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DEMOCRACY * Give a comprehensive appraisal of the revival of democracy after the interregnum of 1999-2002. (2002) * Debate, National Interests VS Democratic Values in the context of recent political and constitutional developments in Pakistan. (2003) * The rise of religious extremism and militancy has become a major challenge to Pakistan’s internal stability and promotion of democracy. Elaborate. (2008) * Why most countries of the Muslim world are devoid of democratic governance? What changes would you recommend to make them modern democratic states? (2009) * Democracy in Pakistan has remained an elusive dream. Why it has taken so long to develop a road map and follow it with necessary modification? Explain (2009)

GOVERNANCE * Governance through ordinances has been the hallmark of all regimes, democratic or otherwise, in Pakistan. In this context briefly review Pakistan’s political, constitutional and judicial landmarks. (2000) * Note: Ramification of Taliban’s style governance. (2000) * Pakistan is suffering from crises of governance at Institutional level. Suggest remedies to mitigate this situation. (2007)

GLOBALIZATION * Discuss politics of World Trade Organization and Globalization. (2000) * Globalization, as being shaped by the World Trade Organization in a world of un-equal nation-slates, has un-manageable implications. Discuss. (2003)

911 CONSEQUENCES * “A single catastrophic event –‘Nine Eleven’ – has turned the entire world topsy-turvy”. Discuss. (2002) * Give a long-term scenario of Afghanistan and Iraq beyond the perspective of' Nine Eleven'. (2003)

TERRORISM * The phenomenon of terrorism has occupied center stage in today’s world. Highlight the difference between terrorism and a freedom struggle. Discuss the issue of terrorism in the back drop of what is happening in Iraq, Chechnya, Kashmir and Afghanistan (2005)

GLOBAL WARMING & POLLUTION * What are the factors which contribute to the global warming? What measures have been agreed in the Kyoto protocol to minimize the harmful effects of Pollution? (2007)

US POLICY * What are the strategic objectives of America’s increased embroilment in South Asia‘s power relationship? (2000) * Determine the extent to which the objectives of Americans-led global coalition against the so-called terrorism are achievable. (2001) * Critically evaluate the US concerns about the production of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) (2002) * How has the conflict between US and Iraq affected them and the world at large? (2002) * The new dimensions in Indo US warming up of relations would have serious implications for Pakistan and the world region. Discuss. (2005) * America has been bogged down in Iraq and Afghanistan. What would be Americas exit strategy to disengage itself from the prevalent confrontational situation? Discuss. (2005) * US accusations against North Korea, Syria and Iran are meant to bring them within the purview of the doctrine of pre-emptive war. Discuss. (2006) * Note: Neo-Conservatism in USA (2007) * There is a perception that USA is preparing to attack Iran. Discuss the possibilities of this scenario and its implication at global level especially in the Middle East, and on Pakistan. (2007) * The attack on Iraq by USA was an attempt to control oil resources of the area and redraw the map of Middle East. Having failed in to achieve both objectives, what policy options would be required by USA towards Middle East for peaceful relations? (2009) * The strength of Chinese economy is perceived as a threat by USA to its dwindling hegemony. What changes at policy level are required by America for harmonious relations with china? (2009) * President Obama's extended hand of friendship to china ushers in a new era of realist diplomacy in Washington. Highlight the new dimensions of U.S.foreign policy towards People's Republic of china. (2010) * "The new afghan strategy of U.S.,in fact,is a veiled request for their safe exit. It is a gamble.the price of victory will be high and the price of failure is incalculable." Analyze and comment. (2010)

CHINA * Note: China’s potential as super power. (2000) * The strength of Chinese economy is perceived as a threat by USA to its dwindling hegemony. What changes at policy level are required by America for harmonious relations with china? (2009) * Note: Chinese aided development Projects in Pakistan. (2010) * Discuss impact of economic development of China on World Order. (2012)

PALESTINE * Note: Issue of control over Al Quds. (2000) * How has the apathetic role of Arab countries complicated the issue of Palestine? (2001) * Note: Current Palestinian situation and the Arab neighbours. (2003) * Note: Palestine issue. (2008) * Note: Jewish settlements in Palestinian territories. (2010)

CENTRAL ASIA * Note: Great Game in Central Asia (2008) * Note: Economic Potential of Central Asia. (2009)

AFGHANISTAN * Visualize the post-Taliban Scenario in Afghanistan and discuss its implications for Pakistan. (2001) * Give a long-term scenario of Afghanistan and Iraq beyond the perspective of' Nine Eleven'. (2003)

