Premium Essay

Types of Transformers

In: Science

Submitted By sobansa
Words 4710
Pages 19
Table of Contents 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Working Principle 3 1.1.1 Mutual Inductance 3 1.1.2 Ideal Transformer 3 1.1.3 Real Transformer 3 1.2 Main Types 3 1.2.1 Step-up Transformer 3 1.2.2 Step-down Transformer 3 1.3 Transformer Ratios 3 1.3.1 Turn Ratio 3 1.3.2 Voltage Ratio 3 1.3.3 Power Ratio 3 1.4 Uses and Applications 3 2 History of Transformer 3 2.1 A.C or D.C 3 2.2 Need of Transformer 3 2.3 Invention of Transformer 3 2.4 First Commercial Use 3 2.5 Transformer Development Timeline [13] 3 1830s 3 1836 3 1876 3 1878 -1883 3 1881 3 1880-1882 3 1882 - 3 1884 3 1884 3 1885 3 1885 3 1886 3 Later 1880s 3 1889 3 1891 3 1891 3 1880s - Today 3 3 Working of Transformer 3 3.1 Construction 3 3.1.1 Core Construction 3 3.1.2 Winding Arrangements 3 3.2 Working 3 4 Types of Transformer 3 4.1 On the Basis of Construction 3 4.1.1 Core Type Transformer 3 4.1.2 Shell Type Transformer 4 4.2 On the Basis Their Purpose 5 4.2.1 Step up Transformer 5 4.2.2 Step down Transformer 6 On the Basis of Type of Supply 7 References: 8

1 Introduction
A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit using inductively coupled conductors. In other words by putting two coils of wire close together while not touching, the magnetic field from the first coil called the primary winding effects the other coil (called the secondary coil). This effect is called "inductance". [12]
1.1 Working Principle
Transformer works on the principle of mutual induction of two coils. When current in the primary coil is changed the flux linked to the secondary coil also changes. Consequently an EMF is induced in the secondary coil. [2] 1.1.1 Mutual Inductance
The phenomenon in which a changing current in one coils induces current in another coil is called...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Social Networking Sites

...insulation may give serious shock to avoid this switch off main supply. 3. Before replacing any blown fuse, always remember to put the main switch ‘off’. 4. Never place bare wires of leads in plug. Fit a plug top 5. Check proper working of safety devices 6. Use correct rating of fuses. 7. Check that all metallic parts of electrical equipments are effectively earthed. 8. Replace immediately broken switches and plugs etc. 9. Do not use tools like file, knife, screw drivers etc without handle otherwise it can injure your hand. 10. In case of electric fire, do not throw water on live conductor and equipment immediately and then throw sand or dust on the fire. Use carbon tetrachloride or liquid carbon dioxide type fire extinguishers MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER Now – a – days instead of use miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) are used. Merits are: 1. Automatic switch OFF in case of overload or short circuit. 2. Quick identification of fauty circuit even in dark. 3. supply restored by switching ON again – No fuses to replace or rewire. 4. Automatic switch back to OFF if over load prersisits of faulty appliance is connected. A Miniature Circuit Breaker or MCB is today’s version of old outdated fuses. Today most modern homes, factories, plants, offices have installed MCBs replacing the earlier Rewireable Kid-Kats /Switches. MCBs • Prevents the passage of full fault current during short circuit. • Results......

Words: 965 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Hnee 105 Electrical and Electronics Principles

