Premium Essay

Trinidad & Tobago

In: Historical Events

Submitted By harrt
Words 1673
Pages 7
Our Nation’s Attainment of Independence in 1962 marked the end of colonial rule that had started during the 16th century under the aegis of Spain and had continued when the British captured Trinidad. In the meantime, Tobago had its own uneven political history, changing hands from one European power to another whilst having its own bicameral elective legislature from as early as 1768. As Crown Colony governance became tighter from the mid-19th century that melancholy isle was deprived of its bicameral legislature in 1874 and in 1877 was made a purely nominative, one-chambered Crown Colony legislature. In 1889, Tobago was united administratively with Trinidad in order to reduce British expenses in the Caribbean and in 1899 the noose was further tightened when that colony was made a ward of Trinidad and Tobago. From the beginning of the 20th century, Tobago joined Trinidad in advocating freedom from colonial rule, becoming an integral part of the achievement on Independence in 1962.
The flag of Trinidad and Tobago was adopted on August 31, 1962, and consists of a red background with a white and black band diagonally placed across the upper left corner to the bottom right corner. The two white stripes are symbolic of the bountiful sea, the red represents the people, and black represents their hard work and strength.

The shield of the coat of arms contains the same colors as the nation's flag, and carry the same meaning. The gold ships within the shield represent Christopher Columbus' ships: the Santa Maria, La Nina, and La Pinta.
The two birds above the ships, in the black section, are hummingbirds representing the more than sixteen different species of hummingbird that have been recorded on the island of Trinidad. On the left side of the shield stands a Scarlet Ibis, while on...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Corporal Punishment in Trinidad and Tobago

...Introduction The debate continues over the use of Corporal Punishment in the primary and secondary schools of Trinidad and Tobago. Since the ban in the year 2000 on corporal punishment from schools in Trinidad and Tobago there has been an increase of national concerns over the effects of corporal punishment on discipline of primary and secondary school students. According to (Gershoff 2002) corporal punishment can be defined as the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain but not injury for the purposes of correction or control of a child's behaviour. It includes a wide variety of methods such as hitting, slapping, spanking, punching, kicking, pinching, shaking, shoving, choking, use of various objects (wooden paddles, belts, sticks, pins, or others), painful body postures (as placing in closed spaces), use of electric shock and use of excessive exercise drills. These harsh disciplinary measures adopted by authoritarian teachers to discipline students’ lead to anti-social behaviour, contribute to academic failure and social rejection. These conditions further reduce self-esteem and create depressed mood, which in turn add to the likelihood of delinquency in adolescents (Patterson, 1982). However, this paper seeks to outline the negative effects of corporal punishment and positive disciplinary actions that can be used to deal with students’ misbehaviour. Negative......

Words: 1088 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Energy Guide of Trinidad and Tobago

...Estate,  Couva,  Trinidad, W.I T. (868) 679-7700 F. (868) 679-7710  E. | Air Liquide Trinidad & Tobago Limited Unit D2 02-04,  Atlantic Plaza,  Atlantic Avenue, Point Lisas,  Trinidad, W.I T. (868) 679-1117 F. (868) 679-7710 | Atkins Trinidad Ltd.  23 Taylor Street,  Port of Spain,  Trinidad, W.I. T: (868) 628-9884 F. (868) 628-0509  E.  Operations Manager, Kerrin Burgess:  1 (868) 468-1864 | Atlantic  P.O Box 1337,  Corner Keith and Pembroke Street,  Port of Spain,  Trinidad, W.I T. (868) 624-2916 / 625-8855  F. (868) 624-8057 | Atlas Methanol Unlimited  Maracaibo Drive,  Point Lisas Industrial Estate,  Couva,  Trinidad, W.I T. (868) 679-5052  F. (868) 679-5065 | BP Trinidad & Tobago LLC  Queen's Park Plaza,  5-5a Queen's Park West,  Port of Spain,  Trinidad, W.I T. (868) 623-2862 F. (868) | BHP Billiton Trinidad & Tobago  Invaders Bay Tower,  Invaders Bay Off Audrey Jeffers Highway, Port of Spain,  Trinidad, W.I T. (868) 821-5100 F. (868) | BG Trinidad & Tobago  #5 St. Clair Avenue,  St Clair,  Port of Spain,  Trinidad, W.I T. (868) 628-0888 F. (868) | Bayfield Energy (Galeota) Trinidad  LP #64 Isthmus Road,  Galeota Point, Guayaguayare,  Trinidad. T. 868 630.2066 | Chevron Texaco Trinidad & Tobago......