ASIA * China, India and Pakistan are three Nuclear States in the Asian Continent. Is this a potential threat or strength for the continent? Analyze. (2007) * Dynastic Politics in South Asia has become a norm rather than an exception what are the merits and demerits of this political arrangement? Analyze and comment? (2009) * In the present day turbulent World, most of the countries in East Asia have been relatively calm and stable in Political & Economic sphere. What reasons would you assign for this success? (2009)

PAKISTAN * The linguistic burden of English, Arabic, Urdu and the mother tongue on learning is a serious issue requiring serious treatment. Analyze. (2000) * Longer period of political stability is the requirement to institutionalize reformist polices whereas the same has not been available in Pakistan. Assess the prospects of recent multiple reforms in the context of this statement. (2000) * Discuss how Pakistan is affected by political and economic stakes and nuclear concern of Japan in South Asia? (2000) * Note: Gender prejudices and women empowerment in Pakistan (2001) * Evaluate the structural changes introduced in Pakistan’s economy over the past two years. (2001) * “In her foreign policy and trade, Pakistan has never benefited fully from her ideal geostrategic location “. Discuss (2002) * Note: Pakistan’s Pollution Problem (2002) * Note: Kalabagh Dam (2002), (2006) * In what ways India-Israel nexus, India-China bilateral relations and India-Iran geo-economics affect Pakistan? (2003) * In the Muslim Societies factors like justice, rejuvenation, education and enlightenment, which determine the conditions of human societies are miserable lacking. Analyze the problems confronting the Muslim world in the light of this statement. (2005) * Note: October 8, Post earthquake Scenario (2006) * Examine the causes of disturbances in Baluchistan. (2006) * Note: Chinese aided development Projects in Pakistan. (2010) * The issue of central imp.about corruption and accountability in Pakistan is the increase in corruption despite six decades of efforts to eradicate it. Analyse and comment on the root cause of rampant corruption in the society. (2010) * Note: Aghaz-e-haqooq balochistan package. (2010) * If India is granted Permanent seat in Security Council; what can be the options available to Pakistan to manage the Indian Hegemony in South Asia? (2011) * How Pakistan can reduce foreign debt? Suggest mechanism in Pakistan economy to handle external perspective of Pakistan economy. (2011) * Give suggestions to manage political instability in Pakistan (2011) * What is climate change impact? What are its implications on Pakistan? How to manage climate change in policy and practice? (2011) * Discuss the impact of foreign aid on Pakistan in post 9/11 scenario. (2012) * Substantiate Pakistan's role in Common wealth. (2012) * How can the energy crisis of Pakistan be resolved? (2012) * How the corruption be managed in Pakistan? (2012)

PAK-US * In the current relationship of mutual dependence, American obligations arc minimal while Pakistani ones are substantial Comment. (2003) * The US President Bush visit to Pakistan had yielded no positive outcome except for promises and pledges. In the backdrop of changing US mindset former Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali had urged the government to establish more vibrant relations with Iran, Saudi Arabia and China. Comment. (2006) * Discuss the various dimensions of Pakistan US relations in the wake of Pakistan’s playing the role as a frontline state against International terrorism. (2008)

PAK-AFGHAN * Note: Pak-Afghan Relations (2006) * How far India factor is responsible for the present state of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations? Analyze. (2008) * What is AFPAK policy; how to manage its implication on Pakistan? (2011)

PAK-IRAN * Analyze the convergence and divergence of interests in Pakistan –Iran relations since the last two decades. (2005)

INDIA * Note: Communal riots in India (2002) * The amicable solution of Siachen glacier and Sir Creek maritime boundary disputes might harbinger the settlement of the core issue of Kashmir between Pakistan and India. Discuss. (2008) * That feasible measures would you suggest to bridge the existing trust deficit between Pakistan and India for the resumption of stalled process of composite dialogue. (2010) * If India is granted Permanent seat in Security Council; what can be the options available to Pakistan to manage the Indian Hegemony in South Asia? (2011) * Evaluate the significance of water conflict between India and Pakistan in global perspective of climate change. (2012)

CONSTITUTION * Highlight the constitutional issues affecting Pakistan’s politics since the army take-over in October 1999. (2001) * Debate, National Interests VS Democratic Values in the context of recent political and constitutional developments in Pakistan. (2003)

PROVINCIAL AUTONOMY * How best can the issue of Provincial Autonomy in Pakistan be resolved within a viable Federal Structure? Discuss (2005) * "The troubling issue in Pak.pertains to an overbearing centre's supremacy in the federations and the resulting demand for Provincial autonomy."discuss. (2010)

