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Tx and Sonet

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By nicholasbattles
Words 309
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T(X) and SONET Hierarchy
Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are SMP’s that transfer digital information over optical fiber using Light Emitting Diodes, or LEDs. SONET allows for simultaneous transmission of a multitude of different circuits of different origin with a single framing protocol.
The unit of framing in SONET is STS-3c, which stands for Synchronous Transport Signal, and the C stands for concatenated. This may also be referred to as OC-3c, which stands for Optical Carrier. This is determined by whether the signal is carried electronically or optically. In SDH, the base frame is referred to as STM-1, or Synchronous Transport Module, the 1 stands for the first level of the SDH hierarchy.
The way the hierarchy is developed by multiplexing signals. For example, three STS-1 signals are multiplexed to for STS-3, and OC-3. Higher-speed circuits are formed by aggregated multiples of slower circuits. For the next hierarchy level, four STS-3 signals aggregated form STS-12c or OC-12c. This is done on each level to form the SONET hierarchy.
T(x) Hierarchy
The North American Signal hierarchy was developed in the 1960’s by AT&T, and was the world’s first digital voice system. The signal hierarchy defines the levels of multiplexing. Digital signals are assigned a carrier, which is then given a T(x) designation.
The first hierarchy is the T-1 level, which has a 1.544 mbit/s speed. The second level is the T-2 level and has a 6.312 mbit/s speed. The third level in the T(x) hierarch is the T-3 carrier, this has a speed of 44 mbit/s. The fourth and fifth levels were previously known as T-4, and T-5 carriers, have been replaced by the newer OC-x carriers.

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