief Engineer

Master Craftsman Pay scale: INR 8700-34800 (Grade pay: INR 4600/-) Education & tech. qualification-Not considered for promotion no provision for external hiring Promotion time: No promotion possible (End of line position) Promotion criteria: Work Experience & performance evaluation by superintending officers (division level) Recruitment: No provision for open market recruitment Selection process: Not applicable

Promotion using regular departmental channel Optional promotional channels Zone level recruitment examinations

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2. Job creation through Employment Exchange
Autonomous Employment Exchange: In a bid to overcome the problem of unemployment and to create skilled manpower, the Odisha government has decided to take up placement-linked Training Programme through the State Employment Mission. According to the Chief Secretary, Bijay Kumar Patnaik, GoO, placement linked training for the unemployed youths would be taken up through Public Private Partnership mode to ensure right man in right place. He said that the Sikkim Manipal Education Trust has been chosen as the Private agency to open an autonomous employment exchange on pilot basis for one year to match the right jobs to skilled candidates. The Manipal trust would open its training cum employment exchange in the backward Koraput district during the current year. The success of the agency would be replicated in other districts. With the government jobs shrinking, the chief secretary has directed the Employment Mission authorities to develop a strategy for restructuring and strengthening the Employment Mission and the Employment Exchanges to cope with modern emerging needs and to catch the opportunity of private sector as well. (Source: accessed on 02.09.2011) Employment Exchanges run by MoLE: There are 900 employment exchanges across the subcontinent managed by MoLE. In the recent past few initiatives has been targeted to integrate Vocational guidance in these exchanges. On the recommendations of the meeting of the 35th All India Working Group, Directorate General, Employment and Training issued instructions to open study circles in every District Employment Exchanges (DEE) & to concretize vocational guidance centres in each DEE. In the first phase in the financial year 2009-10, Vocational Guidance Cum Study Centre in the 6(six) sub-Regional Employment Exchanges, P&E Employment Exchange & the only existing University Employment Information & Guidance Bureau, Ranchi was proposed. The Officers/Staff of these centres will make available career counselling to the students studying in the educational institutes/technical institutes/colleges/university falling in their jurisdiction. As & when required, on the spot registration of the unemployed youth will also be done. Officer/Staff working in these Employment Exchanges will be given specialized training after the discussion with Central Institute for Research and training in Employment Service (CIRTES) or Directorate General, Employment and Training (DGET). As & when required, the services of Vocational Guidance Counsellors/Career Counselling Experts may also be taken on the basis of charges / honorarium. (Source: Labour, Employment and Training Annual Plan, 2010-2011 accessed on 01.09.2011) Postal dept to launch website for job seekers: The chief postmaster-general of Maharashtra and Goa, Faiz -Ur-Rehman, announced on Friday that India Post will launch a job web portal on October 14. The Indian Postal department, with iCode Management Systems Pvt. Ltd, will create profiles of job seekers. Job seekers will have to pay a nominal fee of Rs 300 and will have to purchase an iCode card. These cards will be available at 116 post offices in Maharashtra and Goa. The candidates profile will be available to companies at no extra cost. Companies will also be able to search for suitable candidates at, said Rehman on the eve of World Postal Day. (Source: Sudeshna Chatterjee, TNN, Oct 9, 2010)

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3. Advanced Training Institute
The Advanced Training Institute (ATI) is established under DGET, Ministry of Labour, GoI. There are 5 ATI’s and are located in Howrah, Hyderabad, Kanpur Mumbai and Ludhiana. One CTI is located in Chennai. The primary function of this Institute is to train the Vocational Instructors of various Industrial Training Institutes/ Centres and other training establishment. The institute also conducts training courses under Craftsmen Training Scheme & Short term duration courses for industrial workers under AVTS scheme. This Institute conducts one year regular training courses for vocational instructors of ITIs / ITCs to provide comprehensive training in Skill development and Principle of Teaching (PoT). It also conducts short duration special refresher courses to update and upgrade the knowledge and skill of the instructor and to keep them abreast of technological development of industry.