... Using Superposition Theorem, 3V source is removed to calculate the contribution of the 8 V supply. Similarly, 8V source is removed to calculate currents due to 3V supply. a) Voltage across the 18 ohm resistor is 4.6872 volts and current across is 0.2604 amperes; b)Current in the 8V generator is 1.667 amperes; c) Current in the 3V generator is 0.656 amperes. (John, 2003) Question 1.3 a) Transformers are electrical devices that play a very vital and key role in electrical power distribution and transmission systems. They are static devices, that is, they do not have any moving components. Transformers utilize one of the most basic forces in nature, the electromagnetic force to convert alternating electrical energy of one power rating to another power rating, but do not change the frequency of the primary electrical energy. Voltage transformers are used to lower or raise the magnitude of the incoming voltage and accordingly current increases or decreases. Electromagnetic induction is used to perform this conversion, more specifically mutual induction. In a simple voltage transformer, two coils are present that have common magnetic flux in between them but are electrically isolated. This path of magnetic flux has some magnetic reluctance that actually helps in power conversion. The core constitutes of laminated sheets around which the incoming voltage coils, also called the primary windings, and the outgoing voltage coils, also known as, secondary windings are wound. The......

Words: 2361 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Implementation of Hrm

...uninterrupted Power supply. NEHU Grid substation is connected to 4 Grid Substations namely Umiam Grid s/s by Umiam Feeder, Mawlai Grid S/s by Mawlai Feeder, NEIGRIHMS Grid S/s by NEIGRIHMS Feeder and Khliehriat S/s by Khliehriat Feeder which are further interconnected to other S/s and Power stations of the state of Meghalaya. The transmitting voltage is 132 KV. The Power received at NEHU S/s at 132 KV voltage level is transfer to the 33 KV Bus after the voltage is stepped down from 132 KV to 33 KV by 2 nos. 20 MVA transformer located in the 132 KV switchyard of the S/s. These two Transformers operate in parallel. From the 33 KV Bus the power is transfer to the different 33/11 KV sub-stations by the 33 KV Feeders viz, Happy Valley Feeder, Meter factory feeder, SE Falls Feeder, Umiam feeder and NEHU-Mawiong Feeder. There is also one 33 KV Tie-Line namely 33 KV Tie-Line-2 which connects the NEHU Grid S/s and Mawlai Grid S/s. This line facilitates the transformers at both Sub-stations to operate in parallel when the CBs and isolators of the line are closed at both ends. Some of the power received at NEHU S/s is consumed as energy in the Sub-station itself as station service for lighting, supply to the charging motors, Battery charger, cooling fans. etc. For this there is one 33/...

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Rade Koncar-Tep

...RADE KONČAR year 1948: The company JUG is founded - repairing of oil distributive transformers and electric motors year 1953: Beginning with production of oil distributive transformers year 1967: The company becomes part of Rade Koncar - Zagreb, the biggest company in the field of the electrical industry on the territory of former Jugoslavia year 1990: The company becomes part of the Holding Rade Koncar - Aparatna Tehnika - Skopje year 1996: Rade Koncar - Servis becomes independent company in private ownership year 2005: Buying the company Rade Koncar - Electrical plants year 2006: Founding of the company Rade Koncar - TEP as part of the company Rade Koncar - Servis RADE KONČAR - SERVIS The biggest repair shop in this part of the Balkan with its main activity - repairing, rehabilitation, revitalization and maintenance of: - power and distribution transformers - electric motors and generators - transformer oil treatment - environmental protection through the reduction and elimination of harmful ingredients PCBs, in transformer oil - performing all types of industrial testing according to the IEC regulations. Production area of 8700 m2 RADE KONČAR - TEP Production program: - distributive oil transformers, power up to 1600kVA - high voltage plants for voltage level up to 110kV - concrete compact substation 20-10/0.4kV for power of a transformer up to 1250kVA -all types of meter boxes, connecting boxes, cable distribution boxes, low voltage......

