Free Essay

Two Alternative Projects to Eurasia Tunnel

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ng0456
Words 1326
Pages 6
In this chapter we find alternative solutions for decreasing traffic situation in Istanbul. There are two possible solutions for that; they are usage of a third Bridge that connect two continents and usage of Ferries.
Our assumptions for alternative solutions are to develop car transportation via ferries or a third bridge. In order to make comparison of all three projects more easy we take the capacity for all projects as 120,000 vehicles per day, because the capacity of the tunnel and the third bridge are similar.

Two alternative solutions
As it known in Istanbul there is a big concern about traffic and its possible solutions. The main difficulty for people that live in Istanbul is to get from Asian side to European side by their own car and as example to get from Kadikoy to Zeytinburnu by normal way through the bridge can take approximately 100 minutes. The Eurasia Tunnel project is a new solution for this problem that will take 15 minutes to pass from one side to another. But also there are two more possible solutions like usage of Ferries and usage of a Third Bridge.
Pic. 1 (A- Zeytinburnu, B-Kadikoy 1-Ferry for cars) On the Picture 1 there is shown the way that vehicles have to pass in order to get from point A to point B. And it is obvious that the way is not short that is also including traffics on the bridges. So the alternative solution can be a usage of ferry.
There are two types of ferries in Istanbul one of them that can take only passengers as a bus, so it called Ferry Bus; and the other one can take passengers with their own car. But nowadays there is only one pier for car’s Ferry, from Sirkeci to Harem, and its price starts from 3,5 TL to 20 TL according to car’s type and the time. Its capacity is about 2700 vehicles per day.

Also ferries work from 7 a.m. to 22.30 p.m. and for each time to get to another side it takes around 20 minutes and on weekends even 30 minutes.
It is obvious that there are not enough piers to cover the capacity of the bridge, that is around 120,000-130,000 per day. In order to cover it we have the first to build necessary number of piers and the second acquire the necessary amount of ferries.
So there should be build more piers. The area of one pier is about 16,000(m2) and according to Turkish government’s quota for year 2012 that says that 1(m2) for building a pier the cost is equal to 342 USD (615 TL) ( and the approximate price for one ferry that can carry about 60 vehicles is 1,3 million USD. To sum up, the result of alternative project, to build extra numbers of piers in order to cover norm of daily capacity, is not efficient; because it required a huge numbers of piers that have a big area to be placed and around 130 ferries that have to serve each hour for about 7200 vehicles for 15 hours. So we need to build around 40 piers to cover the capacity and its cost will be around 218,8 mln. USD. So total cost of the project is 387.880.000 USD.
Table 1.
Capacity 16.000 numbers of piers 40 cost per m2 342 usd cost per ferry 1.300.000 usd numbers of feries per hr 130 number of vehicles per hr 7.200

Cost per pier 5.472.000 usd
Total cost for 40 piers 218.880.000 usd
Total cost for 130 ferries 169.000.000
Total cost of a project 387.880.000 usd

If we compare the price of Eurasia Tunnel which is 1,1 billion USD to the project of building of piers which price is 387.880.000 USD is really low, but we have to consider about pollution of the bay and its traffic that already is high and have to be solved, and as it is known there will be build a new project Istanbul Canal that should cover its problem. So instead of decreasing traffic on the roads this project will increase it on the bay. Just to say there are too many of all, many piers, many ferries and much pollution.
More over it is not necessary that there will be enough demand for ferries to cover all costs. So according to table 2 it seems to be not successful project.
The building of a third bridge can decrease traffic. Its capacity is the same with the other bridges in Istanbul 120,000-130,000 vehicles.

Pic. 2

Table 2.
Cash inflows
Price for 1 vehicle 3,89 USD
Numbers of vehicles per fery 60,00
Numbers of feries per hr 130
Revenue from vahicles per day 30.333,33 USD
Revenue per year from vehicles 11.071.666,67 USD Price per passanger 2 USD
Numbers of passangers (avarage per hr) 800
Revenue for passangers per day 20.000 USD
Revenue per year from passangers 7.300.000 USD Total cash inflow per year (365 days) 18.371.667 USD Cash Outflows
Fuel per Ferry per km (average) 40 USD
Average distance between two continents 5 KM
Times ferry goes per day 30 Times
Numbers of feries per hr 130
Cost perferry per day for fuel 6000 USD
Cost for all ferries per day 780.000 USD
Cost for all ferries per year 284.700.000
Salary of personel per year in 130 ferry 19.968.000 USD
Maintenance per year (avarege) 10.000 USD
Salary of personel per pier per year 2.736.000 USD
Total cash outflow per year 307.414.000 USD
Net Income - 289.042.333