PAK EDUCATION * Assess the growing impact of information technology on Pakistan’s socio-economic and educational complexion. (2000) * Judicious evaluation of examination scripts by the Universities and Boards of Education in Pakistan needs to be ensured. How can it be accomplished? (2001) * Countries that recognized the importance of higher education are way ahead of those who have ignored it. What measures would you suggest to upgrade the standard of higher education in Pakistan? (2006) * What can be the strategies to reduce dependency of education sector on governmental funding? (2011) * Discuss issues in the higher educational system vis-a-vis 18th amendment in Pakistan. (2012)

GWADAR * Sino-Pakistan collaboration on GwadarSea opening will have far-reaching economic and geo-strategic consequences. Comment. (2001) * The Gwadar Port would have great strategic significance in addition to its vast economic potential not only for the uplift of Baluchistan but for the neighboring countries like China, Afghanistan and Central Asian States, comment. (2005)

UN SECURITY COUNCIL * The UN Security Council is regarded as a tool for the veto wielding powers and a debating forum for non permanent members. Make a case for restructuring the Council with special emphasis on judicious distribution of veto power. (2006) * If India is granted Permanent seat in Security Council; what can be the options available to Pakistan to manage the Indian Hegemony in South Asia? (2011)

SCO * Note: Shanghai Cooperation Organization (2001) * Why Pakistan is desperately seeking full-fledged membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization? (2008) * Pakistan provides the natural link between the SCO states to connect the Eurasian heartland with the Arabian sea and South Asia." Substantiate Pakistan's claim for the membership of SCO in the view of the above mentioned statement. (2010)

OIC * The ongoing anti blasphemy campaign launched by Muslims all over the world and the West's obduracy not to yield on the issue in the name of freedom of press has put the two on a collision. What role the UN and the OIC can play to prevent recurrence of acts of blasphemy in future? (2006) * What are the ground realities inhibiting the capacity of Organization of Islamic conference as an effective body to protect the legitimate interests of Muslim world1? (2003) * Analyze the role of OIC in the resolution of problems faced by its members (2002) * The organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) has not played and effective role in protecting the rights of member states. How can it become a vibrant organization to achieve its objectives? (2007)

WTO * Discuss politics of World Trade Organization and Globalization. (2000) * Discuss the potential challenges Pakistan is facing in the WTO regime. (2008)

ASEAN * Association of the South East Asian Nation (ASEAN) is a success story of regional organization. What lessons SAARC can learn from the experience of ASEAN? (2007)

UNO * The United Nations Organization is being side-lined by denying the peace-making role that legitimately belonged to her. Examine the statement. (2001) * Highlight the factors and forces, which have contributed to sideline the United Nations Organization in terms of its peace and security role. (2003)

SAARC * Give a critique of the performance of SAARC since its inception (2002) * Association of the South East Asian Nation (ASEAN) is a success story of regional organization. What lessons SAARC can learn from the experience of ASEAN? (2007) * Note: Afghanistan is SAARC (2008) * Give recommendations to make SAARC an effective organization at regional level keeping in view success of European Union. (2011)

OTHER ORGANIZATIONS * Note: Expansion of European Union (EU) (2002) * Note: NATO’s expansion is Eastern Europe (2008) * Note: IMF’s objectives in funding Pakistan. (2000) * Note: SAFTA (2008)

PERSONALITIES * Note: Noam Chomsky (2003) * Note: Arundhati Roy (2003) * Note: Edward Wadic Saeed (2003) * Note: Eqbal Ahmcd (not Allama Iqbal) (2003)

MISCELLANEOUS SHORT NOTES * Note: Economic consequences or preparation at the World Trade Centre (2001) * Note: Aftermath of Agra-Summit (2001) * Note: France's policy on Iraq's invasion. (2003) * Note: Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) Gas Pipelines project. (2006) * Note: Human Development (2007) * Note: Geneva Convention (2007) * Note: Balkanization (2007) * Note: Improving Quality of life in Africa (2009) * Note: Free Market economy and economic melt down (2009) * Note: Economic Potential of Central Asia. (2009) * Note: Combating corruption in developing countries (2009) * Note: Liberhan commission report. (2010)

Attention Sweet Fellows!

We the aspirants of CSS cannot but too much depend upon a standard news paper;and it is rightly so. But we need to know how we can improve our reading and make it a rewarding experience maximally.I would here refresh certain points in your intellect houses, i.e., minds.

