Premium Essay

Types of Oil

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Chadh
Words 252
Pages 2
Organic oils Organic oils are produced in remarkable diversity by plants, animals, and other organisms through natural metabolic processes. Lipid is the scientific term for the fatty acids, steroids and similar chemicals often found in the oils produced by living things, while oil refers to an overall mixture of chemicals. Organic oils may also contain chemicals other than lipids, including proteins, waxes and alkaloids. Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited solubility in water compared to oils. They have a high carbon and hydrogen content and are considerably lacking in oxygen compared to other organic compounds and minerals; they tend to be relatively nonpolar molecules, but may include both polar and nonpolar regions as in the case of phospholipids and steroids.[6] Mineral oils Crude oil, or petroleum, and its refined components, collectively termed petrochemicals, are crucial resources in the modern economy. Crude oil originates from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae, which geochemical processes convert into oil.[7] The name is a misnomer, in that minerals are not the source of the oil - ancient plants and animals are. Mineral oil is organic. However, it is classified as "mineral oil" instead of as "organic oil" because its organic origin is remote (and was unknown at the time of its discovery), and because it is obtained in the vicinity of rocks, underground traps, and sands. Mineral oil also refers to several specific distillates of crude oil....

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Types of Oil and Gas Agreement

...TYPES OF OIL AND GAS AGREEMENT a. Concessions b. Joint Ventures c. Service Contracts d. Production Sharing Contracts/Risk Sharing Contracts e. Hybrids CONCESSION This is a kind of contract that creates the greatest distance between the government and oil operators. Under this agreement, the Contractor has exclusive rights to explore, develop, sell, and export oil/gas from a specified area for a fixed period of time. The Company is responsible for all decisions concerning production, although the government may require that a production plan be submitted and approved. Concessions are the oldest and most widely used type of agreement. Examples of countries that adopt this type of agreement include: United States, United Kingdom, Kuwait, Australia. JOINT VENTURES Under the Joint Venture agreement, the International Oil Companies and the National Oil Companies form a Joint Venture. Each Joint Venture Partner pays/receives its share in proportion to its Participating Interest. The major problem with this type of agreement is its low success rate. It is therefore, less commonly used. Examples of countries that adopt this type of agreement include: Cameroon, Pakistan, Colombia, Netherlands. SERVICE CONTRACTS Under this agreement, the Contractor works under the Government’s mandate and is paid for its work. Government maintains ownership and Titles of minerals. This type of Agreement is most suitable for Contractor for risk-free operations, and for......

Words: 352 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Used Cooking Oil for Making Candles

...Cooking Oil as an Additive Component of Candle | AbstractThe study aims to produce a low-priced, high-quality candle by using used cooking oil as a major component. The following candle compositions were used: 100 percent paraffin wax; 90 percent paraffin and 10 percent oil; 80 percent paraffin and 20 percent oil; 70 percent paraffin and 30 percent oil; 60 percent paraffin and 40 percent oil; 50 percent paraffin and 50 percent oil. The firmness, texture, and light intensity of the candles were tested and compared.Results of the tests showed that the candle made from 100 percent paraffin wax had the lowest melting rate, lowest amount of melted candle, and a light intensity of 100 candelas (cd). The 90:10 preparation had the next lowest melting rate and amount of melted candle. The other preparations ranked according to the proportion of used cooking oil in the candle, with the 50:50 preparation performing least comparably with the 100 percent paraffin wax candle.IntroductionToday, candles are made not only for lighting purposes but for many other uses such as home décor, novelty collections, as fixtures for big occasions (weddings, baptismals, etc.), and as scented varieties for aromatherapy. Candles are made from different types of waxes and oils.Cooking oil is a major kitchen item in Filipino households. It is also used substantially in fast-food outlets, where it is used in different stages of food preparations. Ordinarily, used cooking oil is discarded. This waste oil......