Time.The Eurasia Tunnel project has been formed in 2010 and already has passed through several stages. The Assembly of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality has approved the project; its construction has been started in June, 2012. The project is planned to be completed in 55 months; by now its construction process is going in hand with the plan of designers. According to the current condition of the project it seems that the project will be finished in the expected date.

Cost. Turkish-Korean Joint Venture that held this project is Yapı Merkezi from Turkey and SK E&C, Kukdong, Samwhan Corp. and Hanshin from Korea united in a partnership named ATAŞ (ATAŞ Avrasya Tüneli İşletme İnşaat ve Yatırım ). These companies have taken responsibility for the project and will be financing it.

Performance. In order to create a good quality product that would perform service for a long period of time fundamentals of the project take significant part in it- starting from the location of the tunnel and finishing with its final steps need to be deliberately organized. This project meets this condition: location has been chosen carefully with the smallest possible risk (as risk always exists), all the equipment needed during the construction is a high quality and last technology machines; its materials should be less harmful for people that going to use the tunnel. All these concepts will result in a good quality product.

Client acceptance. This final product would serve lots of people- drivers who stuck in traffic every day, sometimes twice or more in a day. There are many people who drive between the two continents in Istanbul and have to waste their times waiting in a traffic.

As it can be seen from the table below Eurasia Tunnel is more efficient compare to ferry and less costly compare to third bridge. Even though the tunnel for automobiles is not much known in Turkey it is clearly understandable and seems a logical project. Population in Istanbul aware of the seriousness of the traffic problem in the city, therefore the logic of this project could be easily understood.

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, Volume 7, No. 1 (2009) p. 47-59 © Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program ISSN: 1653-4212 China-Central Asia Trade Relations: Economic and Social Patterns Sadykzhan Ibraimov* ABSTRACT The aim of this article is to study China’s economic presence in Central Asia and its main involvements in raw materials, transport routes, opening of markets and free economic zones, and small and medium-scale projects. It must be noted that over the years from 1992 to 2007, the highest trading volumes were between China and Kazakhstan, which represented from 80 to 86 percent of all Chinese-Central Asian trade. This growing economic cooperation has a social impact on the development of a Central Asian business diaspora based in Xinjiang. China also demonstrates its capacity to use local corruption schemes and internal Central Asian weaknesses in its own interests: From the earliest years of independence, smuggling with China, especially the export of metals and the import of consumer goods, has proved to be a very profitable venture for Central Asian high-level officials. Keywords • China-Central Asia Trade • Xinjiang • Business Diaspora • Shuttle Trade • Corruption Introduction The main difficulty in the study of economic relationships between China and Central Asia is the lack of reliable or complete information. Many reasons can explain this fact. The Central Asian states, first of all, do not publish......

Words: 5863 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Earth History Upper 100-350 km of upper mantle makes up asthenosphere: fluid layer due to heating from core Plate tectonics Earth’s uppermost layer, the lithosphere, broken up into 7 plates due to movement of asthenosphere underneath Plate tectonics- name for dynamic interactions of these plates Plate boundaries 3 types: divergent, covergent, and transform Divergent boundaries: tension from deep earth pulls two plates away from each other, allowing lava to upwell through the cracks and create new seafloor Covergent boundaries: two plates coming together as stress pushes plates toward each other- one plate forced under another in a subduction zone Transform boundaries: two plates slide past each other horizontally-frequent cause of destructive forces like earthquakes The nature of earthquakes Cause = abrupt movements on faults Fractures in earths lithosphere Normal fault- block above the fault has moved downward relative to the black below Reverse fault- upper block, above the fault plane, moves up and over the lower block (aka thrust fault) Right lateral strike slip fault- two blocks slide past one another Earths crustal plates move Stress produces strain which cause earthquake Stressed rocks store strain energy Elastic rebound theory Harold F Reid When there is sufficient strain energy in rocks, they may rupture (rubber band) Stored strain energy is released as vibrations that radiate outward in all directions Focus= point where rupture starts Epicenter=......

