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Turkish Foreign Policy During the Cold War

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TURKISH FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE COLD WAR
Turkey followed a “belligerence” policy from the start of II. World War in 1939 until the start of war in 1945. The purpose of that time managers of Turkey, protect it from the damage of the war.
The end of the war with the options in front of us, pushing us to act together with the Western bloc. The formation of these preferences is not a decision for an instant multi-dimensional factors, factors were created by a process. Turkey’s prefer of Western side, did not lead to acceptance by the West sincerely. European members of NATO did not want to risk of war again because of Turkey who was under the Soviet threat at that time. At the same time, they were not willing to impart that the U.S. Marshall Aid to Turkey.
Britain lost its efficiency in the Middle East as in all the world and for that reason Britain was put forward a project that "Commander of the Middle East" which Turkey will play a key role for gain efficiency again. Due to U.S. opposition to this prediction, this project got shelved.In the "Containment Policy" process which started with Truman Doctrine by U.S. against the Soviet Bloc, military and geo-strategic location of Turkey opened the door to NATO membership.With North Korea's attack on South Korea, the Korean War started in 1950-53 and the Turkey participating in United States’s side, this was resulting against all suspicies and prejudice, Turkey took place between NATO member countries.Russians wishes to change of Straits regime which determined with Montreux Convention, played a role in accelerating. Turkey was adopted in NATO after the third application on February 18, 1952. After the multiparty system adopted in 1946 , Democratic Party came to power in Turkey where this party remain in power between the 1950-60, there were three basic goals:
1- Become to elements of stability and security on its region
2- Help to achieve a satisfactory solution in Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East.
3- To prevent the spread of communism to the South, create an effective security umbrella
In the Middle East, "Key Role" for Turkey has undertaken, and Turkey did not give up being an active member of the West Block. The State of Israel declared independence in 1948 and Turkey was one of the first country to recognize it and Turkey had to forced to confront the broad opposition in the Middle East with Arab countries. Turkey moved in line with the U.S. and NATO's Middle East policy. When Turkey reacted with State of Israel in the Arab-Israel conflict, in the Arab countries it lead to resentment.
Turkish Foreign Policy after 1955, was faced with a major problem. The name of this problem is "Cyprus". The most common solution of the problem was “Division of Cyprus". Even though not in the out of the year, but later this plan has in the process. Beginning with period of Eisenhower Doctrine, the Truman Doctrine and Marschall Help, Turkey-US relations has created a new ring of convergence.
31 July 1959, the Turkish Government has applied for membership of the European Community. The main factors in this application, not to stay back from Greece. 12 September 1963 in Ankara, Turkey-EC partnership agreement was signed. 1 December 1964 Ankara Agreement entered into force which means Turkey's EU accession process started on December 1, 1964.
In the beginning of the year that Turkey's formal application to join the EC, a development took place in Turkish foreign policy. "Johnson Letter" that named in Turkish Political History lead a crisis of confidence in the Turkish-US relations . In require of interacted act in 1947, USA opposed to the use of weapons, in Cyprus, which were given by USA to Turkey. Johnson Letter lead to begining of changing route and attitude in Turkish foreign policy. After this letter, it has began to change tables that USA is the only determining factor in Turkish foreign policy. In Turkish foreign policy it was decided to give attention also near vicinity and regional interests. Secretary of State F.Cemal Erkin was going to Moscow in October 1964, the first official delegation from the USSR to Turkey was welcomed in Ankara in January 1965. July 15, 1974 was the date of start of the most important exam of Turkish foreign policy. In this time Nikos Sampson made counter coup against Makarios in Cyprus and after this coup Greeks started to occupied Cyprus. The Turks are expelled from the island, many of whom were exposed to massacres. July 19, 1974, Turkey has been mobilized to the extract against Cyprus. The first Peace Operation, July 20 to 22 dates were carried out. Second Cyprus Peace Operation, the Geneva Conference from the result fails to get on the August 14, 1974, hours: 6:00 began in . As of August 19 ended successfully with the Cyprus Peace Operation, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, and the current boundaries were drawn. With Cyprus Peace Operation Turkey, in spite of all of the oppositions of West Block, was successful at the first time using weapons and were not leave the Turkish Cypriots helpless in the right case. After Cyprus Peace Operation, Turkey entered into a rough patch because of international pressure, the U.S. imposed arms embargo and domestic turmoil.
The first time in September 4th 1977, an IMF delegation came to Turkey. IMF warns of financial institutions in the world at all, had to be stopped granting loans to Turkey, the reason to come to show Turkey's foreign debt as their status was not paid. These negative developments, the first time in our political history "in need of 70 cents, Turkey" initiated the discussion.