Words: 1747 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Crude Oil

...environment stating the different kinds/types, define crude oil and liquid bulk giving examples The environment is the aggregate of surrounding things, conditions or influences, milieu etc. The types of environment include natural, business, social and cultural aspects. Crude Oil is a natural product of the mixing of the environmental Spheres. It occurs through the decay of biosphere components and its interaction with the other spheres. This natural mixing produces hydrocarbons which can after retrieval can be refined into diesels, gasoline, heating oil’s etc. Liquid bulk is the term used to define all items with mass which mass have an incompressible fluid form. This form conforms to the shape of its container but retain the same volume independent of pressure. In shipping terms this fluid is poured into large tank spaces known as hold in tankers. Some types of liquid bulk cargo are crude oil, chemicals and liquefied natural gas. Based on the definition of environment, state the positive effects of developing a crude oil port. A crude oil port is a transition station in which crude oil is taken from liquid bulk cargo and kept in storage facilities at the port until transported by bulk oil trucks to various destinations. Crude oil is a flammable substance. Therefore it needs to be transported and transferred between transportation modes. The positives of having a port is that crude oil ports are specifically made to handle this type of gas. In addition,......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Chemistry Report

...TITLE Experiment 1: Determination of Acidity Number in Fatty Acid OBJECTIVE To determine the amount of acidity in fatty acid of different types of oil. INTRODUCTION For the experiment, the types of oil we used was canola oil, grape oil and palm oil. These oils are considered as vegetable fats which do not contain cholesterol compared to animal fats. In every oil, there will have fatty acid which is a carboxylic acid with a long chain of even number of carbon atoms. These chains of carbon atoms can be either saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids have only single bonds. Therefore, each carbon atom consists of two hydrogen atom and thus this fatty acid is saturated with hydrogen bond. Examples of saturated fatty acids such as palmitic and stearic acids. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds. The double bond can be converted to single bonds by adding hydrogen atom between the carbon atoms. The double bond between the carbon atoms can occur in cis or trans configuration. Example of unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid. In the experiment, we have to determine the acidic number which is the amount of carboxylic acid in a chemical compound such as the fatty acid in the three samples of oil. The sodium hydroxide used in experiment is to neutralize the acidic constituents while the phenolphthalein acts as indicator to a pale-pink endpoint. For your information, the fatty acids is derived......

Words: 1128 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Organizational and Product Success

...Organizational and Product Success The oil company, Shell, that is known to many and in high competition with other oil companies, didn’t start in the market for oil. The company started in 1883 by Marcus Samuel in London. The company started off selling antiques and oriental shells. By 1886, the company was passed down to his son Marcus Samuel Jr. and his brother Sam Samuel. They exported British machinery, textiles, and tools to the newly developing Japan and the Far East. They also imported rice, silk, china, and copperware to the Middle East and Europe. Along with exporting and importing goods, they also traded sugar, flour, and wheat worldwide. While in Japan, their interest for oil sparked. From that day on they found ways to carry oil in bulks to different ports that they formed contracts with. World War I was the spark of success for Shell. They were the main fuel supplier of the British Expeditionary Force and shortly after became the world’s leading oil company, which in result founded Shell Chemicals. Shell strives to be the leader in the oil industry and their strategy plan states it; “Our strategy seeks to reinforce our position as a leader in the oil and gas industry while helping to meet global energy demand in a responsible way. Safety, environmental and social responsibility are at the heart of our activities.”. Their six themes of success are as follows: * Business Focus: Their business focus is on the energy demand for the oil and gas industry. ......

Words: 1646 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Acdmanage

...SYNOPSIS In the present scenario of automobile industry manufacturers are trying to produce comfortable and safe vehicles which the consumers are looking for. A shock absorber is a damping element of the vehicle suspension, and its performance directly affects the comfortability, dynamic load of the wheel and dynamic stroke of the suspension. The conventional type of shock absorbers has got the main drawback that it causes foaming of the fluid at high speeds of operation. This results in a decrease of the damping forces and a loss of spring control. The gas filled shock absorbers are designed to reduce foaming of the oil and provide a smooth ride for a long period. INTRODUCTION For a smooth and comfortable ride the disturbing forces should be eliminated or reduced considerably by using some devices. Shock absorbers are such devices which isolate the vibrations by absorbing some disturbing energy themselves. Of the many types telescopic shocks are widely used which has got the draw back that the flow of oil in the cylinder can cause foam of oil and air to form. These limit the optimum throughout of the flow in the valves. Gas shocks represent an advance over traditional shocks. Nitrogen filled gas shock absorbers are the results of years of extensive research and development with top flight shock design engineers. They are designed for both lowered and stock vehicles to provide shock absorbers that would out perform anything......