Words: 11141 - Pages: 45

Free Essay


...eliminating from the study the lifestyle differences of diet, exercise, smoking, and drinking, the data showed that the Americans have poorer health than their British counterparts. The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions? Health care spending in the United States should be reduced by 50%. More expensive health care causes a higher incidence of certain diseases. The money spent on health care in the United States is not being used effectively. The average health care spending for middle-aged white Americans is probably less than the average health care spending for Americans in general. Something other than diet, exercise, smoking, and drinking must account for the difference in health for the two groups in the study. Spokesperson: In the 2006 election of the city mayor, 55% of the voters were female. All the voters were between ages 18 and 70 and 2/3 of them supported the incumbent mayor. The incumbent mayor won the election with a substantially greater number of votes than any other candidate. If the statements made by the Spokesperson are true, then which of the following must be true? • • • • • At least 1/2 of the female voters supported the incumbent mayor. The incumbent mayor received stronger support from the female voters than from the male voters. There were no other candidates in the election who received more than 30% of all the votes. 45% of the...

Words: 52762 - Pages: 212

Premium Essay

Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality

...Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality By the same author Britain – Workshop or Service Centre to the World? The British Hotel and Catering Industry The Business of Hotels (with H. Ingram) Europeans on Holiday Higher Education and Research in Tourism in Western Europe Historical Development of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart) Holiday Surveys Examined The Management of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart eds) Managing Tourism (ed.) A Manual of Hotel Reception (with J.R.S. Beavis) Paying Guests Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry (with D.W. Airey) Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century (with A. Lockwood eds) Tourism and Productivity Tourism Council of the South Pacific Corporate Plan Tourism Employment in Wales Tourism: Past, Present and Future (with A.J. Burkart) Trends in Tourism: World Experience and England’s Prospects Trends in World Tourism Understanding Tourism Your Manpower (with J. Denton) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality S. Medlik Third edition OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803 First published 1993 Reprinted (with amendments) 1994 Second edition 1996 Third edition 2003 Copyright © 1993, 1996, 2003, S. Medlik. All rights reserved The right of S. Medlik to be identified as the author of this work has been......

Words: 133754 - Pages: 536

Free Essay

Nit-Silchar B.Tech Syllabus

...NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SILCHAR Bachelor of Technology Programmes amï´>r¶ JH$s g§ñWmZ, m¡Úmo{ à VO o pñ Vw dZ m dY r V ‘ ñ Syllabi and Regulations for Undergraduate PROGRAMME OF STUDY (wef 2012 entry batch) Ma {gb Course Structure for B.Tech (4years, 8 Semester Course) Civil Engineering ( to be applicable from 2012 entry batch onwards) Course No CH-1101 /PH-1101 EE-1101 MA-1101 CE-1101 HS-1101 CH-1111 /PH-1111 ME-1111 Course Name Semester-1 Chemistry/Physics Basic Electrical Engineering Mathematics-I Engineering Graphics Communication Skills Chemistry/Physics Laboratory Workshop Physical Training-I NCC/NSO/NSS L 3 3 3 1 3 0 0 0 0 13 T 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 3 0 2 3 2 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 6 0 0 8 2 C 8 6 8 5 6 2 3 0 0 38 8 8 8 8 6 2 0 0 40 8 8 6 6 6 2 2 2 40 6 6 8 2 Course No EC-1101 CS-1101 MA-1102 ME-1101 PH-1101/ CH-1101 CS-1111 EE-1111 PH-1111/ CH-1111 Course Name Semester-2 Basic Electronics Introduction to Computing Mathematics-II Engineering Mechanics Physics/Chemistry Computing Laboratory Electrical Science Laboratory Physics/Chemistry Laboratory Physical Training –II NCC/NSO/NSS Semester-4 Structural Analysis-I Hydraulics Environmental Engg-I Structural Design-I Managerial Economics Engg. Geology Laboratory Hydraulics Laboratory Physical Training-IV NCC/NSO/NSS Semester-6 Structural Design-II Structural Analysis-III Foundation Engineering Transportation Engineering-II Hydrology......