September 12, 1980 ... to start a job to come along with the military government, the Turkish foreign policy remained under pressure from the international environment with this idea: "for a moment before the operation of democratic institutions".
To Foreign Minister Ilter Turkmen in January 1982, during his talks with officials from the EEC, "Human rights, torture, collective action and progress in democracy," the official request has been submitted. In this case, it has opened a new problem in Turkish foreign policy. The new process, all the Turkish officials and diplomats have begun to deal with intense pressure and criticism in the international arena with human rights issues.
When Turkish diplomacy busy into their terrorism, coup, democracy matters; eastern Turkey witnessed the Iranian Revolution. January 13 1979, After Shah Reza Pahlavi left the country, the Iranian Revolutionary Council was established. March 31, 1979 referendum result, "the Islamic Republic of Iran 'was declared. Now in Iran, a regime in the world as a stranger has come to start a job. The establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which fluctuated over the delicate balance in the Middle East has launched a new era.
West's cold attitude towards Turkey, Turkey again pushed to lead to political stability in foreign policy. As a result of this new approach, intended to be pushed into isolation in the West, Turkey in 1980 has long been a neglected area, headed to the Middle East. Developments in the Middle East and Islamic countries in this year, is more closely now.
Turkey's new political approach in the Middle East countries that expansion initiatives, the Iran-Iraq War “active neutrality policy” has shown itself to be. Turkey followed the Active Neutrality Policy while fighting the two countries was appreciated by both countries, with the commercial development of relations with both of them had resulted. Foreign trade volume with these countries achieved $ 4 billion. The Iran-Iraq War, Turkey is located in the opportunity to overcome financial difficulties, while the world is caused by the importance of insight.
December 27, 1979 start with the Red Army's invasion of Afghanistan in the process of the Soviet Union's ambitions in hot water again became clear and policy toward Central Asia in Turkey need to have new perspectives. Of stagnant water in Central Asia show a tendency to heat up again, to Turkey in the field of foreign policy breeds a new problem areas, but went cold in its relations with the Western world also helped to start a warm period. Now the west and Turkey's attention again, albeit briefly get away from the Middle East, Central Asia has been translated. This attitude, a new era in relations between Turkey and the West and the new partnership was the beginning of the accelerator effect.
AFTER THE COLD WAR PERIOD
With the collapse of the Soviet Union 'Great Wall of China from the Adriatic region' occured of a power vacuum and instability. While major collapse of the Soviet Union as a result of weak global threat, Turkey's turned around a full circle of fire. In Balkans, the Caucasus and the Middle East uncertainty, the smell of blood and gunpowder has made control of the region. Turkish foreign policy, instead of the cold war global interest, cold war unbalanced and full of contradictions in the new disorder, the interests of regional security and cooperation, started out in front of a global alliance.
Turkish diplomacy has been faced with the evaluate a new strategic and obligation to shed action to results of a new strategic in the international arena.
The only remaining global superpower in the world, the United States, a new layout for the whole world began to frequently expressed: "New World Order."
“Many thought that the new world order proclaimed by George Bush was the promise of 1945 fulfilled,a world in which international institutions, led by the United Nations, guaranteed international peace and security with the active support of the world's major powers.That world order is a chimera. Even as a liberal internationalist ideal, it is infeasible at best and dangerous at worst. It requires a centralized rule-making authority, a hierarchy of institutions, and universal membership. Equally to the point, efforts to create such an order have failed...”(Slaughter, 1997)
According to another opinion, the 'New World Order' in the concept of 'new' that determine, what is a global political arena except USSR. United States,in the Gulf War, Somalia and Bosnia conflicts, take that as countries in the world to intervene with its side, declared the global level itself is the greatest hope for the earth and no opponent against US. For this situation economic factors also have been decisive : “After World War II, "trading states" seemed to be charting a new path forward. But small was not beautiful. Even great powers found themselves negotiating larger markets through economic associations with others. It's time the United States became such a power.”(Rosecrance, 2010)
In 1993, the U.S. 'Strategic Partnership' in the framework implicitly recognizes Russia's sphere of influence, while Russia, the U.S. boss seems to agree, albeit implicitly. Of course in foreign policy and political balance of power will be continuously and permanently is not possible to claim that it will continue forever. But in today's world, foreign policy and power are certain factors that lead. At the beginning of this power is also now rivals accept; the United States. About what the new world order, former U.S. President George Bush's description of wonder and relief as follows: "We thing a new partnership more than a Cold War and this partnership include spread of democracy, prosperity, peace and reducing arms."