4. Certification for Trainers and Training Institutions
ISO/IEC 17024 ISO/IEC 17024 Accreditation has been developed to establish an internationally accepted benchmark for organizations assessing and evaluating the skills of personnel. It is the International Standard for organizations and entities wishing international recognition for the certification of the competence of individuals. It deals with the accreditation of training providers. International Standards Organizations developed ISO/IEC 17024 as a response to the need for certification of General requirements for bodies operating certification of persons. This standard provides a benchmark for certification bodies offering certification of individuals applicable to any occupation. This certification’s intent is to provide a framework for accreditation and certification programs for individuals and as the standard against which a Third Party can validate the management system for certification of persons. The standard itself requires that competence is demonstrated, and which includes education, knowledge, skills and experience requirements that a certified person needs and would be expected to meet. In India, the National Accreditation Board for Education and Training under the QCI is the designated agency for assessment and certification related to ISO/IEC 17024. This accreditation supplements the requirements for Empanelment of Assessing Bodies under Skill Development Initiative (SDI) of Directorate General of Employment and Training (DGE&T), Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India. ISO 29990:2010 International Standards Organisation recognized the growing economic importance of learning in the global knowledge society has created new economic opportunities such as activity created by the provision of for-profit learning services. It also acknowledged quality assurance to be a crucial issue and developed a ISO standard (ISO 29990:2010) to improve the quality of offerings on the global market that has grown up around non-formal education and training, such as vocational training, life-long learning and in-company training. It will enhance transparency and allow comparison on a worldwide basis of learning services, offering a single alternative backed by international consensus

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to the huge variety of national service and management standards which now exists in the field of non-formal learning. The standard is aimed at formal company training and any other form of further education (learning services for non-formal education and training). Its application in schools and universities is also possible; its implementation is still pending, though. ISO documents state that, “the objective of ISO 29990:2010 is to provide a generic model for quality professional practice and performance, and a common reference for learning service providers (LSPs) and their clients in the design, development and delivery of non-formal education, training and development. The standard encourages a focus on the learner and the results of the process, and emphasizes the full range of options available for delivering learning services. ISO 29990 will help learning service providers improve their ability to consistently provide quality services, improve organizational effectiveness, and reduce overall business costs.”

5. Institute for Training of Trainers
Presently instructors are trained under the Craft Instructor Training Scheme (CITS) in the field institutes of DGET. As on date field institutes of DGE&T (1 CTI, 5 ATIs, 1 NVTI and 12 RVTIs) have a facility for imparting instructor training in 27 trades (59 modules) out of 116 trades. The gross capacity of these institutes is around 1600 instructors per annum including Instructor training imparted in NVTI and RVTIs to women trainee instructors where the gross annual capacity is around 500 (out of 1600). The demand for qualified instructors is huge as compared with the gross capacity of instructor training of DGE&T field institutes. Presently, as on 31/03/2011 the gross seating capacity in the country for skill training under the Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS) which is implemented through 8800 Govt. and Pvt. ITIs (2217 Govt. ITIs and 6583 Pvt. ITIs) is around 12.2 lakhs. These Govt. and Pvt. ITIs require about 60,000 instructors (with an average trainee-instructor ratio of 20:1). As per the present trend on an average one lakh training seats are being added in the ITIs/ITCs every year. This created an additional demand of about 5,000 instructors in Govt. and Pvt. ITIs every year. Another flagship programme of DGE&T is Apprenticeship Training Scheme (ATS)). Under ATS, training is imparted in 5,472 establishments in 235 designated trades with seating capacity of 3.1 lakhs. Instructor requirement for this scheme is around 15,000. This scheme is also registering a positive growth rate, which is creating an additional demand of about 2000 qualified instructors every year. Further, there is an estimated demand of around 3000 instructors considering superannuation, change in job of existing instructors, etc. Thus, the present instructor requirement for the two major schemes of DGE&T (CTS and ATS) is more than 70,000 and additional demand for these two schemes is 10,000 instructors per annum. Besides, following new projects will push further the demand of trained instructors, viz.   Establishment of 1500 new ITIs and 50,000 Skill Development Centres (SDCs) under Koushal Vikas Yojna; Modular Employable Skills (MES) under the SDI scheme wherein target is to train one million persons in the first 5 years and thereafter one million persons each year; and

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  

Establishment of 2500 Govt. Vocational education schools in Govt. Sectors and 2500 in PPP mode, and strengthening of about 2000 existing vocational schools by Ministry of HRD. Establishment of 34 new ITIs and 68 SDCs under ;Enhancing Skill Development Infrastructure in 34 districts affected by Left Wing Extremism Up gradation of 20 ITIs by introducing 3 new trades and supplementing deficient infrastructure in 28 ITIs under “Enhancing Skill development infrastructure in NE states and Sikkim”

