Free Essay

Turning Knowledge Into Practice

In: People

Submitted By bnarro
Words 819
Pages 4

Student’s Putting Infection Control Knowledge to Practice
Brandy S. Narro
Grand Canyon University
August 5, 2012

Student’s Putting Infection Control Knowledge to Practice
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in 20 hospitalizations will be further complicated by hospital acquired infections (HAI’s) (2010). Examples of HAI’s are wound infections, respiratory infections, infections of the urinary tract and gastrointestinal tract. These infections result in an estimated 90,000 deaths per year (CDC, 2010) and $20 to $40 billion healthcare dollars on preventable complications (CDC, 2009).
This study examines the possibilities of arming student’s with a multifaceted approach to hand hygiene and the lasting effects on the practice. After obtaining approval from the medical center’s institutional review board, 75junior-level baccalaureate nursing students consented to voluntary study participation. Although the study indicates the students “agreed” to participate, the question remains whether or not participating in the study was in any way connected to a participation grade for the research course in which the students were concurrently enrolled in at the time of the study. The additional exposure and attention paid to hand hygiene and infection control would benefit these study participants.
The major variables are not specifically identified in this study. Some independent variables are: all of the subjects are nursing students, students are junior level enrolled in the research class, and all students will be provided with the same training for the study. Independent variables include: individual perception and understanding if training, retention of information, individuals assigned to different areas for observation, and individual motivation.
The instruments utilized for the study included three self –report questionnaires: The hand hygiene knowledge survey, hand washing opinions survey, and hand hygiene practice survey. These questionnaires were designed to provide reflection on current level of knowledge and beliefs to the researchers and students. Students were then provided with a skills training session with infection control personnel. This training was designed to illustrate responsibility for hand hygiene at every level in hospital and affiliated clinic settings. Students were then paired with infection control personnel for hand hygiene monitoring sessions. The paired sessions were performed to assure accurate data collection by the students. Each student had 2-4 sessions with infection control personnel before performing independent observations. Once data collection was completed, focus groups were held to discuss the results. The length of time to complete this study was 3 months. During this time over 900 observations of hospital and clinic personnel were made.
Analysis of the data from the student self- reporting surveys used descriptive statistical (frequencies and mean/standard deviation) and nonparametric testing utilizing SPSS version 18.0 software (2010). Further development of study details as well as effects to reduce researcher bias was not mentioned. One can only assume, since there were 4 authors credited in the study, that each researcher examined the data. It is unknown if this was done independently.
Any type of training requires reinforcement and practice. Additionally, there are many types of individual learning styles. These styles can be addressed and reinforced using a variety of modalities in training. This program, while not designed with the intent to solely teach infection control measure, did offer valuable lessons and reinforcement to the students. Students were able to examine and reflect on their knowledge base, receive formal classroom training, observe professionals in action, and finally demonstrate understanding of the infection control measures by observing other healthcare professionals’ deficits.
This study would be of benefit student nurses in academic settings, but in the workplace too lengthy. In place of the observation period, promotion of peer to peer accountability could be an option. Training on how to approach and address peers could be taught. Additionally, patients could be included in the accountability process, by asking healthcare staff, “Did you wash your hands?” This could be created into a campaign to further extend infection control measures by having patients ask their nurses, other healthcare providers and even visitors to perform hand hygiene.
Healthcare dollars are increasingly coming under scrutiny (CDC 2009) of the quickest interventions to decrease the cost of healthcare and increase patient outcomes may be through hand washing. This study is an example of how, at every level, education and compliance can make a difference.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs): the burden. Retrieved August 5, 2012, from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). The direct medical costs of health –associated infections in U.S. hospitals and the benefits of prevention. Retrieved August 5, 2012, from
Waltman, P. A., Schenk, L. K., Martin, T. M., & Walker, J. (2011). Effects of student participation in hand hygiene monitoring on knowledge and perception of infection control practices. Journal of Nursing Education, 50(4), 216-221. Retrieved August 5, 2012, from EBSCOhost

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Cam in Nursing Practice

...Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Today’s Nursing Practice Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Today’s Nursing Practice Complementary and Alternative Medicine is becoming more and more prevalent in the healthcare world as an acceptable treatment modality. Due to increase in patient demand for these treatments, it is important for the nurses to be able to implement various CAM into their nursing practice to provide holistic care for their patients. It is also important for nurses to be knowledgeable about the various forms of therapy and its benefits. CAM is meeting the needs of many consumers due to various reasons. The increase in healthcare cost has encouraged many consumers to research alternative methods to help cope with various medical conditions as opposed to turning to the pharmacological methods that were typically accepted years ago. Consumers also have more access to new trials and studies in regards to CAM because of increased access to the internet and media. Because of this, patients are more involved in their own healthcare and treatment decisions than in the previous years. According to the National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1 in 4 adults from various backgrounds are currently using CAM therapies. (“The use of, 2011) Some of the most common medical reasons patients decide to try CAM therapies are problems with anxiety and depression, reoccurring nausea and pain related to cancer, and symptom management related......