Let me be brief:

1) Read Dawn critically not passively

[COLOR="DarkOrchid"]Emphasis should be on Opinion and Editorial pages.I think we should be guard on to save our time. For this my suggestion should be that we should not read front pages or intenational pages just for news.We can save time by watching some good tv channel,e.g., BBC for international news and Aaj tv and Geo, etc., for domestic news. They are often enough for news.[/COLOR]

2) Read Dawn's Letters to the Editor

There are often very great debates going on there.You occasionally get many points to take notes for yourself from a small piece of writing.Do remember many people do not read these letters and hence waste very invaluable stuff.

3) Dawn's "Encounter" page on every Saturday and "Economic and Business Review" section on Monday.

In these pages there are pearls of analysis and knowledge.You can ignore them only at a very high cost.

4)We are often ill-advised to ignore The News.

The News on Sunday has a section "Political Economy",only a non-serious CSS aspirant would won't read it and not take notes from it.

5) And not the least rather it is all-embracing: search for some academic writing on important issues for Pak. and Current Affairs.

You can contact to any of your acquaintances(of M.phil or Ph.D) to get knowledge about how you can get them.I am quite confident that if you read one good research paper on any given topic,it can prepare you to deal with that theme from varied dimnesions. I will dwell on the point (5) later if anybody needs my guidance.

Always prepare the current issues of the year.
Some issues are of perpetual nature like Palestine and Kashmir so do not miss them.Make a list of topics and then try to collect relevent material from the sources. When you are left with one month or so... recheck the topics list and arrange the material for each topic. GO through the material and collect intro and conclusion for different topics, Also collect relevent Info. If possible arrange the material by collecting most relevent cuttings in the cuttings and make proper questions. This will help you in revising the course easily.
Some examples of perpetual nature are
1. Kashmir (Background, current situation and future)
2. Palestine (Background, current situation and future)
3. Economy of Pakistan (Background, current situation and future)
4. Debt Trap (Background, current situation and future)
5. Education
6. War on Terrorism (Background, current situation and future) specailly after 9/11
7. Iraq War (refference to world scenirio, Oil game, US intentions, Reconstruction etc)
8. Afghanistan
9. Poverty ALliviation
10. Law and Order situation
11. Role of IFAs in the economy of third world.
12. The rising polar world (Possible or not)
13. North Korean Problem
14. Modern and Higher education
15. LFO and its current situation and future impect
16. The rise of Religious Parties
17. World Economy and the future world resource centres
18. UNO its effectiveness and future
20. OIC
21. Muslim World and West
22. Total world Scenirio.
23. The output of Musharaf Government

1. Usa world Policy
2. USA policy towards Islamic countries
3. USA and the net election year
4. USA and North Korea
5. USA and War on terrorism
6. USA And Iran
7. USA and UNO, NATO, EU
8. USA role in IRAQ and Afghanistan
9. USA and WMDs etc... North Korea.... Nuclear Crises

Palestine.... Peace initiatives... role of USA and Muslim world

Central assian Republics and its resources a source of world convergence or conflict

just chk all the current important issues and find related meterial from the editorials, world in focus and magazines of the dawn and other available meterial....

Now imagine the kind of essays that can come on these topics...
Next step is to make the outlines of these topics and revise in ur mind how u will manage ur essay....

Now from the meterial get some impressive starts and conclusions...
If possible write 2 or 3 good essays on the most wide and important topics like
1. changing world scenirio..... US and Pakistan role
2. Economy of Pakistan
3. Democracy in Pakistan.....
These essays should be from the meterial u have with an impressive start and impressive conclusion....

Pakistan Nuclear Weapons

A Brief History of Pakistan's Nuclear Program

Pakistan's nuclear weapons program was established in 1972 by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who founded the program while he was Minister for Fuel, Power and Natural Resources, and later became President and Prime Minister. Shortly after the loss of East Pakistan in the 1971 war with India, Bhutto initiated the program with a meeting of physicists and engineers at Multan in January 1972.

India's 1974 testing of a nuclear "device" gave Pakistan's nuclear program new momentum. Through the late 1970s, Pakistan's program acquired sensitive uranium enrichment technology and expertise. The 1975 arrival of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan considerably advanced these efforts. Dr. Khan is a German-trained metallurgist who brought with him knowledge of gas centrifuge technologies that he had acquired through his position at the classified URENCO uranium enrichment plant in the Netherlands. Dr. Khan also reportedly brought with him stolen uranium enrichment technologies from Europe. He was put in charge of building, equipping and operating Pakistan's Kahuta facility, which was established in 1976. Under Khan's direction, Pakistan employed an extensive clandestine network in order to obtain the necessary materials and technology for its developing uranium enrichment capabilities.