With this background, the present instructor training capacity of 1600 per annum is considered too inadequate. As of now there is huge gap between instructor training capacity and requirement of trained instructors and it is foreseeable that in near future (the gap would further increase exponentially) this may become a serious bottleneck in implementation of projects designed to deliver quality training. DGE&T is therefore, focusing its attention to train instructors in large numbers. Source: Excerpts from the Guidelines for setting up of “INSTITUTE of TRAINING of TRAINERS” & Conducting Trainers Training Programme under Craft Instructors Training Scheme (CITS), DGET-19 (10) / 2011 – CD, Government of India, Ministry of Labour and Employment, Director General OF Employment and Training dated 26th April, 2011

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6. Trainers’ Projections
IMaCS had conducted a study for NSDC on skilled workforce requirement by the Indian industry. The study came out with projected number of skilled workforce with specific focus on vocational skills training. The projections for relevant sectors have been taken from these reports and used to arrive at the projected numbers for skilled workforce in the vocational domain till the year 2022. IMaCS reports have used 2008, 2012, 2018 and 2022 as the milestones along the established timeline and have been adhered to in this analysis. The percentage requirement of vocationally trained workforce is based on the IMaCS report on the Human Resource and skill requirements in the Education and Skills Development Services Sector (2022). These numbers are reflected in the following table. Projected numbers of skilled workforce requirement by Indian Industry between 2008 – 2022 Skilled work force requirement (in numbers) Sector 2008 2012 2018 2022 %age of Incremental workforce belonging to vocational (in numbers) domain (in numbers) 46,08,000 75% 70% 85% 65% 65% 85% Incremental Incremental Incremental Workforce workforce workforce workforce requirement requirement requirement requirement in vocational for for for domain (in vocational vocational vocational numbers) by domain (in domain (in domain (in 2022 numbers) '000)for '000) for 2008-2012 2013-2018 2019-2022 34,56,000 9,54,750 15,42,750 9,58,500 3,31,11,400 1,47,39,000 27,62,500 23,67,300 2,22,70,000 86,90,500 49,54,286 7,89,286 6,39,600 61,20,000 1,44,12,300 74,31,429 11,83,929 8,34,600 90,10,000 1,00,08,600 49,54,286 7,89,286 8,93,100 71,40,000


33,35,000 2,83,000 4250000 35,30,000

46,08,000 66,65,000 -


3,59,68,000 4,83,83,000 6,89,72,000

8,32,70,000 4,73,02,000 1,76,23,000 1,73,40,000 8500000 71,72,000 42,50,000 36,42,000

45,14,000 57,98,000

3,54,00,000 4,26,00,000 5,32,00,000

6,16,00,000 2,62,00,000

This study had looked into the courses and their duration for various trades (occupational skills) and sought views of the training institutes and domain experts on industry acceptance of the same. The issues covered under such discussions included course duration, batch size, number of classes conducted by a trainer per day, number of batches taught by a trainer per year and acceptable trainer-trainee ratio. The information thus obtained was used to arrive at the following assumptions. Page 84 of 91

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Data for workforce requirement projections for the period 2012 to 2022 are taken from IMaCS study done for NSDC to project trainer requirements. Batch size for Organized Retail (OR) and Textile & Clothing (TAC) is 30 while for the rest of the sectors it is 20 Average course duration for Organized Retail (OR) is 3 months while for the rest of the sectors it is 4 months Trainer will impart training to 2 batches every day. Based on the course duration, it is calculated that a trainer will conduct 8 batches annually for OR and 6 batches annually for rest of the sectors. Annual attrition rate is taken at an average rate of 15% across all sectors as per the information provided by TIs during the study

Trainers Projections for 6 study sectors5
Sector Trainer/ Total trainer / Skill Trainee force requirement by 2022 Trainer Trainee BAC OR BFSI TAH TAC Total Trainer Trainee Trainer Trainee Trainer Trainee Trainer Trainee Trainer Trainee Trainer Trainee 2521 3456000 24530 33111400 6071 14739000 1934 2762500 2188 2367300 11660 22270000 48905 78706200 2012 1989 238688 18105 5161 1644 197321 1333 159900 8500 36732 Projected annual requirement of trainers for workforce in vocational domain (in numbers)