Words: 1561 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...INTRODUCTION : The lathe is a machine capable of a wide range of operations. Its function is the removal of material from a revolving work piece by means of a hardened steel tool rigidly held in a sliding post. So the overview is to provide student with knowledge to introduce the uses of the lathe, to include safety, the uses, repair and adjustment of lathe attachment and the various thread forms, uses, calculations and machining technique. Therefore with the workshop practice student will gain experience conducting the lathe machine in future and also perform safety working procedure. OBJECTIVES : 1. To expose student with safety working procedure according to safety rules and regulation. 2. Student should be able to differentiate and know the uses of various type of cutting processes following the manual procedure or instruction 3. Able to identify the advantages and drawbacks of the lathe machine parts including tool bits and how they are being used with correct procedure. LIST OF EQUIPMENT : 1. Lathe machine 2. Three jaw chucks and chuck key 3. Tool bit and tool bit holder 4. Vernier caliper 5. Goggle WORKING DRAWING : Equipment drawing Work piece drawing SAFETY PROCEDURE : GENERAL SAFETY TIPS 1....

Words: 1384 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Virtual Field Trip

...Virtual Field Trip Project |Grade Level: 6th | |Topic: Pearl Harbor | |Standards: | |USII.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of American involvement in World War II by | |a) identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the attack on Pearl Harbor; | |b) locating and describing the major events and turning points of the war in Europe and the Pacific; | |c) Describing the impact of the war on the home front. | | | |Objective: Learn more on attack of Pearl Harbor and what it looks like today. ...

Words: 260 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Educational Preparation

...BSN In conducting the research for this paper I was a little biased in my opinions of this topic and had to keep an open mind. I am an associate-degree level nurse, and have been for six years. I feel that my experience has taught me a lot about critical thinking, and helping patients improve their outcomes. I felt pressure in to completing my baccalaureate-degree level of education before I felt that I was ready to complete the education. I now have a better understanding into baccalaureate education as being the accepted minimum requirement for nurses. Much research has been done, relating to BSN versus ADN nurses and better patient outcomes. In Grand Canyon University College of Nursing Philosophy, it states “Baccalaureate nursing practice incorporates the roles of assessing, critical thinking, communicating, providing care, teaching, and leading.” I feel that no matter what education level one has after nursing programs that this is a baseline for nurses. It was hard for me to see that nurses who graduate with their BSN were better at bedside care than one who has their ADN. Looking at the research, and numbers of studies done, I now have an open mind on how having a BSN could affect better patient outcomes. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing refers to the NCLEX-RN examination and states “The fact that new nurses pass the licensing exam at...

Words: 1060 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Environmental and Global Development

...more advanced, the boundary will be reshaped by the infinity of imagination. Of course, if people just have the ideas, no matter how creative it is, they don’t act on them, it is just imagining but not being creative. Imagination “The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination.” - Albert Einstein True. Knowledge is limited and discovered. When a person is telling historical stories or giving opinions with references of facts and information, we say this person is knowledgeable and educated. Einstein was a great scientist and very intelligent. He created many theories, such as the energy formula: E=Mc^2. He had the capacity for logic, abstract thoughts and critical thinking. It is the curiosity and imagination that motivate one to explore the possibility. This “breaking box” capacity is needed for discovering creative solutions and new knowledge. I absolutely agree with Einstein, imagination is more important than knowledge. Can Creativity Be Learned? I see creativity as a way of thinking, and it can be acquired from a supportive environment. I strongly see the differences since I have studied in both Western and Eastern schools. Chinese students are forced to learn knowledge by memorizing the concepts, as long as students can pass the exam. Chinese students are lack of practicing in critical thinking. In Western education, Teacher...

Words: 615 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Bsn Versus Asn

...Educational Preparation Introduction Education has a strong effect on a nurse’s ability to practice. All patient deserve the best educated nursing staff. According to researchers there is an interesting correlation between BSN education and lower mortality rate. Research also shows us that there are less medication errors and greater positive outcomes for the patients. The Nurses holding BSN degree have shown that they have decreased the risk of patient’s death. This topic will focus on the differences between ADN and BSN nursing care, based on the example of treatment a patient receives from both types of nurses. Associate Nurse An Associate degree nurse is a nurse with 2 to 3 years nursing training. Graduate of this program is qualified to take the NCLEX to become a registered nurse. An Associate degree nurse has many roles such as teaching the patient about their conditions, assessing the patient’s condition, care plans, doctors’ orders, treatments, and medication. Some of the responsibilities that ADN nurses have are supervisory of the LVN, LPN, CNA, and other healthcare workers. ADN nurses thrive with more independence along with more complex situations with lots of ill patients. Baccalaureate Nurse A Baccalaureate Nurse is represented as a nurse with 4 to 5 years nursing training. Graduates of this programs are qualified to take the NCLEX exam to become a registered nurse. BSN nursing includes the role of assessing,......