Words: 1680 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Term Paper

...LARGE POWER TRANSFORMERS AND THE U.S. ELECTRIC GRID Infrastructure Security and Energy Restoration Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability U.S. Department of Energy April 2014 Update Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid This page intentionally left blank. DOE / OE / ISER April 2014 ii Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid FOR FURTHER INFORMATION This report was prepared by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability under the direction of Patricia Hoffman, Assistant Secretary, and William Bryan, Deputy Assistant Secretary. Specific questions about information in this report may be directed to Dr. Kenneth Friedman, Senior Policy Advisor (kenneth.friedman@hq.doe.gov). Tiffany Y. Choi of ICF International contributed to this report. The U.S. Department of Energy would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their contribution to this report:  ABB  American Transmission Company  Bartley, William H., Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company, A member of the Munich Reinsurance Company  North American Electrical Reliability Corporation  Ontario Power Generation  Scott, Daniel  U.S. Department of Commerce  U.S. Department of Homeland Security  U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cover photo sources: Large power transformer photo: Siemens.com High-voltage transmission lines photo: Utilities-me.com DOE / OE / ISER April 2014 iii Large Power......

Words: 20748 - Pages: 83

Free Essay

Electrical Power

...Assignment 1 Task 3 – Q4 3 Phase Transformer Construction Diagram Description As shown in the diagram above, a three phase has three sets of iron cores instead of the one of a single phase transformer. Each ‘leg’ of the transformer has its own primary and secondary windings. Each primary winding will have the same amount of coils as will each secondary winding. The three primary windings (shown above as P1, P2 and P3) and the secondary windings (shown above as S1, S2 and S3) can be connected in either a star or delta arrangement to give a required output. Also the output could be wired in a zigzag arrangement for special purposes where a phase shift of 30° is required. Core Types There are a few different types of core that are used in transformers, some are described below: Solid Cores Solid cores are just made of solid iron and are used in circuits such as switch mode power supplies which operate above mains frequencies and even up to a few kHz. The materials used in these cores combine high magnetic permeability with high electrical resistivity. Laminated Steel Cores These cores are made from layers of high permeability silicon steel and are usually used at power and audio frequencies. They are used because in a solid core at high frequencies ‘eddy currents’ are formed. The laminations confine eddy currents inside each lamination and so decrease the losses. Air Cores An air core is simply a transformer without any core at all, the......

Words: 2471 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Paper 1

...Protection of Electrical Networks Protection of Electrical Networks Christophe Prévé First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2006 by ISTE Ltd Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licenses issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address: ISTE Ltd 6 Fitzroy Square London W1T 5DX UK ISTE USA 4308 Patrice Road Newport Beach, CA 92663 USA www.iste.co.uk © ISTE Ltd, 2006 The rights of Christophe Prévé to be identified as the author of this work have been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Prévé, Christophe, 1964Protection of electrical networks / Christophe Prévé. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN-13: 978-1-905209-06-4 ISBN-10: 1-905209-06-1 1. Electric networks--Protection. I. Title. TK454.2.P76 2006 621.319'2--dc22 2006008664 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 10: 1-905209-06-1 ISBN 13: 978-1-905209-06-4 Printed...

Words: 31240 - Pages: 125

Premium Essay

Electrical Installation Standards

...MINISTRY OF POWER AND MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN APPROVED by Prikaz No 189 of the Minister of Power and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as of August 26, 2004.) REGULATIONS ON ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN (PUE) Astana, 2003 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1: GENERAL REGULATIONS 10 CHAPTER 1.1: GENERAL 10 SCOPE, TERMS AND DEFINITIONS 10 GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 11 CONNECTION OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TO THE POWER STATIONS 13 COMMISSIONING OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS 14 CHAPTER 1.2 POWER SUPPLY AND POWER SYSTEMS 14 SCOPE, DEFINITIONS 14 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 14 CATEGORIES OF POWER CONSUMING DEVICES AND RELIABILITY OF POWER SUPPLY 15 VOLTAGE LEVELS AND CONTROLS, REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION 16 CHAPTER 1.3 SELECTION OF CONDUCTORS: HEATING, CURRENT DENSITY AND CORONA DISCHARGE CONDITIONS 16 SCOPE 16 SELECTION OF CROSS-SECTION OF CONDUCTORS: HEATING 17 MAXUIMUM CONTINUOUS CURRENTS FOR WIRES, CORDS AND CABLES IN RUBBER OR PLASTIC INSULATION 18 MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS CURRENTS FOR CABLES IN IMPREGNATED PAPER INSULATION 22 MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS CURRENTS FOR BARE......