2013 452 257125 4628 774 247 197321 27 139100 1118 7245

2014 68 257125 694 116 37 197321 4 139100 168 1087

2015 10 257125 104 17 6 197321 1 139100 25 163

2016 2 257125 16 3 1 197321 0 139100 4 24

2017 0 257125 2 0 0 197321 0 139100 1 3

2018 0 257125 0 0 0 197321 0 139100 0 0

2019 0 239625 834 0 0 197321 701 223275 1574 3110

2020 0 239625 125 0 0 197321 105 223275 0 230

2021 0 239625 19 0 0 197321 16 223275 236 271

2022 0 239625 3 0 0 197321 2 223275 35 41

2172625 2402050 2402050 2402050 2402050 2402050 2402050 2502150 2502150 2502150 2502150 1238571 1238571 1238571 1238571 1238571 1238571 1238571 1238571 1238571 1238571 1238571

1530000 1501667 1501667 1501667 1501667 1501667 1501667 1785000 1785000 1785000 1785000 5537105 5735835 5735835 5735835 5735835 5735835 5735835 6185943 6185943 6185943 6185943

The total requirement of trainers for the 6 selected sectors is estimated at 48,905 with maximum requirements showing up during the year 2012 and 2018 (milestone years as reflected from the NSDC-IMaCS report on Human Resource and Skill Requirements for the selected 6 sectors).


Calculation based on annual incremental workforce during 2012-2022 derived from IMaCS skill development report

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7. List of Training Institutes covered under the study
S.N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Name of the Training Institute Hero Mindmine DRF F-Tech Women Polytechnic Aide et Action SITD (2) Lal Bahadur Shastri (2) Khazani Women’s Polytechnic NIIT Deepalaya School of Vocational Training NVTI NIS Academy IIGJ India Can PD Institute Aide et Action ITI Jaipur Gurukul Management Services SITD ICA Keertika Academy George Telegraph Training Institute Technable Solutions Proactive India Can MITCON (Udyog Prabodhini) Creations Marketing & Management Solutions Maharashtra state Institute of Hotel Management & Catering technology AISSMS College of Catering Technology & Hotel Management TÜV Rhineland The First Smile Foundation Bharat Forge Limited IIJT 2.0 Indian Institute of Vocational Contact person Mr. Abhishek Kumar Mr. Vikas Kr. Lal Mrs. Sumoly Mr. Kanwaljit Singh Mr. Rakesh Jha Mr. Pankaj Singal Mr. Rajveer Singh Mrs. Shobha Bisht Mr.Dev Raj Papreja Ms. Sudha Contact address South Extension Part –II , New Delhi North Janakpuri , New Delhi Sec-27 , Behind Sub Mall – Noida A-3 , Ring Road , South Extension -1, New Delhi C-63, 1st Floor, South Ex.-II , New Delhi 22 Nai Basti, Ghaziabad 1-C-7 Sec-12 Noida 2- E-228, Sec-9 , Vijay Nagar Ghaziabad Near School Block Bus Stand, Shakarpur – New Delhi Sec-6 , Main Market , Dwarka, New Delhi 46, Institutional Area, D-Block, Janakpuri, New Delhi D-1 , Sec-1 , Noida 8, Balaji Estate, Kalkaji, New Delhi Near SEZ Phase-1 Sitapura Industrial Area ,Jaipur Second Floor, 30, Satya Vihar Colony, Lal Kothi 344-A , Adarsh Nagar , Bees Dukan - Jaipur Plot No.233 , Vinoba Vihar Behind Anukama Tower, Jaipur Sindhi Colony , Bani Park , Jaipur Block H, Sec-3 Salt Lake Kolkata Block-A ,4th Floor Chatterjee International Building J.L. Nehru Road – Kolkata 27 Netaji Subhas Road, Kolkata 58/99, Prince Anwar Shah Road, Kolkata 4B, Apurba Mitra Road , Kolkata 128/18, Hazra Road, Kolkata JI/1 , Digantika, Aswani Nagar, Baguiati, Kolkata Central Senapati Bapat Road , Dadar West – Mumbai College of Agri., Ganeshkhind Road, Pune Near Law College Road, Pune 1126/1 , Shriram Complex, Near Ambassador Hotel , Pune 412-C, Shivajinagar , Pune