Words: 126345 - Pages: 506

Premium Essay

Managing Cultura Differences

...MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SIXTHEDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES SERIES Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for the 21 st Century, Sixth Edition Philip R. Harris, Ph.D., Robert T. Moran, Ph.D., Sarah V. Moran, M.A. Managing Cultural Diversity in Technical Professions Lionel Laroche, Ph.D Uniting North American Business—NAFTA Best Practices Jeffrey D. Abbot and Robert T. Moran, Ph.D. Eurodiversity: A Business Guide to Managing Differences George Simons, D.M. Global Strategic Planning: Cultural Perspectives for Profit and Non-Profit Organizations Marios I. Katsioulodes Ph.D. Competing Globally: Mastering Cross-Cultural Management and Negotiations Farid Elashmawi, Ph.D. Succeeding in Business in Eastern and Central Europe—A Guide to Cultures, Markets, and Practices Woodrow H. Sears, Ed.D. and Audrone Tamulionyte-Lentz, M.S. Intercultural Services: A Worldwide Buyer’s Guide and Sourcebook Gary M. Wederspahn, M.A. SIXTH EDITION MANAGING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES GLOBAL LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES ST FOR THE 21 CENTURY 25TH ANNIVERSARY EDITION PHILIP R. HARRIS, PH.D. ROBERT T. MORAN, PH.D. SARAH V. MORAN, M.A. JUDITH SOCCORSY Editorial Coordinator Elsevier Butterworth–Heinemann 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803, USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright © 2004, Philip R. Harris, Robert T. Moran, Sarah V. Moran. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in......

Words: 229816 - Pages: 920

Free Essay

Research Paper

...ANNOTATED SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR HISTORICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN BRITAIN Gerard M Koot History Department University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Allen, Robert C., The British Industrial Revolution in a Global Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Pp. viii, 331. Allen’s book is an excellent example of the persuasiveness of the new economic history. It is solidly rooted in statistical data and uses sophisticated methods of economic analysis but its analysis is presented in plain English. He argues that the first industrial revolution occurred in northwestern Europe because its high wages during the early modern period encouraged technological innovation. Although high wages were initially a consequence of the demographic disaster of the Black Death, they were reinforced during the early modern period by the economic success of the region around the North Sea, first, in European trade and manufacturing, especially in wresting the textile industry from the Italians, and then in world trade. According to Allen, the first industrial revolution took place in Britain instead of the Low Countries primarily because of Britain’s abundant and cheap coal resources, combined with the central government’s ability to use mercantilist policies and naval power to reap the greatest benefits from an expanding European and world trade. Once it had taken the lead from the Dutch, and defeated the French, Britain used its comparative......

Words: 27796 - Pages: 112

Premium Essay

Jared Diamond Collapse

...COLLAPSE HOW S O C I E T I E S CHOOSE TO FAIL OR S U C C E E D JARED DIAMOND VIK ING VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Group (Canada), 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Books Australia Ltd, 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi—110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), Cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England First published in 2005 by Viking Penguin, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 13579 10 8642 Copyright © Jared Diamond, 2005 All rights reserved Maps by Jeffrey L. Ward LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION DATA Diamond, Jared M. Collapse: how societies choose to fail or succeed/Jared Diamond. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-670-03337-5 1. Social history—Case studies. 2. Social change—Case studies. 3. Environmental policy— Case studies. I. Title. HN13. D5 2005......

Words: 235965 - Pages: 944

Premium Essay


...ROBERT F. HARTLEY • Cindy Claycomb 12th Edition T W E L F T H E D I T I O N MARKETING MISTAKES AND SUCCESSES Robert F. Hartley Late of Cleveland State University Cindy Claycomb Wichita State University VICE PRESIDENT & EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER SENIOR EDITOR PROJECT EDITOR EDITORIAL ASSISTANT ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OF MARKETING MARKETING MANAGER MARKETING ASSISTANT DESIGN DIRECTOR PRODUCT DESIGNER SENIOR PRODUCTION MANAGER ASSOCIATE PRODUCTION MANAGER PRODUCTION EDITOR COVER DESIGNER George Hoffman Franny Kelly Brian Baker Jacqueline Hughes Amy Scholz Kelly Simmons Marissa Carroll Harry Nolan Allison Morris Janis Soo Joel Balbin Eugenia Lee Kenji Ngieng This book was set in 10/12 New Caledonia by Aptara®, Inc. and printed and bound by Courier/Westford. The cover was printed by Courier/Westford. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Our company is built on a foundation of principles that include responsibility to the communities we serve and where we live and work. In 2008, we launched a Corporate Citizenship Initiative, a global effort to address the environmental, social, economic, and ethical challenges we face in our business. Among the issues we are addressing are carbon impact, paper specifications and procurement,......