Words: 949 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...days. Today, knowledge in all its forms plays a crucial role in economic processes. Organizations with more knowledge systematically outperform those with less. Within the knowledge-based economy, innovation is seen to play a central role. It was believed that an enterprise can maintain competitive advantage through quality and price. However, the research at the Ernst Young Centre for Business Innovation (CBI) has revealed that innovation isone of the most valuable differentiator for sustainable competitive advantage. Firms innovate to defend their competitive position as well as to seek competitive advantage. Innovation is at the heart of economic change. In Schumpeter’s words, “radical” innovations shape big changes in the world, whereas “incremental” innovations fill in the process of change continuously. Innovation is the motor of the modern economy, turning ideas and knowledge into products and services. 1 Apple, Google, 3M, Toyota, Microsoft, GE, and P&G were the most innovative companies in the year 2006 as per the annual list of the world’s 25 innovative firms. Innovation has been mostly discussed related to technology, product and processes. It has been argued that product and process innovation are not the main bottleneck to progress. The bottleneck is management innovation. But what is management innovation? Why is it so important? And how can companies learn to become management innovators? The present management systems, structures, practices, processes,......

Words: 711 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Article Review

...Article Review on: Toward Culture Intelligence: Turning Cultural Differences into a Workplace Advantage. The article under review is entitled as "Toward Culture Intelligence: Turning Cultural Differences into a Workplace Advantage." by Earley, P. Christopher, and Elaine Mosakowski. This article has been acquired from the journal, Academy of Management Perspective, Volume 18, Issue No. 3 and was published on August 1, 2004. The article attempts to explain the traditional approaches that were used in understanding and explaining the differences among people who belonged to diverse backgrounds and have a different culture. It then focuses on the recent development of a newer approach that is cultural intelligence, its framework and different managerial profiles that can be helpful for competing with other organizations in this era of diversity and globalization. The authors have described two traditional approaches in this article that were used to study cultural diversity. The first approach is, the aggregate approach, in which the researchers identify and ascertain the values and beliefs of people in a particular region or a country and then they associate those beliefs and values to those set of people. This approach is more generalized and therefore it does not account for the differences among individuals from the same cultural background. The second approach is, the individual approach, in which the researchers do not focus on the culture to which the individual......

Words: 1395 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Social Marketing resources available for public health professionals from Turning Point, and the Turning Point Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative, funded by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. It is intended as a stand-alone tool to help you apply effective social marketing to your public health programs and practices. It may be integrated with other social marketing resources, many of which are available free of charge. Visit or check the More Resources For You section at the end of this publication for more information. Acknowledgements The Manager’s Guide to Social Marketing was developed under the auspices of the Turning Point Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative, one of five national collaboratives working to strengthen and transform public health as part of the Turning Point Initiative. Seven states and two national partners participated in this project: Illinois, Ohio, Maine, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Virginia, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation provided financial support for this endeavor. We would like to acknowledge the following individuals for their contributions to this work. Contributing Consultant: Rebecca Brookes, Director of Social Marketing, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. Contributing Members of the Turning Point Social Marketing National Excellence Collaborative:......

Words: 8028 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

How Does Knowledge of the Foundations and History of Nursing Provide a Context in Which to Understand Current Practice? Identify at Least Three Trends in Nursing Practice Demonstrated by the Interactive Timeline. How

...Knowledge of the foundation and history of nursing provides a context in which to understand current practice by providing insight into the challenges faced in the past, the obstacles overcome and an understanding of the progression of the profession. If unknown, history tends to repeat itself. Learning from past mistakes and successes, such as Florence Nightingale’s revolutionary work on improving sanitary conditions, we are able to use the knowledge to further improve the profession of nursing. The understanding of current practices is directly related to the understanding and advancement of past practices. Based on the Nursing Timeline of Historical Events (n.a, n.d), the first trend that has influence my perception of nursing is the progression of a male dominated, religious calling to a women dominated profession with or without religious affiliations. While the act of nursing seems to have always been a calling to heal the sick and wounded, today it is not necessarily a religious calling but more of a calling of healing and compassion towards those in need , although many hospitals and foundations have religious roots . I believe the trend toward the women dominated profession is also shifting slightly as more males are seeking admittance into the profession. Nursing is now becoming a bi-gender profession as it is overcoming the past prejudices of society. A second important trend from this timeline is of nurses transitioning from that of uneducated, low class......