Mr. Sharad Kapoor Mrs. Abha Gupta Mrs. Vinni Gogna Mr. Ravindra Kr. Drona Mr. Rishi Bhatnagar Mr. D.P. Sharma Mr. Sanyal Mr. Sumit Debashish Mr. Pradipta Bhatia Mrs. Susmita Mukherjee Mr. Sushanta Chandra Mr. Santanu Bhattacharjee Mr. Utpal Pal Mrs. Harpreet Kaur Mr. Satyajit Kulkarni Mr. Sandeep Agarwal Mr. Abhay Sawant Mrs. Anita R. Moodliar


Prof. Sonali Jadhav

55-56, Shivajinagar- Pune

31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

Mrs. Avinash S. Kulkarni Mr. Sharad Shinde Patil Mrs. Leena Deshpande Mrs. Priya Chandratre Mr. Shaikh Mohammed

3A- Modi Baug, Ganeshkhind Road – Pune 22, Rane Centre, Yashwantnagar- Pune Mundwa Cantonment Area – Pune Opp. Modern High School, Shivajinagar ,Pune 02/22, Om Sai Heera , Panna Mall- Mumbai Page 86 of 91

S.N 36. 37. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68.

Name of the Training Institute Training India Can, Pune IIGJ Karnataka Employment Centre Regional Vocational Training Institute for Women Istar Skill Development Private Limited Govt. Polytechnic JSS Polytechnic Kala Bhyraveshwara Polytechnic Sridevi Polytechnic Acharya Pathshala Polytechnic Team Lease Jobs Corp Laqsh Talent Sprint (Hyderabad) L& T Construction Skills Training Institute Kaushalya Vardhan Kendra, IIJT ITI, Surat ITI, Billimora Indian Diamond Institute Lakshmi Industries K.N Diamonds Khamania Computer Academy Dr. Reddy's foundation training centre Dr. Reddy's foundation training centre Bharat Dukhakia, Certified National Trainer National Institute of Computer and Technology ANNY COMPUTER National Institute of Fashion Design SITD SIGMA COMPUTER Indian Institute of Fashion Technology CRAC Computer SRI, ITI, Patrapada

Contact person Hussain Mrs. Vandana Bhatia Dr. Rohintona K. Avasia Mrs. Cinthiya Aloysius Mr. K.N. Babu Mr. Surya Tilakan Mrs. Jayarama N. Mr. H.B. Basararajppa Mr. M.H. Somagowda Mr. B.V. Sunder Mr. Basanna. T. Mrs. Neeti Sharma Mr. Mahesh Muzumdar Mrs. Aishwarya N Dr. Santanu Pal Mr. Pankaj K. Joshi Mr. Ajay Dhanula Mr. Hasmukh V. Patel Mr. R.S. Sutaria Mr. Samir D. Joshi Mr. Lalit D. Gajera Mr. Mohanbhai Jodhani Ajesh Khamania (multiple franchise) Mr. Dhaval Mehta Mr. Harsha Bhatt Mr. Bharat Dukhakia Mr. K. Joyti Mr. Amulya Nayak Mr. Ajay K.V. Das Mr. Soubhagya Rajan Mr. Saroj Chandra Mr. Gopal Ranjan Sahu Mr. Sanjay Nayak Mr. Amulya Kr. Panda