In 1985, Pakistan crossed the threshold of weapons-grade uranium production, and by 1986 it is thought to have produced enough fissile material for a nuclear weapon. Pakistan continued advancing its uranium enrichment program, and according to Pakistani sources, the nation acquired the ability to carry out a nuclear explosion in 1987.

Nuclear Tests

On May 28, 1998 Pakistan announced that it had successfully conducted five nuclear tests. The Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission reported that the five nuclear tests conducted on May 28 generated a seismic signal of 5.0 on the Richter scale, with a total yield of up to 40 KT (equivalent TNT). Dr. A.Q. Khan claimed that one device was a boosted fission device and that the other four were sub-kiloton nuclear devices.

On May 30, 1998 Pakistan tested one more nuclear warhead with a reported yield of 12 kilotons. The tests were conducted at Balochistan, bringing the total n umber of claimed tests to six. It has also been claimed by Pakistani sources that at least one additional device, initially planned for detonation on 30 May 1998, remained emplaced underground ready for detonation.

Pakistani claims concerning the number and yields of their underground tests cannot be independently confirmed by seismic means, and several sources, such as the Southern Arizona Seismic Observatory have reported lower yields than those claimed by Pakistan. Indian sources have also suggested that as few as two weapons were actually detonated, each with yields considerably lower than claimed by Pakistan. However, seismic data showed at least two and possibly a third, much smaller, test in the initial round of tests at the Ras Koh range. The single test on 30 May provided a clear seismic signal.

According to a preliminary analysis conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory, material released into the atmosphere during an underground nuclear test by Pakistan in May 1998 contained low levels of weapons-grade plutonium. The significance of the Los Alamos finding was that Pakistan had either imported or produced plutonium undetected by the US intelligence community. But Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and other agencies later contested the accuracy of this finding.

These tests came slightly more than two weeks after India carried out five nuclear tests of its own on May 11 and 13 and after many warnings by Pakistani officials that they would respond to India.

Pakistan's nuclear tests were followed by the February 1999 Lahore Agreements between Prime Ministers Vajpayee and Sharif. The agreements included confidence building measures such as advance notice of ballistic missile testing and a continuation of their unilateral moratoria on nuclear testing. But diplomatic advances made that year were undermined by Pakistan's incursion into Kargil. Under US diplomatic pressure, Prime Minister Sharif withdrew his troops, but lost power in October 1999 due to a military coup in which Gen. Pervez Musharraf took over.

Nuclear Infrastructure

Pakistan's nuclear program is based primarily on highly enriched uranium (HEU), which is produced at the A. Q. Khan research laboratory at Kahuta, a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility. The Kahuta facility has been in operation since the early 1980s. By the early 1990s, Kahuta had an estimated 3,000 centrifuges in operation, and Pakistan continued its pursuit of expanded uranium enrichment capabilities.

In the 1990s Pakistan began to pursue plutonium production capabilities. With Chinese assistance, Pakistan built the 40 MWt (megawatt thermal) Khusab research reactor at Joharabad, and in April 1998, Pakistan announced that the reactor was operational. According to public statements made by US officials, this unsafeguarded heavy water reactor generates an estimated 8-10 kilotons of weapons grade plutonium per year, which is enough for one to two nuclear weapons. The reactor could also produce tritium if it were loaded with lithium-6. According to J. Cirincione of Carnegie, Khusab's plutonium production capacity could allow Pakistan to develop lighter nuclear warheads that would be easier to deliver with a ballistic missile.

Plutonium separation reportedly takes place at the New Labs reprocessing plant next to Pakistan's Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (Pinstech) in Rawalpindi and at the larger Chasma nuclear power plant, neither of which are subject to IAEA inspection.

Nuclear Arsenal

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) estimates that Pakistan has built 24-48 HEU-based nuclear warheads, and Carnegie reports that they have produced 585-800 kg of HEU, enough for 30-55 weapons. Pakistan's nuclear warheads are based on an implosion design that uses a solid core of highly enriched uranium and requires an estimated 15-20 kg of material per warhead. According to Carnegie, Pakistan has also produced a small but unknown quantity of weapons grade plutonium, which is sufficient for an estimated 3-5 nuclear weapons.