Words: 1579 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

First President of Trinidad and Tobago

... He attended St. Mary’s college, Port-Of-Spain, where he won an island scholarship in the field of Mathematics. He continued pursuing his education at the University of London. Here, his mind was set on serving his emerging nation, because as a teenager, he witnessed the horrors of the Great Depression and the Second World War, which spared neither king nor commoner. The economic state of the world influenced him to study law, specializing in constitutional law. He was called to bar at Gray’s Inn London in 1941, he then returned to Port-Of-Spain, Trinidad to start his private practice. Clarke served as Solicitor General from 1954-1956, Deputy Colonial secretary 1956-1957, Attorney General 1957-1962, along with serving in the cabinet as a constitutional advisor. After independence, in 1962 he served as an ambassador to the United States, Canada and Mexico, and a Permanent representative to the United Nations. When Trinidad and Tobago became a Republic in 1976, Clarke was unanimously elected to be the country’s first President, by the President Electoral College. He held this position until he completed his second term in office in 1987. Ellis was awarded a knighthood as a knight Grand Cross of the order in 1962. Although he ceased to use the title “Sir.” after the country became a republic; since retirement from the presidency, he has re-adopted his title and has generally been referred to as “Former President, Sir. Ellis.”   His Leadership...

Words: 1761 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Caribbean Festivals

...celebration of life found in many countries of the world. Carnival is the time when individuals releases themselves and parade with enjoyment of the various Caribbean local art forms. According to Julia Hewitt “in the Caribbean, carnival as a mode of performing resistance, the memory of repression and sacrifice but also of hope, in a sense of becoming other”. “Caribbean festivals embody an aesthetic formally rooted in the early European, African and Asian traditions brought to the West indies between the 15th and 19th centuries, as well as from 20th century publications, broad casts and artistic movements. Caribbean festival arts are evidence of the transformation worked by a creoles aesthetic.” Judith Bettleheim Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago and Jonkonnu in Jamaica are two perennial festivals in the Caribbean. These festivals have been celebrated in the Caribbean for years and play an integral role in the maintenance and development of the region. Moreover, they contribute significantly to the nation’s social, economic, cultural tourism welfare. The Caribbean has many festivals such as Jonkonnu and Carnival. Jonkonnu has several schools of thoughts but according to Richard Allsopp denotes that Jonkonnu is more likely related to Yoruba word Jonkoliko, one elevated as a figure for fun or disgrace. This seems logical, especially since many of the Jonkonnu masks in Jamaica were similar to the Yoruba masquerade festival. It is a Jamaican street festival characterized......

Words: 1510 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Family and Social Norms Role in Moral Development

...Family and Social Norms Role in Moral Development In today’s generation, cultural legacies and family traditions are the footprints to a person's identity and history. These footprints give us insight into not only our past but a glimpse of our futures. Traditions are a great contribution to an individual’s identity and help to define what generation they come from and who they are. One importance of a tradition is that an individual can take their experiences and memoirs with them throughout their lifetime and pass them along for future generations to share. In my generation, there are two traditions that are the most memorable times. Diwali and Christmas. In Trinidad Tobago, the Christmas traditions in particular go outside the traditional Christmas celebration. Every Trinidadian and Tobagonian passes these traditions down to every generation of all cultures. Family tradition and be interpreted as an idea or custom that a person inherits from their ancestors. Family traditions are normally an occasion or an event that is passed down through the generations. Traditions can help to shape and mold an individual's identity by teaching them about their ancestral roots. Family traditions are considered to be one of the best ways to bring various generations closer together in times of celebration. In most families, traditions are normally targeted with today's youths. Youth’s are the key to family traditions. It gives youths a sense of security in an uncertain world. Family......