Words: 180086 - Pages: 721

Premium Essay

Mm4 Details Case Study E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N MARKETING MISTAKES AND SUCCESSES 3 0 T H A N N I V E R S A RY Robert F. Hartley Cleveland State University JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. VICE PRESIDENT & PUBLISHER EXECUTIVE EDITOR ASSISTANT EDITOR PRODUCTION MANAGER PRODUCTION ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE MARKETING MANAGER ASSISTANT MARKETING MANAGER MARKETING ASSISTANT DESIGN DIRECTOR SENIOR DESIGNER SENIOR MEDIA EDITOR George Hoffman Lise Johnson Carissa Doshi Dorothy Sinclair Matt Winslow Amy Scholz Carly DeCandia Alana Filipovich Jeof Vita Arthur Medina Allison Morris This book was set in 10/12 New Caledonia by Aptara®, Inc. and printed and bound by Courier/Westford. The cover was printed by Courier/Westford. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright © 2009, 2006, 2004, 2001, 1998, 1995, 1992, 1989, 1986, 1981, 1976 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, website Requests to the Publisher for permission......

Words: 177260 - Pages: 710

Free Essay

China Fragile Superpower

...China Fragile Superpower This page intentionally left blank Fragile Superpower Susan L. Shirk China 2007 Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright © 2007 by Susan L. Shirk Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Shirk, Susan L. China: fragile superpower / by Susan L. Shirk. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-19-530609-5 1. Nationalism—China. 2. China—Politics and government—2002– I. Title. JC311.S525 2007 320.951—dc22 2006027998 135798642 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper For Sam, Lucy, and David Popkin This page intentionally......

Words: 135807 - Pages: 544

Free Essay


...62118 0/nm 1/n1 2/nm 3/nm 4/nm 5/nm 6/nm 7/nm 8/nm 9/nm 1990s 0th/pt 1st/p 1th/tc 2nd/p 2th/tc 3rd/p 3th/tc 4th/pt 5th/pt 6th/pt 7th/pt 8th/pt 9th/pt 0s/pt a A AA AAA Aachen/M aardvark/SM Aaren/M Aarhus/M Aarika/M Aaron/M AB aback abacus/SM abaft Abagael/M Abagail/M abalone/SM abandoner/M abandon/LGDRS abandonment/SM abase/LGDSR abasement/S abaser/M abashed/UY abashment/MS abash/SDLG abate/DSRLG abated/U abatement/MS abater/M abattoir/SM Abba/M Abbe/M abbé/S abbess/SM Abbey/M abbey/MS Abbie/M Abbi/M Abbot/M abbot/MS Abbott/M abbr abbrev abbreviated/UA abbreviates/A abbreviate/XDSNG abbreviating/A abbreviation/M Abbye/M Abby/M ABC/M Abdel/M abdicate/NGDSX abdication/M abdomen/SM abdominal/YS abduct/DGS abduction/SM abductor/SM Abdul/M ab/DY abeam Abelard/M Abel/M Abelson/M Abe/M Aberdeen/M Abernathy/M aberrant/YS aberrational aberration/SM abet/S abetted abetting abettor/SM Abeu/M abeyance/MS abeyant Abey/M abhorred abhorrence/MS abhorrent/Y abhorrer/M abhorring abhor/S abidance/MS abide/JGSR abider/M abiding/Y Abidjan/M Abie/M Abigael/M Abigail/M Abigale/M Abilene/M ability/IMES abjection/MS abjectness/SM abject/SGPDY abjuration/SM abjuratory abjurer/M abjure/ZGSRD ablate/VGNSDX ablation/M ablative/SY ablaze abler/E ables/E ablest able/U abloom ablution/MS Ab/M ABM/S abnegate/NGSDX abnegation/M Abner/M abnormality/SM abnormal/SY ab......

Words: 113589 - Pages: 455