This “reducing arms” idea thought in late 80s: “Freed from fixation on the struggle against the USSR, the USA "will need to think more broadly about the role of arms control in world politics", and will find itself sharing the same concerns as the USSR in respect of weapons and technology proliferation. Offers guidelines for US foreign policy (1) set realistic goals (2) co-operate with a reforming USSR while taking steps to reduce the risk of deteriorating relations should a counter-reformation occur.”(Nye, 1989)
New equilibrium in the formation of a new international system to Turkey, on foreign policy and traditional living spaces as the Caucasus, the Balkans and Central Asia are left with two major rivals: the Russian Federation and Iran. In this power struggle in Turkey has entered the U.S. in good faith with the effect of condoning, this part of the dominant geopolitical moves were made by the Russian Federation.
Turkish diplomacy is approached with caution in the 1992-1995 period, the Turkish politicians 'Great Wall of China from the Adriatic' slogan is trying to show recognition and events, at the geography of a vacancy by Soviet Union is filled again by the Russian Federation. In the New World Order, the most concrete concept is "globalization". “Globalization can be defined as the unfolding resolution of the contradiction between ever expanding capital and its national political and social formations. Up to the 1970s, the expansion of capital was always as national capital, capital with particular territorial and historical roots and character. Afterwards, capital began to expand more than ever as simply the corporation; ownership began to correspond less and less with national geographies. Just as capital once had to create a national state and a defined territory, in the form of the transnational corporation (TNC) it has had to remove or transform this 'shell' to create institutions to ensure and facilitate accumulation at the global level. Globalization is the close of the national history of capital and the beginning of the history of the expansion of capital sans nationality.”(McBride-Wiseman,2000). Globalization, nation-states such as Turkey, want to impose the following topics in the economic sense:
1. Liquidation of the national economy
2. Smb rules
3. Liberalization of markets
4. Complete privatization of public sector
These international economics requirements which bring globalization lead new economic challenges in the Turkish Foreign Policy. Turkish foreign policy's economy envoy , face in the above-mentioned issues in the international economic institutions.
Western countries realized a long time in the process of transformation, Turkey in a very short time period, both social and economic plans, public awareness will remain time to realize the situation faced. Yet Turkey, both social and economic sense as well, and it took the global configuration of the global economy, depending on the requirements of a particular calendar is not in condition to perform in a very short time.
Political efforts in this direction in the last 20 years, also suffered occasional disruption but has received great distance, "Global Economy" to meet the expectations and requirements are still far away. Because, Turkey's internal social structure, constraints and time embodied in the internal and external problems, the global economy's requirements in a short time to fulfill the eyes land policy implementation difficult makes, Turkey in many fields in cold blood to act on the need on inside. The problems of Turkey's foreign policy or economics, this time to solve the structural problems quickly adds field, demands of economic and social transformations in the international arena of Turkish foreign policy has been to create one of the most important axis.
We can analyze the end of Cold War with this thought: “During the Cold War, the superpowers controlled global decisions, and the ideological contest between them constrained the secretary-general. Today we are living in the midst of a worldwide revolution. With the end of the Cold War, an international system that had politically, economically, and strategically involved every country in the world disappeared almost overnight. As international trade and commerce have rapidly expanded, peoples and places have undergone unprecedented change. The explosion of scientific knowledge has produced remarkable inventions, and human horizons appear limitless. With the communications revolution, image is becoming more influential than fact.” (Ghali, 1996)
New World Order
“The attacks of September 11, 2001, were a seminal moment in modern history. They demonstrated the ability of non-state actors to inflict serious damage on the world's greatest superpower and exposed the vulnerability of the entire global community to catastrophic acts of terrorism.” (Schanzer, 2008). The greatest threat against U.S. Territory has been missile attacks from North Korea, Iran, Iraq like ''hackers states'' and because of that reason U.S. has been given the importance to national missile defense. United States, after September 11 did not give up the insistence on this issue but the importance of the issue, in the context of the fight against terrorism had fallen to a lower order. Even U.S. missile defense system had been established, U.S. accept the fact it can not avoid recent terrorist attacks. While United States has been started to classify world countries that ''the terrorists and non-terrorists'', it has called on countries of the world to choose their place.
Immediately after the attacks, even Iran who is alleged to see the United States as''great Satan'', while expressing its sympathy, an international coalition of unprecedented scale was created. After the start of operations in Afghanistan, the first NATO aircraft, was charged with protecting the U.S. Atlantic coast. Flowing to terrorists, as well as military aspects of accounts to be checked, terrorist cells, revealing that bin Laden's terror network, an international cooperation in intelligence matters was provided. Britain and Turkey, in this cooperation, the two countries which had offered to help with all dimensions. Turkey, particularly Incirlik bases, opening its airspace, the decision to send troops off in the direction of the Parliament of the United States gave full support to the struggle.