Words: 177034 - Pages: 709

Free Essay

Life Remnant of Transformer by Measuring Oil Reflectiong

...Abstract Power transformers are one of the most important parts of the power system. Failure of a transformer affects power supply to citizen and affects the income of business sector. Condition monitoring of power transformer is very important. By measuring the furan contents in power transformer oil can give a sign of the power transformer health, using this method is more convenient and economical among all the methods. With the aid of UV-Vis Spectrometer, light absorption and transmission with various furan contents of different power transformers with different ages are measured and compared. The measured results are used to predict the furan contents and remnant life of the power transformer can estimate. Copper dusts added into transformer oil in order to investigate the effect on the light absorption and transmission. The measured results show the impact of copper dust on light absorption and transmission characteristics that can provide indication of transformers remaining health condition. This thesis presents the measurement of power transformers oil samples with different furan contents for remnant life estimation. Key words: Power Transformer, Copper Dust, Transformer oil, UV-Vis Spectrometer, Furan, Health Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Power Transformer Figure 1: A basic power transformer. Power Transformers are critical elements in an electrical power system. It is used to step-up or step-down voltage level as needed to serve the......

Words: 7668 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Relay Settings

...Relion® 615 series Transformer Protection and Control RET615 Product Guide Transformer Protection and Control RET615 Product version: 5.0 1MRS756891 H Contents 1. Description.....................................................................3 16. Inputs and outputs......................................................21 2. Standard configurations.................................................3 17. Station communication................................................22 3. Protection functions......................................................14 18. Technical data.............................................................27 4. Application...................................................................14 19. Local HMI....................................................................49 5. Supported ABB solutions.............................................18 20. Mounting methods......................................................50 6. Control.........................................................................19 21. IED case and IED plug-in unit......................................50 7. Measurements.............................................................20 22. Selection and ordering data.........................................50 8. Disturbance recorder....................................................20 23. Accessories and ordering data....................................51 9. Event log...

Words: 11206 - Pages: 45

Free Essay

Flyback Power Converter

.... FLYBACK POWER CONVERTER Shubham Agarwal(11BEC082) Electronics and Communication Department Institute of Technology Nirma University, Ahmedabad Abstract The flyback converter is used in both AC/DC and DC/DC conversion with galvanic isolation between the input and any outputs. More precisely, the flyback converter is a boost converter with the inductor split to form a transformer, so that the voltage ratios are multiplied with an additional advantage of isolation. When driving for example a plasma lamp or a voltage multiplier the rectifying diode of the boost converter is left out and the device is called a flyback transformer. lesson is limited to the study of fly-back circuit of single switch topology. II. Basic Topology of Fly-Back Converter I. Introduction Fly-back converter is the most commonly used SMPS circuit for low output power applications where the output voltage needs to be isolated from the input main supply. The output power of fly-back type SMPS circuits may vary from few watts to less than 100 watts. The overall circuit topology of this converter is considerably simpler than other SMPS circuits. Input to the circuit is generally unregulated dc voltage obtained by rectifying the utility ac voltage followed by a simple capacitor filter. The circuit can offer single or multiple isolated output voltages and can operate over wide range of input voltage variation. In respect of energy-efficiency, flyback power supplies are inferior to many......