Contact address Near Jangli Road –Pune Plot No. 111/2 , 13th Road MIDC Andheri Mumbai Silver Palm , #3 palm grove road – Bangalore Hosur Road Dairy Circle – Bangalore 63/2 187 H-Cross , Malleshwaran – Bangalore Arukere , Srirangapatana JSS Polytechnic – Mysore Polytechnic – Hesaraghatta Sira road, Tumkur, Bangalore Somanathali , Kanakpur road - Bangalore Off Victoria Road, Bangalore 10, South End Street , Kumara Park East, Bangalore HAL 3rd Stage, Jeevan Bima Nagar – Bangalore IIIT Campus , Block B6 , Vindhya C6 , Gachibowli – Hyderabad NH-8 Sarkhej – Bawla road - Ahmedabad 1501/B, Chhatral Indutrial Estate , GIDCGandhinagar 55, Ratandeep Society , Near Bhatar Road, Surat B-43, “ Shriji Krupa “ Ambicanagar, Bharuch Katagram GIDC , Sumul dairy Road, Surat Near A.K. Road, Varachha, Surat Near Hira Baugh, Varachha Road, Surat Business Plaza, Opp. Parimal School, Kalawad Road, Rajkot 203, 2nd Floor Rajhans Building -Thane 203, 2nd Floor Rajhans Building -Thane 26, New Jagnath Plot , Rajkot 1184, Bhomikal - Bhubaneswar H.No. 471 Near Ram Mandir Bhubaneswar L-280 , Baramunda Hosry Board Colony, Bhubaneswar 255, Forest Park, Bhubaneswar Plot No. 7746 Gajapati Nagar , Bhubaneswar 4809, Lewis Road , Near Rajarani Petrol Pump , Bhubaneswar Sachidananda Sevashram , Komand Nayagrah – Page 87 of 91

S.N 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.

Name of the Training Institute Biju Pattnaik Computer Academy Govt ITI, Bhubaneswar Swasti Institute of Industrial Technology Bharat ITC CENTUMM INDIGRAM EMPOWER CAREER LAUNCHER INDIA CAN EDUCOMP Gram Tarang The World Bank Advanced Training Institute, Hyderabad Advanced Training Institute, Kolkata TKWS The Institute of Computer Accounts

Contact person Mr. Manoranjan Kar Mrs. Subhasree Dutt Mr. B.K. Pradhan Mr. Krushna Chandra kar Mr. Navin Bhatia Mr. Alok Baraya Mr. Rajeev Sharma Mr. Sanjay Shivnani Mr. Navin G.S. Mr. Ravi Pillai Mr. Abhinav Madan Mr. Nalin Jena Mr. S. Suryanarayana Mr. N.K. Chatterjee Mr. Anil Saxena Mr. Krishna Kumar

Contact address Bhubaneswar 319, Cuttack Road, Bomikal, Bhubaneswar Bhubaneswar Bhubaneswar Mancheswar Industrial Estate , Bhubaneswar Mandi Road Sultanpur, Mehrauli, New Delhi 78-A , 1st Floor, Ekta Sadan Kailash Colony Ext. , New Delhi B-87A , Kalkaji , New Delhi Behind Galleria , DLF , Phase -4 Gurgaon No. 117, 27th Main second floor HSR Layout Bangalore 1211 Padma Tower -1 , 5 Rajendra Place, New Delhi Ramchandrapur, Jatni, Khurda, Odisha SAHDS, 70 Lodhi Estate, New Delhi Vidyanagar, Shivam Road, Hyderabad Dasnagar, Howrah N-252, Shri PArshva Complex, opp. Deoki Talkies Lane, Kakadeo, Kanpur 2nd Floor, Above HDFC Bank, Near Amber Cinema, GT Road, Modinagar

Page 88 of 91

The study was conducted by MART. Established in 1993, MART is a pioneer in the rural domain and over the years has also developed as the Leading Consultancy and Knowledge based organization on Emerging Markets. MART’s vision is to become the most respected, employee owned organization in the emerging markets creating innovative and effective solutions to help the poor improve their quality of life. MART has been at the forefront of market led livelihoods in India for more than 15 years. Partnerships with private sector starting with co-creating Project Shakti with Unilever and later having partnered Novartis, HPCL, GE Healthcare, Shell and many more MNCs have helped us generating unique expertise in the domain. MART enjoys a unique position as an end to end solutions facilitator for both the development and corporate sectors. We offer a range of services from research, strategy formulation, strategic implementation, scale up and training. MART has been offering its services in South Asia region - India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Malaysia, Afghanistan and Indonesia. To create and disseminate knowledge MART works in partnership with a number of international academia and knowledge agencies in US, Japan, UK and Netherlands. MART has an impressive clients list which includes leading development agencies like World Bank, UNDP, IFAD, DIFD and several fortune 500 companies such as GE, Intel, PepsiCo, Tata and many more.