Pakistani authorities claim that their nuclear weapons are not assembled. They maintain that the fissile cores are stored separately from the non-nuclear explosives packages, and that the warheads are stored separately from the delivery systems. In a 2001 report, the Defense Department contends that "Islamabad's nuclear weapons are probably stored in component form" and that "Pakistan probably could assemble the weapons fairly quickly." However, no one has been able to ascertain the validity of Pakistan's assurances about their nuclear weapons security.

Pakistan's reliance primarily on HEU makes its fissile materials particularly vulnerable to diversion. HEU can be used in a relatively simple gun-barrel-type design, which could be within the means of non-state actors that intend to assemble a crude nuclear weapon.

The terrorist attacks on September 11th raised concerns about the security of Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. According to press reports, within two days of the attacks, Pakistan's military began relocating nuclear weapons components to six new secret locations. Shortly thereafter, Gen. Pervez Musharraf fired his intelligence chief and other officers and detained several suspected retired nuclear weapons scientists, in an attempt to root out extremist elements that posed a potential threat to Pakistan's nuclear arsenal.

Concerns have also been raised about Pakistan as a proliferant of nuclear materials and expertise. In November, 2002, shortly after North Korea admitted to pursuing a nuclear weapons program, the press reported allegations that Pakistan had provided assistance in the development of its uranium enrichment program in exchange for North Korean missile technologies.

Foreign Assistance

In the past, China played a major role in the development of Pakistan's nuclear infrastructure, especially when increasingly stringent export controls in western countries made it difficult for Pakistan to acquire materials and technology elsewhere. According to a 2001 Department of Defense report, China has supplied Pakistan with nuclear materials and expertise and has provided critical assistance in the construction of Pakistan's nuclear facilities.

In the 1990s, China designed and supplied the heavy water Khusab reactor, which plays a key role in Pakistan's production of plutonium. A subsidiary of the China National Nuclear Corporation also contributed to Pakistan's efforts to expand its uranium enrichment capabilities by providing 5,000 custom made ring magnets, which are a key component of the bearings that facilitate the high-speed rotation of centrifuges.

According to Anthony Cordesman of CSIS, China is also reported to have provided Pakistan with the design of one of its warheads, which is relatively sophisticated in design and lighter than U.S. and Soviet designed first generation warheads.

China also provided technical and material support in the completion of the Chasma nuclear power reactor and plutonium reprocessing facility, which was built in the mid 1990s. The project had been initiated as a cooperative program with France, but Pakistan's failure to sign the NPT and unwillingness to accept IAEA safeguards on its entire nuclear program caused France to terminate assistance.

According to the Defense Department report cited above, Pakistan has also acquired nuclear related and dual-use and equipment and materials from the Former Soviet Union and Western Europe.
Intermittent US Sanctions

On several occasions, under the authority of amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act, the U.S. has imposed sanctions on Pakistan, cutting off economic and military aid as a result of its pursuit of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. suspended sanctions each time developments in Afghanistan made Pakistan a strategically important "frontline state," such as the 1981 Soviet occupation and in the war on terrorism.

Pakistan's Nuclear Doctrine

Several sources, such as Jane's Intelligence Review and Defense Department reports maintain that Pakistan's motive for pursuing a nuclear weapons program is to counter the threat posed by its principal rival, India, which has superior conventional forces and nuclear weapons.

Pakistan has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). According to the Defense Department report cited above, "Pakistan remains steadfast in its refusal to sign the NPT, stating that it would do so only after India joined the Treaty. Consequently, not all of Pakistan's nuclear facilities are under IAEA safeguards. Pakistani officials have stated that signature of the CTBT is in Pakistan's best interest, but that Pakistan will do so only after developing a domestic consensus on the issue, and have disavowed any connection with India's decision."

Pakistan does not abide by a no-first-use doctrine, as evidenced by President Pervez Musharraf's statements in May, 2002. Musharraf said that Pakistan did not want a conflict with India but that if it came to war between the nuclear-armed rivals, he would "respond with full might." These statements were interpreted to mean that if pressed by an overwhelming conventional attack from India, which has superior conventional forces, Pakistan might use its nuclear weapons.
Sources and Resources

* UN Nuclear Chief Warns of Global Black Market Mohammed ElBaradei commenting on questions raised by the Khan confession, February 6, 2004.
* Abdul Qadeer Khan "Apologizes" for Transferring Nuclear Secrets Abroad, broadcast on Pakistani television, February 4, 2004.