Words: 2110 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Kinh Tế

...Distribution System Modeling and Analysis The ELECTRIC POWER ENGINEERING Series The ELECTRIC POWER ENGINEERINGSeries series editor Leo Grigsy series editor Leo Grigsby Published Titles Electromechanical Systems, Electric Machines, and Applied Mechatronics Sergey E. Lyshevski Electrical Energy Systems Mohamed E. El-Hawary Electric Drives Ion Boldea and Syed Nasar Distribution System Modeling and Analysis William H. Kersting Linear Synchronous Motors: Transportation and Automation Systems Jacek Gieras and Jerry Piech Forthcoming Titles Induction Machine Handbook Ion Boldea and Syed Nasar Power System Operations in a Restructured Business Environment Fred I. Denny and David E. Dismukes Power Quality C. Sankaran Distribution System Modeling and Analysis William H. Kersting New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico CRC Press Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C. 0812_frame_FM.fm Page iv Tuesday, July 31, 2001 10:49 AM Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kersting, William H. Distribution system modeling and analysis / William H. Kersting p. cm. -- (Electric power engineering series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8493-0812-7 (alk. paper) 1. Electric power distribution–Mathematical models. I. Title. II. Series. TK3001 .K423 2001 621.31—dc21 2001035681 CIP This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted......

Words: 88409 - Pages: 354

Free Essay

Wireless Transmission of Energy Using Tesla Coil

...distance and because of the fact that it is an electric field that goes directly into the light and doesn't use the electrodes; even burned-out florescent lights will glow. The significant part of our proposed plan is that power is transferred wirelessly. The field produced is without any radiations and hence is harmless to human beings. I. Introduction Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla Coil, a type of air-cored resonant transformer, which is used to generate high voltage and high frequency electrical currents. Tesla coils are used to produce high-voltage, low-current, and high-frequency alternating-current. It can produce higher voltages than other artificial sources of high-voltage discharges and electrostatic machines. It takes the output from a 230vAC to several kilovolt transformer & driver circuit and steps it up to an extremely high voltage. II. Basic Scheme of Tesla Coil A Tesla coil is a resonant transformer containing a primary and a secondary LC circuit. The two LC circuits are loosely coupled together. Power is supplied to the primary circuit through a transformer, which charges a capacitor. If the voltage in the capacitor is extremely high, the air resistance between the spark gap drops quickly and now the spark gap becomes a good conductor. The capacitor will discharge through...

Words: 933 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Management

...PROJECT REPORT ON FUZZY CONTROLLER BASED DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION SCHEME FOR POWER TRANSFORMER iii CONTENTS Page no. * ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (i) * CERTIFICATE (ii) * CONTENTS (iii) * ABSTRACT (iv) CHAPTER 1: 1.1 INTRODUCTION. 1.2 MOTIVATION FOR UNDERTAKING THE PROJECT. 1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT. CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE. CHAPTER 3: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT. CHAPTER 4: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF THE RESULT. CHAPTER 5: 5.1 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULT AND CONCLUSION. 5.2 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULT AND CONCLUSION. REFERENC iv ABSTRACT The power transformer is an essential component of electrical power system that needs continuous......

Words: 2833 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Power Factor Correction Using Boost Converter

...and generation requirements. The study involved 31 homes within Whitby Hydro’s distribution territory. The houses selected were located in a new residential neighbourhood and were consistent in size, age and type of heating. For the pilot, a bench mark had to be established for the loading of each transformer. The three transformers where metered for a two month period prior to the installation of the capacitors. The information gathered included KW, KVAR, volts and amps. Once the benchmark was established homes fed from two of the transformers where equipped with capacitors providing 3.34 KVAR into there distribution panel. Readings at the transformer continued for an additional two month period after the units were installed in the homes. In addition two homes where equipped with metering devices that allowed the measurement of power factor. The information gathered allowed analysis to be carried out to determine if the additional capacitance improved power factor at the home as well as at the transformer. Power Factor at the transformer was the first value to be analysed. KW and KVAR was measured at 15 minute intervals for the pilot period (Appendix G). This information was used to determine monthly power factors and other related billing determinants at the transformer. The peak Power Factor each month was as follows: March (PF) TX5545 (BM) 96.6 TX5554 98.4 TX5547 97.9 April (PF) 96.1 98.8 98.5 May (PF) 95.1 99.9 98.3 June (PF) 92.7 99.1 97.1 July (PF) 93.0 99.9......

Words: 4088 - Pages: 17