Words: 1270 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Trinidad And Tobago Case Study

...Trinidad and Tobago is located in the south eastern corner of the Caribbean plate. It is a land where there is three oil and two gas provinces located on land, Gulf of Paria also in East Coast and North Coast Marine area. Trinidad and Tobago has been involved in the oil and gas business for over a hundred year and within that hundred years they have been exploiting land and shallow waters. In this research paper, it speaks about the factors that lead to the oil prices within Trinidad and Tobago from the period 2010-2016 and how they intend to resolve the problem. Being the richest country in the Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago has been experiencing some economic problems in their economy since the world oil prices has fallen and prolonged. The...

Words: 1064 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Burma Road Riot

...A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CARIBBEAN COMMUNITY (CARICOM) WEST INDIES FEDERATION Established in 1958, the West Indies Federation comprised the ten territories of Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica. Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, the then St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, Saint Lucia, St. Vincent and Trinidad and Tobago. The Federation was established by the British Caribbean Federation Act of 1956 with the aim of establishing a political union among its members. Although a plan for a Customs Union was drawn up, emphasis was not placed on the economic aspect of Federation during the four years of its existence. Economically, the Region remained as it had been for centuries, and not even free trade was introduced between the member countries during this period. The West Indies Federation came to an end in 1962 but its end, in many ways, must be regarded as the real beginning of what is now the Caribbean Community. The end of the Federation meant the beginning of more serious efforts on the part of the political leaders in the Caribbean to strengthen the ties between the English-speaking islands and the mainland territories, Guyana and Belize, by providing for the continuance and strengthening of the areas of cooperation that existed during the Federation. To this end, in mid-1962, a Common Services Conference was convened to take decisions on these services, the major ones among them being the University of the West Indies (UWI), founded in 1948 and the Regional......

Words: 3062 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Water for Gas

...the water molecules can be utilized as a supplement in all types of combustion engines. There are multiple benefits to the use of this product in the everyday lives of the average ‘Joe’ or ‘Jane’ in Trinidad and Tobago that drive a vehicle or are being driven in one. This product is both tangible and intangible resulting in a one on one service with costumers at the forefront in the design and use of the product. Tangibly speaking costumers don’t just see a service both rather a reduction in the cost of fuel and maintenance of their vehicles. Intangibly the service being provided and the environmental perks that is associated with this product. This product will be marketed as being centered on quality, convenience, financially viable and environmentally viable. This will result in a roll over into determining the pricing of the product, thereby setting a price that the costumers perception has the greatest value. The expectations of the product is like any other product that will go through the four stages during the life cycle, however given its nature the stage can be a little different. Introduction: this stage will see low returns and slow growth in sales of the product as it would be newly launched on the market. A monopoly is expected as no one in Trinidad and Tobago has this product. Because of the uniqueness of the product and the benefits of it to the costumer the target audience will be firstly taxi and maxi drivers. This is so because they are the ones in......