* Documents Indicate A.Q. Khan Offered Nuclear Weapon Designs to Iraq in 1990: Did He Approach Other Countries? By David Albright and Corey Hinderstein, February 4, 2004


Deadly Arsenals, chapter on Paksitan - by Joseph Cirincione, John B.Wolfsthal and Miriam Rajkumar (Carnegie, June 2002). The chapter discusses Pakistan's WMD, missile and aircraft capabilities. It also presents the strategic context of the nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan and the history of Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, touching on foreign assistance from China and on-and-off US economic assistance.

Proliferation: Threat and Response, Jan. 2001 - A Defense Department report on the status of nuclear proliferation in South Asia. It includes a brief historical background on the conflict between India and Pakistan as well as an assessment of their nuclear capabilities, chem/bio programs, ballistic missile programs and other means of delivery.

ENHANCING NUCLEAR SECURITY IN THE COUNTER-TERRORISM STRUGGLE: India and Pakistan as a New Region for Cooperation - by Rose Gottemoeller, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, August 2002. This working paper explores possible cooperative programs that could enhance the security of Pakistan and India's nuclear arsenals, in order to prevent the diversion of dangerous materials into the hands of terrorists or rogue state leaders.

"Pakistan's Nuclear Forces, 2001" from NRDC Nuclear Notebook, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists Jan/Feb 2002. A Two-page update on the state of Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. It makes rough estimates of the number of nuclear weapons and the amount of fissile material in Pakistan's possession and touches on fissile material production capabilities. Also included is a brief discussion of delivery mechanisms such as aircraft and missiles.

Monterey Institute Resource Page on India and Pakistan - last updated July 7, 2000. This page has many useful links to relevant maps, news articles and analytical pieces on India and Pakistan's nuclear programs.

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace - Pakistan resources

Pakistan Nuclear Weapons - A Chronology - a timeline of the Pakistan's Nuclear Development program since 1965.

"The Threat of Pakistani Nuclear Weapons" - a CSIS report by Anthony H. Cordesman (Last updated Nov. 2001). - This report tells the history of Pakistan's nuclear weapons program and discusses China role in its development. It also lists recent US intelligence reports on Pakistan's activities.

From Testing to Deploying Nuclear Forces: The Hard Choices Facing India and Pakistan - Gregory S. Jones. (Rand, 2000). "This issue paper describes the requirements for a nuclear deterrent force in general terms, discusses how the Indian-Pakistani nuclear relationship is affected by China, and then considers the specific decisions that still must be made in India and Pakistan."

Pakistan Nuclear Update, 2001 - Wisconsin Project. This three-page document provides a brief summary of Pakistan's main nuclear sites and an update on developments in Pakistan's nuclear program.

Securing Pakistan's Nuclear Arsenal: Principles for Assistance - by David Albright, Kevin O'Neill and Corey Hinderstein, Oct. 4, 2001. An ISIS issue brief on the potential threats to the security of Pakistan's nuclear arsenal.

The May 1998 India and Pakistan Nuclear Tests - by Terry C. Wallace, Southern Arizona Seismic Observatory (SASO), 1998. This technical paper provides a seismic analysis of India and Pakistan's 1998 nuclear tests. It concludes that Pakistan's May 28 tests had a seismic yield of 9-12 kt, and the May 30 test had a yield of 4-6 kt. An updated web page on this report can be found here

Satellite Imagery of Pakistan's May 28 and May 30 nuclear testing sites, hosted on the Center for Monitoring Research Commercial Satellite Imagery Page

"Pakistan's Nuclear Dilemma" - September 23 2001, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Transcripts from a Carnegie panel on developments in Pakistan in the aftermath of the Septempber 11th attacks. The panel included three speakers -- Shirin Tahir-Kheli, George Perkovich and Rose Gottemoeller-- and was moderated by Joseph Cirincione.

Chapter on Pakistan, from Tracking Nuclear Proliferation: A Guide in Maps and Charts, 1998 by Rodney W. Jones, Mark G. McDonough, with Toby F. Dalton and Gregory D. Koblentz (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment, July 1998). This chapter documents the history of Pakistan's nuclear program and tracks the development of its nuclear infrastructure. It also covers in detail the sanctions the US imposed on Pakistan in light of these developments, as well Pakistan's missile program.

"U.S. Appears to be Losing Track of Pakistan's Nuclear Program" and "U.S. Now Believes Pakistan to use Khushab Plutonium in Bomb Program" By Mark Hibbs July, 1998. Two brief articles written in the aftermath of Paksistan's 1998 nuclear tests -- they discuss Pakistan's weapons grade uranium and plutonium production capacities and the implications for its nuclear arsenal.