September 11, changed the U.S. view of the world. With operations in Afghanistan, especially in Turkey, as well as Central Asian countries including Uzbekistan and Pakistan who known effects on Afghanistan increased strategic importance. Attacks in the U.S. has changed the nature of relations with Russia. Cold War enemy Russia took place in the war against terrorism by the United States. Russian President Vladimir Putin, while the first call of the president after attack to President Bush, said alarmed the troops to support United States. Bush and Putin, the two countries heads of a personal friendship between the exhibited unusual in history, classical approach to “American-Russian” summit will be left behind, more frequent and began a close relationship period. American administration, declared even the presence of purpose to stand against Russia in NATO decision-makers in some cases even to zoom in, and also announced it has added value in the effort. This idea has been started to change view of Russia in NATO.
The role of Turkey
Still U.S. attack, had occured, the Islamic reaction to Western civilization, the work of Western civilization (the World Trade Center), as demand destruction. After these events, Turkey as a modern Islamic state, what role would take on between Islam and the West? Which would install the mission to Turkey by the West? From the start of the day operations in Afghanistan, Turkey announced in which side it will be. Even there was no clear message to demand support from the United States, Turkish authorities constantly reiterated message that will be supported. American-led campaign against terrorism before the war opened, Turkey was located next to the U.S.
In the event of attacks and after the development of the role of Turkey, large organizations that operate in various sectors, EU entry and the Turkish - American economic cooperation was seen posed in favor of an expectation. Again Turkey's role is to inform the Islamic world that during and after operations in the U.S. campaign not about to the Afghan people, about terrorism and the Taliban. The Islamic world believe the Turkey on this issue was a strong possibility. Therefore, a large part of military operations after the Peace Corps would be great to go from Turkey. Of course, in this regard to Turkey more "devoted" to run a number of economic aid had to be done.
Through these events, the Turkey-U.S. relations began to strengthen and Turkey, in many areas began to receive U.S. Support.
In conclusion, during and after the cold war, as all the world, foreign policy have changed in Turkey. It has been tried to best act for its interests and necessary conditions for the process has taken some decisions. It seems, Turkey had to turn Middle East's back on and pass over the Middle East policies. But the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Turkey Ahmed Davutoglu answered that comment in Egypt in 2009: ”Because of the conditions of the Cold War we could not follow an active policy in the region. Turkey had to choose a camp...Turkey is a part of Europe, trying to become an EU member, but at the same time that we are part of the Middle East.”. Turkey's approach to the Middle East is seen as follows: “Turkey's recent focus on the Middle East, however, does not mean that Turkey is about to turn its back on the West. Nor is the shift evidence of the "creeping Islamization" of Turkish foreign policy, as some critics claim. Turkey's new activism is a response to structural changes in its security environment since the end of the Cold War. And, if managed properly, it could be an opportunity for Washington and its Western allies to use Turkey as a bridge to the Middle East.”(Larrabee, 2007). References
1. The Real New World Order, by Anne-Marie Slaughter, 1997
2. Arms Control After the Cold War, by Joseph S. Nye, 1989
3. Globalization and Its Discontents, by Stephen McBride, John Wiseman, 2000
4. Bigger is Better, by Richard Rosecrance, 2010
5. Global Leadership: After the Cold War, by Boutros Ghali, 1996
6. 9/11 And Its Aftermath, by David Schanzer, 2008
7. Turkey Rediscovers the Middle East, by F.Stephen Larrabee, 2007

Other Resources
• Soguk Savas Donemi Super Guclerin Hakimiyet Kavgası, Cemal Acar, 1991
• Turkiye'nin Dis Politikasi, Oral Sander, 1998
• Turk Dis Politikasi Incelemeleri icin Kılavuz, Ismail Soysal
• Alone or With Others: The Temptations of Post-Cold War Powers, Robert Trucker, 1999
• After the Cold War, George Kennan, 1972
• Soviet-American Relations After the Cold War, Robert Jervis-Seweryn Bialer, 1991/1992
• Bureaucracy and Cold War Diplomacy: The United States and Turkey, David Alverez, 1981
• Middle East Diplomacy After the Gulf War, Peter Rodman, 1991
• Is Turkey Leaving the West?, Soner Cagaptay, 2009
• The New Turkish Republic:Turkey as a Pivotal State in the Muslim World, Graham Fuller, 2008
• Turkey and the West, Bruce Kniholm, 1991
• The Myth of Post-Cold War Chaos, G.John Ikenberry, 1996

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