Words: 1536 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Business Paper

...Political Conditions To Consider Trinidad and Tobago has a stable democratic nation that welcomes international business opportunities and investments. It has suffered little political turmoil throughout the years – its most recent interference occurring in mid-2012 due to the “breakup of the country’s ruling coalition.” The People’s Partnership (PP) came to power in 2010 after beating the People’s National Movement (PNM) in an early election. At the time, PP was an alliance of five parties including the United National Congress (UNC), Congress of the People (COP), and Movement for Social Justice (MSJ). In June 2012, MSJ broke away from the PP and accused the coalition of “corruption, nepotism, cronyism, and abuse of power and authority.” While this snag within the government has not caused disruption to the economy or businesses, the outrageous spike in crime over the last decade definitely has. Trinidad and Tobago has a devastating crime rate that is affecting business everywhere. In fact, according to the president of the T&T Chamber of Industry and Commerce, crime is the main deterrent to economic development and investment. It affects, not only the country, but also the business community since it increases the cost of doing business and reduces new investment. A recent business forecast report for the country indicated that the recent spike in violent crime would continue to be harmful to the “generally robust business environment.” The report......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Migration is the movement of people from one place to another (Merriam-Webster 2013). Migration has defined modern Caribbean features since colonization, slavery and indentureship (Nurse 2003). The Caribbean has one of the largest diasporic communities in the world, in proportion to population (Stalker 2003). For example, it is estimated that the Cubans and Dominicans in the USA are equivalent to 8% of their respective populations of origin (UNECLAC 2002: 237). And, in some of the mini states in the region like St. Kitts and Nevis, Grenada and Belize, annual labour migration accounts for as much as 12% of their population, thereby transferring their population growth (Mittelman 2000: 60). In addition, the loss of highly educated individuals from the Caribbean was due to the brain drain and the question of migration and remittances and if they could improve the standards of living for the individuals, their families and communities hence, aiding in the development of the region at large. The issue of migration and development has health and security risks associated with it for instance, HIV/AIDS and the increase in deportees into the Caribbean. Emigration in the Caribbean has occurred in two waves. The first wave occurred in the 1950s and 1960s in the Western economies during the post World War II which was a result of improved standards of living by finding full employment and lack of work in unskilled and semiskilled jobs. The second wave was due to the outcome of......

Words: 1783 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Caribbean Airlines Overview

...(CAL) was incorporated in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago on September 27, 2006 when the previous British West Indies Airways (BWIA) was found to be no longer viable. In that same year, the airline also purchased Tobago Express. Flight operations commenced on January 1, 2007 with 128 weekly departures to 10 markets. The company initiated a simplified fare structure which offered discounted fares to senior citizens and students. The Airline launched a Web check-in feature allowing passengers to check in for flights and print boarding passes via the Internet. CAL operated 93.9% of its flights on time, surpassing the aviation industry’s on-time performance standard of 85%. The company also exceeded industry standards with an impressive lost baggage rate of 0.7 (less than one bag lost per thousand passengers) during their first years of operations. The airline codeshared with British Airways and added a Boeing 737-800 to meet major regional events including Cricket World Cup and Jazz Festivals. CAL also added special charters to other Caribbean countries. Other programs were added including Caribbean Airlines Brand Camp, where employees were appointed Brand Ambassadors. The customer service programs resulted in customers rating CAL at an 81% satisfaction rate. CAL was able to transition customers who participated in BWIA’s loyalty programs to their Caribbean Miles membership CAL’s head office in Port-of-Spain Trinidad featured state-of-the-art......

Words: 414 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Factors Influencing and the Rationale Behind the Establishment of Public Enterprises Within Caribbean States

...“The factors influencing and the rationale behind the establishment of Public Enterprises within Caribbean states” THE INFLUENCING FACTORS Reasons for setting up public enterprises were wide and varied. (C. Holder 1990). The countries of the English speaking Caribbean have traveled and endured a far distance; from freedom to couples of imperialistic societies achieved through colonialism; followed by wars and riots which lead to neocolonialism and finally to independence (Dominquez, Pastor and Worrel 1993). The post colonial era was the most active in relation to political thought and transformation as the social and economic issues of the “riot times” were examined. The minimal participation of the government in the laisser- faire ideological infrastructure that governed that period was the major purpose for change and as the full political responsibility for government was localized and the drive to industrialization spearheaded the drive for economic development trough the passage of Public Enterprises in Caribbean states. Caribbean governments wanted full participation in the commercial markets; what Mr. Norman Manly avidly describes as “commanding the heights of economy”. This thirst was quenched as some countries took steps toward the socialist perspective of controlling economies; this step caught the attention of other Caribbean governments and evoked further participation in the commercial and industrial development undertaken by governments. Social......