"U.S. Labs at Odds on Whether Pakistani Blast Used Plutonium," by Dana Priest Washington Post Sunday, January 17, 1999; Page A02. This article discusses the controversy over the preliminary analysis carried out by Los Alamos National Laboratory, which found that plutonium traces had been released into the atomosphere during Pakistan's May 30th underground nuclear test. Scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Labs contested the accuracy of this finding and alleged that Los Alamos had contaminated and then lost the air sample. At the time, Los Alamos' findings were highly controversial because they implied that Pakistan had obtained plutonium either though imports or indigenous production, and there was uncertainty about Pakistan's plutonium production capabilities. It is now public knowledge that Pakistan can produce and isolate plutonium at its Khusbab reactor and at the New Labs and Chasma separation facilities.

The portfolio of the new Federal andStateMinisters are as follows:

1. Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan: Interior Ministry with the additional portfolio of Anti-Narcotics
2. Pervez Rasheed: Information Minister
3. Ishaq Dar: Finance Minister. Additional portfolios of Revenue, Economic Affairs, Statistics and Privatisation.
4. Khawaja Asif: Ministry of Water and Power
5. Zahid Hamid: Law and Justice and Human
6. Shahid Khaqan Abbasi: Minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources
7. Ahsan Iqbal: Ministry of Planning and
8. Khawaja Saad Rafiq: Minister of Railways
9. Abdul Qadir Baloch: States and Frontier
Regions (Safron), 10. Sikandar Hayat Bosan:
Food Security
11. Birjees Tahir: Gilgit Baltistan and Kashmir
12. Murtaza Jatoi: Industry and Production
13. Kamran Michael: Port and Shipping
14. Sardar Yousuf: Minister of Religious Affairs.
15. Sadruddin Shah Rashdi: Overseas Pakistanis
16. Anusha Rehman: Minister for Information
Technology 17. Saira Afzal: Health Science
Regulation and Coordination
18. Khurram Dastagir Khan: Science and
19. Pir Muhammad Aminul Hasnat: State
Minister for Religious Affairs
20. Abdul Hakim Baloch: State Minister for
21. Jam Kamal: State Minister for Petroleum
22. Sheikh Aftab: State Minister for Parliamentary
23. Mian Balighur Rehman: State Minister for
24. Amir Muqam: Telecommunication Minister
25. Shujaat Azeem: State Minister for Aviation.
Meanwhile, Sartaj Aziz has been appointed prime minister's Advisor for National Security and
Foreign Affairs and Tariq Fatmi and Sanaullah
Zahri will serve as Special Advisors to the Prime

Post US withdrawal- Regional Implications

here are some my own views .... following might differ than else

implications will took place on whole region not only Pakistan ... an expected stance from each country is as ....

Pakistan will remain with nexus to us in following issues

o Drone Attacks – Sovereignty of Pakistan? o Pakistan status after withdrawal of US forces from Afghanistan o Pakistan need trade not aid …. Should be supported by US o NATO and US Operations in Waziristan as US putting pressure o Democratic Setup Support to Pakistan US o Need lessen the Mistrust between two … due to 1. Attack on Osama 2. Salala Attack 3. Nato Issue

o Future of Haqani Network ?????

Other countries .....

India and Afghanistan (india wants) * Prevent Afghanistan from becoming a safe heaven of terrorists * To counter Pakistan’s influence in Afghanistan * Access raw material from Afghanistan for its own need * Ending the use of militant outfits by Pakistan * It will get engaged with the national insurgency in Balochistan * Definitely india will try to reach Gilgit-Biltistan

Iran * Iran needs to decrease in the US forces in Afghanistan * Interest may be to counter the Taliban influcne * Expanding its ecomonic ties with Afghanistan and India * Safe broder with Pakistan * Close ties with Afghanistan for create stable image in Afghanistan.

China * China has its own interest * May be access Afghanistan’s raw materials and provide a soft challenge to India to maintain status quo * Emerge as power to get rid of the US presence
Saudi Arabia (Muslim nation and close ally of US) * Will work to promote itself as a unifier of Sunni community * Avoiding Iran’s influence in Afghanistan’s affairs * Maintain status quo in the ongoing situation to keep the relation with Pakistan as it is.

Russia * Has to work for the maintenance of functional government in * Afghanistan * May create an environment to counter the US’s economic efforts in * Afghanistan. * Avoiding long term presence of US in Afghanistan

comments are welcome....



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