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Tutorial 3

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Arberesha Gashi 10.02.12
Biology of organisms 207 lab tutorial 3

Kidney functions:

1) a) Glomerular filtration rate :
The glomerulus is known as a filtration center where majority of the blood vessels pump so they can take in nutrients and produce urine. The glomerular filtration rate provides us with the rate of blood flow through the filters in the kidneys. The rate is measured each minute, showing what has been filtered through. The GFR test informs people about their kidneys and if they are working well. The test is conducted by taking a sample of blood, and evaluating how much creatinine is in the body. The level of creatinine along with other factors measures the filtration rate. Healthy results should show that your body is filtering the creatinine well, because it is a waste that needs to be excreted. The GFR, about 125 mL/min (180 liters/day).
b) Renal clearance: relates to how much volume of the plasma that is cleared of a compound per unit of time. An example would include, the kidney may filter and remove all of the urea in a 65ml of plasma in one minute. The kidneys help filter the blood and absorb nutrients in one flow, and release other parts as urea.
c) Vasa recta: This includes a thin blood vessels which aligns from the efferent arterioles, that leave each glomerulus in the kidney ( nephron). The vasa recta are is what forms the u shaped loops next to the loop of henle.
d) Simple effect:

2) List of large organic molecules through the kidney include: Amino acids, glucose, salt and water are absorbed in the descending or proximal limb of the tubule, where as more water and salts are absorbed in the ascending or distal limb. The glucose, proteins, and other ions are always maintained in the blood and not in the urine. Large molecules...

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