Words: 2247 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Customer Satisfaction

...Transforming Lives Communities The Nation …One Student at a Time Disclaimer Academic programmes, requirements, courses, tuition, and fee schedules listed in this catalogue are subject to change at any time at the discretion of the Management and Board of Trustees of the College of Science, Technology and Applied Arts of Trinidad and Tobago (COSTAATT). The COSTAATT Catalogue is the authoritative source for information on the College’s policies, programmes and services. Programme information in this catalogue is effective from September 2010. Students who commenced studies at the College prior to this date, are to be guided by programme requirements as stipulated by the relevant department. Updates on the schedule of classes and changes in academic policies, degree requirements, fees, new course offerings, and other information will be issued by the Office of the Registrar. Students are advised to consult with their departmental academic advisors at least once per semester, regarding their course of study. The policies, rules and regulations of the College are informed by the laws of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. iii Table of Contents PG 9 PG 9 PG 10 PG 11 PG 11 PG 12 PG 12 PG 13 PG 14 PG 14 PG 14 PG 14 PG 15 PG 17 PG 18 PG 20 PG 20 PG 20 PG 21 PG 22 PG 22 PG 22 PG 23 PG 23 PG 23 PG 23 PG 24 PG 24 PG 24 PG 24 PG 25 PG 25 PG 25 PG 26 PG 26 PG 26 PG 26 PG 26 PG 26 PG 27 PG 27 PG 27 PG 27 PG 27 PG 27 PG 28 PG 28 PG 28 PG 28 PG 28 PG 33 PG 37 Vision Mission......

Words: 108220 - Pages: 433

Free Essay

Caribbean Artist - Machel Montano

...Born November 24, 1974 in Port of Spain, the capital of Trinidad, Machel Montano is not only one of the Caribbean's youngest performers, but one of its most successful. With his unique blend of soca and dancehall, and sensual stage persona, he has risen to the upper class of Caribbean music. Machel’s talent has been obvious since childhood. When his parents heard him singing with the accompaniment of his brother on the guitar, they sent him for vocal lessons. His career began at age seven and by age nine, he was chosen to represent the music school at the Junior Calypso Monarch Contest and had formed his band Pranasonic Express, later renamed Xtatik, in 1984. He released his debut album, “Too Young To Soca”, two years later. It was an instant hit which earned rave reviews and standing ovations at live performances. One of Machel’s earliest and greatest achievements was his May, 1984 appearance at Madison Square Garden in The Felt Forum in New York City at the age of 10. He was billed as a support act for the Mighty Sparrow and other top calypsonians. In April of 1986, the young performer appeared on the popular television show, Star Search, bringing soca music to US national television. The next year, Machel took 2nd place in the Trinidad & Tobago National Song Writer’s Festival with his song, “Dream Girl.” In 1987, at the age of 12, he was the winner of the Caribbean Song Festival held in Barbados. He was the first Trinidadian and youngest to ever win this prestigious......

Words: 1492 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Janmar Paint Dealers

...-----------------------------------------------Background Information on Caribbean Airlines (CAL) Caribbean Airlines (CAL) began operations on January 1, 2007, becoming the National carrier of Trinidad and Tobago and replacing its predecessor, British West Indies Airways (BWIA). In 2006, after failed negotiations between the unions and management of British West Indies Airways, Peter Davies the then CEO made recommendations to the government that BWIA be shut down. The announcement was made on the 8th of September, 2006 that BWIA would be shut down in preparation for the incorporation of Caribbean Airlines. (Karp, 2006) In preparation for the operation of Caribbean Airlines, BWIA cut routes such as Manchester and Heathrow in the Unites Kingdom, New York City and Toronto. It also reduced its fleet to six Boeing 737-800 aircraft and reduced its staff to eight hundred. Caribbean Airlines was initially funded with capital gained from the closing and settling of BWIA’s operations. Its first routes were the remaining flights of BWIA. The majority of staff remaining from BWIA was also employed to CAL. (Caribbean Airlines, 2012) Caribbean Airlines flies from the Caribbean to the United States, Canada, South America and Europe; with its headquarters being in Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago. It remains one of the few airlines to offer complimentary refreshments and two unchecked bags. Major competitors at the onset were LIAT, Air Jamaica and Cayman Airways from the Caribbean Islands...

Words: 858 - Pages: 4