Pradeep Kashyap CEO MART A-32, First Floor, Sector 17 Noida- 201301 T: 0120-2512140 F: 0120-4273995 Email: Website:

Kirti Prasanna Mishra Partner MART A-32, First Floor, Sector 17 Noida- 201301 T: 0120-2512140 F: 0120-4273995 Email:

Page 89 of 91

For more details please contact: Need Assessment

Report on

National Skill Development Corporation D-4, Clarion Collection, (Qutab Hotel) Shaheed Jeet Singh Marg New Delhi 11 0 016 Tel: 011 46 56 0414 Fax: 011 4656 0417 Email:

Trainers’ Skills
In Vocational Employability
Page 90 of 91

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...Every company wants to get close to its customers, but wishing doesn't make it so. New research identifies four stages of customer focus and maps the organizational changes necessary to navigate from one stage to the next. The Quest for ustomer Focus by Rahjay Gulati and James B. Oldroyd For Continental Airlines, the joumey began when the company was emerging from bankruptcy and needed to know more about the profitability of its individual customers. One ofthe first things it uncovered was a service mess that was costing the airline millions of dollars every year. Continental took a systematic look at how passengers were treated when a plane was significantly delayed, when they were bumped from a flight, or during some other unfortunate event. What it found was that compensation was offered on an arbitrary basis by the gate agent, and, somehow, the lowest value customers were, on average, receiving the highest compensation. Worse, some passengers were finding ways to be doubly compensated; a customer who was bumped from a fiight might first approach a gate agent, pick up a voucher for a free fiight, and then minutes later telephone the airline and ask for HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW M |ORE AND MORE CEOs are hoping a stronger customer focus will be the antidote to escalating commoditization pressures. But as the frustrations of myriad companies can attest, getting closer to customers is not just a matter of installing a better CRM system or of finding a more......

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...Mesopotamia Historically, the ancient city states of Mesopotamia in the fertile crescent are most cited by Western and Middle Eastern scholars as the cradle of civilization. The convergence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers produced rich fertile soil and a supply of water for irrigation. The civilizations that emerged around these rivers are among the earliest known non-nomadic agrarian societies. Because Ubaid, Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylon civilizations all emerged around the Tigris-Euphrates, the theory that Mesopotamia is the cradle of civilization is widely accepted.[14]The Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer emerges in the Ubaid period (6500-3800 BC) and Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC), culminating in the mid-3rd millennium before giving rise to the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC. This is often identified as the first empire in history. Eridu was the oldest Sumerian site, settled during the proto-civilized Ubaid period. Situated several miles southwest of Ur, Eridu was the southernmost of a conglomeration of early temple-cities, in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, with the earliest of these settlements dating to around 5000 BC. By the 4th millennium BC in Nippur we[who?] find — in connection with a sort of ziggurat and shrine — a conduit built of bricks in the form of an arch. Sumerian inscriptions written on clay also appear in Nippur. By 4000 BC an ancient Elamite city of Susa, in Mesopotamia, also seems to emerge from earlier villages. Whilst the Elamites...

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...Trail By Victoria Thompson A few years ago I had an experience that changed my life forever. I had to go to court for something I did not do. I was so scared for what would happen to me, because I would not rat on my friend. I felt ashamed of how my parents and family looked at me after I was charged and it made me want to cry every day. In the end I appreciated what God put me though and it changed my life forever. First was the feeling of a court room, it is nothing to play with. It makes you scared all the way from your toes to your head. I have only felt this feeling one time in my life and that was the first and last time ever. I had to go to court for something I did not do. But I would not tell the judge which of my friends did it because I am not a rat. Looking into the judge’s eyes as he was to decide what your fate was so scary. The judge decided since I could not give anyone’s name that I would be the one to take the blame and gave me ten years on paper. Secondly, after I was charged with ten years on paper is bad enough. To look into your parent’s eyes and see the disappointment and pain I put them through made me realize the mistake I had really made. . I never wanted my parents, let alone my family to ever feel disappointed in me in any way but that day changed that. How they looked at me made me want to cry every day. I felt I was being judged because of my decision that I made that day. Finally, after everything I went thought from day one...