Words: 524 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Knowledge-Based System for Selection of Manufacturing Resources

...1. INTRODUCTION A knowledge based system is a computer program that uses knowledge to solve complex problems. The knowledge’s are gain using various knowledge representation techniques rules, frames and scripts. Having this in hand, will gave user documentation of knowledge, intelligent decision support, self learning, reasoning and explanation of the system. Knowledge based systems further enhanced the expert system technology into the decision making framework. Expert system has been the tools and techniques perfected by researchers to deduce decision influences based on codification of knowledge. There are four different system software’s needed to manufacture part (e.g. Fish Head) in the manufacturing production. First of all is Computer Aided Design (CAD). It involves the use of computer to create design drawing and product models. The CAD design is usually associated with interactive computer graphics known as CAD system. CAD is the process to create the modeling for object by using the three elements which are computer graphics, geometry modeling and design. CAD system is a powerful tool and is used in the design and geometric modeling of components and products (McMohan, C. and Browne, J. 1998). Second is the Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP). It is a tool to simplify and improve process planning. The planning begins with engineering drawings, specifications, parts or material lists and a forecast of demand (Kalpakjian, S. and......

Words: 1621 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Knowledge Management

...Strategic Knowledge Management What is it and why is it important? Summary  Knowledge is re-usable.  Knowledge is different from information. Both are needed for effective decision making.  Knowledge of a domain helps identify which information is relevant.  Strategic Knowledge Management addresses the four major weaknesses in the strategic decision making process.  Strategic Knowledge Tools require explanatory power. Fuzzy logic provides this. 1. Knowledge - What is it? A successful business makes good decisions, implements them well - and then learns from the experience in order to do better next time. To make a good decision, one needs not only information about the specific instance, but also an understanding of the domain. In other words, one needs a set of principles, models, templates or other abstractions. These abstractions are then re-usable for making new decisions with different information. Knowledge is re-usable - unlike information which relates to specific instances.  Knowledge is a set of re-usable abstractions that assist understanding and provide meaning to decision-making.  Information is about specific instances and is the raw material of particular decisions. For instance: Consider a civil engineering business that builds bridges. Its knowledge is in its understanding of how to build bridges, how to manage projects, how to handle finance etc. This knowledge is re-usable. Its information is about specific bridges, budgets...

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Modification In Education

...schools with high rates of children living in poverty, strong leaders are not just a key factor; they are the key driver in turning schools around and helping all students succeed (The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) , 2011). Since the enactment and revision of the No Child Left Behind legislation, schools and communities have focused much attention on the dynamics of educating students who have historically been disenfranchised by the public-school system. Much research...

Words: 750 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Creating Disciples

...of the process and importance of the training program, which is designed for developing and supporting employee trainers, but I still cannot completely agree with the authors’ model. Martin & Hrivnak (pg.614) are talking about turning novice employees into trainers if this employee feels strongly enough about the idea to volunteer to teach other employees. But they are not talking about rewards, recognitions or promotions. According to Martin & Hrivnak (2009) an organization has to follow the “why” and “how” approach, and needs to understand the benefits and disadvantages between hiring an insider or an outsider to train others. Deciding which trainer to choose depends on the objectives of the program and how valuable they will be for an organization. By turning employees into disciple trainers will benefit the company in many ways. The insiders are cost-effective for the company. Also, training process can be easier because trainers will be accepted by their peers, which will lead to a comfortable work environment. Trainers can relate to other employees because they are already in the culture, they already went through the learning process and will be able to teach and train. They have organizational specific knowledge, tacit knowledge, and skills. And in addition, they will be available to help trainees with any questions at all the time. On another hand, the outsiders in the article are professional trainers or “wizards” and they are identified as a......

Words: 1584 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Hospital and Longterm Facilities

... Experience One of the hallmark studies in nursing providing keen insight into understanding the influence of experience was a qualitative study of adult, pediatric, and neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) nurses, where the nurses were clustered into advanced beginner, intermediate, and expert level of practice categories. The advanced beginner (having up to 6 months of work experience) used procedures and protocols to determine which clinical actions were needed. When confronted with a complex patient situation, the advanced beginner felt their practice was unsafe because of a knowledge deficit or because of a knowledge application confusion. The transition from advanced beginners to competent practitioners began when they first had experience with actual clinical situations and could benefit from the knowledge gained from the mistakes of their colleagues. Competent nurses continuously questioned what they saw and heard, feeling an obligation to know more about clinical situations. In doing do, they moved from only using care plans and following the physicians’ orders to analyzing and interpreting patient situations. Beyond that, the proficient nurse acknowledged the changing relevance of clinical situations requiring action beyond what was planned or anticipated. The proficient......

Words: 1029 - Pages: 5