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...EECS 451 1-SIDED Z-TRANSFORM ∞ DEF: Z + {x(n)} = X + (z) = n=0 x(n)z −n , even if x(n) is noncausal. ∞ Compare to 2-sided z-transform: X(z) = n=−∞ x(n)z −n . WHY?: To solve difference equations with nonzero initial conditions. PROPERTIES OF 1-SIDED Z-TRANSFORM X + (z): 1. x(n) causal→1-sided z-transform X + (z)=2-sided z-transform X(z) 2. Unique inverse only for causal signals: no info on {x(n), n < 0} Equal causal parts but unequal anticausal parts→same X + (z) 3. ROC: Always |z| > |pmax | (largest pole of X + (z)), so don’t bother D 4a. D > 0 → Z + {x(n − D)} = z −D (X + (z) + n=1 x(−n)z n ) D−1 4b. D > 0 → Z + {x(n + D)} = z +D (X + (z) − n=0 x(n)z −n ) i. Shift right→must add in terms previously anticausal ii. Shift left→must subtract off terms now anticausal 2 x iii. Compare to L{ d 2 } = s2 X(s) − sx(0) − dx (0) dt dt SOLVING DIFFERENCE EQNS WITH INITIAL CONDITIONS Solve: 2y(n) + 3y(n − 1) + y(n − 2) = u(n) + u(n − 1) − u(n − 2) (Chen p.264) Take Z + : 2Y + (z) + 3z −1 (Y + (z) + y(−1)z) + z −2 (Y + (z) + y(−1)z + y(−2)z 2 ) = (2 + 3z −1 +z −2 )Y + (z) + [(3y(−1) + y(−2)) + z −1 y(−1)] = (1 + z −1 − z −2 )U (z) 1 + z −1 − z −2 (3y(−1) + y(−2)) + z −1 y(−1) Solve: Y (z) = U (z) − 2 + 3z −1 + z −2 2 + 3z −1 + z −2 + zero−state response zero−input response 1 1−z −1 ; Plug in: u(n)=unit step→ U (z) = U + (z) = Y + (z) = Partial: fraction 1+z −1 −z −2 (2+3z −1 +z −2 )(1−z −1 ) 4/3 1+ 1 z −1 2 y(−1) = 2, y(−2) = −1: = −4+4z −1 +z −2 2(1+ 1 z −1 )(1+z −1 )(1−z −1...

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...FDI IN RETAIL SECTOR GOOD? · FDI means foreign direct investment. · All foreign retailers to own upto 51% in retail. · Government has presently 51% FDI in single brand retail. · Government of India proposed 100% FDI in single brand retail & 51% in multi-brand retail. · Presently multi-brand is largely in the unorganised sector, dominated by neighbourhood kirana stores. · Reports suggest around $15-20 billion could flow into the country over the next 10 years as a result of FDI in retail. · Presently the organised sector only accounts for 6% of the total retail in India. · Almost all developed countries have FDI, do we want to lag behiend. · It will generate many jobs in retail sector. · Will benefit the farmers. · Will provide them good prices for the crops. · Will eliminate the middlemen. · Will modernize the supply chain. · Will increase the competition in the retail market. · Access to larger financial resourses. · Can negotiate prices more aggresively from the manufacturers and pass on the benefits to the customers. · Better and tighter quality standards. · It will certanily make shopping a pleasant experience. · It may benefit even the kirana shops, they can buy from the supermarket and sell it to their respective customers. · Indian products may also enter global market. · Organised trade employes 5 lakh people & unorganised employs 4 crore. · Amongst the top 3 sectors of India which generates employment. · Looking at the example of US, we now......

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...Kezia Chretien B. Romblon BMC III-2 Editorial of Criticism Dress Code at PLM still unclear to students Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila has a uniform for their students during weekdays, a white blouse and a bluish gray pencil cut for girls and a polo and gray pants for guys. The uniform is required to wear with black shoes both for boys and girls. There is a wash day for students every Saturday, or you can go into the campus wearing a civilian as long as you don’t have a class on that day with a proof that you have to show your registration form as you enter. No sleeveless blouse is allowed for girls, so as shorts for boys and girls. And closed shoes are always required. But there are times that students can enter the campus wearing slippers or sandals. Such incidents caused confusion among students if they are now allowed to wear those. There are feedbacks that guards are sometimes inconsistent ' sometimes the allow those but there are times that they will all be too strict. Who is to blame on this type of incidents? Students nowadays are still puzzled on this rules implemented. I myself have been a victim of this inconsistency on dress codes. I have a pair of sandals in which I wear often when I’ll go to school in civilian, but there was one day when the guard was almost dragging me out because I was wearing that. He is blocking my way in that I could not enter the main gate. I asked them why and they told me that I was wearing a sandals, I......

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