Words: 2867 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Questionnaire

...factors are responsible for Berina Product usage? (qualities that barber appreciate about Berina products) 7. What are the general attractive sales generating schemes that are offered by Berina ? 8. Sources of wholesalers and distributors? - for Sales and Distribution Channel information..etc. Questions to be asked to Barbers (Oil related) Objective: 1. What are the types of oil services that you offer? 2. Types of oils used in all these services? (For understanding Differentiation factors for using different oils?) 3. What is the price range for the services? 4. What is the typical duration of oil services? 5. What are the typical margins that are kept in oil related services? 6. Do customers ask for particular type of oils for massage? Which are the popular demands? 7. Any supporting/complementary products that are used with oil? 8. Purchasing pattern for oil services from end-customers? Per week basis. 9. How much frequently do you order oils? (Purchasing pattern) Subjective: 1. What qualities do you look for while purchasing oil? (Purchase influencing factors) 2. Reasons for using present oils – Functional benefits that they offer, any...

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Edp Industry Overview

...Baker Hughes INTEQ Oil Field Familiarization Training Guide 80912 Rev. B May 1996 Copyright © 1994 Baker Hughes INTEQ Baker Hughes INTEQ Training & Development 2520 W.W. Thorne Houston, TX 77073 United States of America 713-625-4415 This material cannot be reproduced in any manner or otherwise used in any presentation without the express written permission of Baker Hughes INTEQ Preface i Preface At Baker Hughes INTEQ, we have always prided ourselves on our people and their level of professionalism, experience, responsiveness and adaptability at the wellsite. It is at the wellsite, where time, money and effective operations separate INTEQ from its competitors. To keep this competitive edge, the company has a system for training, development and professional advancement for operations-based field personnel - takes our good track record and makes it even better. The training development program (IN-FACTS) provides a standardized career development path which utilizes a progression of both formal and hands-on learning, to turn potential into competitive advantage. It is the tool that enables field personnel to embark on a successful career within Baker Hughes INTEQ, Baker Hughes, and the oil industry. The training system is structured to provide an easily understood, orderly flow of learning experiences. These may or may not be in the same speciality, and allow our people to either concentrate in one area or to branch out......

Words: 42119 - Pages: 169

Premium Essay

Dasasfdsa

...Eating 4 Blood type: As Highly Beneficial Foods | Foods to Eat Sparingly (Neutral) | Foods to Avoid | * Avoid Meats (poorly digested and is stored as fat) * Dairy Foods (inhibit nutrients metabolism increases mucous secretions) * Kidney and Lima Beans (interfere with digestive enzymes and slows metabolic rate) * Wheat (in abundance) (impairs calorie utilization) * Blood Type A should avoid red meat, eat plenty of fish and vegetables, with a low dairy intake. Light exercise only. | Meats and Poultry | All recommended fish | ChickenCornish henTurkey | Beacon, beef, ground beef, ham, lamb, liver, mutton, pork, veal etc. | Seafood | Grouper, Mackerel, Red Snapper, Salmon, Sardine, Trout, | Yellowtail, swordfish, snapper, shark | Barracuda, conch, clams, crab, squid, turtle, | Eggs & Dairy | Soy Cheese, Soy milk, non-fat sour cream, goat milk, * Also limit egg consumption to occasionally organically grown eggs preferred, | Feta, goat cheese, goat milk, mozzarella, ricotta, string cheese, yogurts, * Type As can tolerate small amounts of fermented dairy products, but should avoid anything made with whole milk, | ALL Cheese that have MILK -American cheese, blue cheese, brie, butter, cream cheese, gouda, | Oils & Fats | Linseed (flaxseed) oil, Olive oil | Canola oil, cod liver oil, | Corn oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, sesame oil, | Nuts & Seeds | Peanut, peanut butter, pumpkin seeds | Almond butter, Nuts: - almonds,......

Words: 4637 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Riverstone

...Customize View Search: View: Current Investment Prior Investment Current Subsidiary/Operating Unit Prior Subsidiary/Operating Unit Merged Entity Current Investment Arm Prior Investment Arm Pending Acquisition/Investment Cancelled Acquisition/Investment Group By: Investments Company Name Relationship Type Primary Industry Last Investment Date LTM Total Rev. ($mm) LFQ Total Assets ($mm) LFQ Total Debt ($mm) Period End Date Cuadrilla Resources Holding Limited Pending Acquisition/Investment Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Feb-16-2010 - - - - Website: There is no website for this company Business Description: Cuadrilla Resources Holding Limited operates as an oil and gas exploration and production company. The company was founded in 2007 and is based in the United Kingdom. Investment Coverage: - Relationship with Investor/Parent: Total Investment ($mm): - Expected Exit Date: - Percent Owned (%): - Return on Investment (%): - Controlling Interest: - Investor Notes: - Transactions: Date: Feb-16-2010 Type: Private Placement Size ($mm): 58.00 Status: Announced Eagle Energy, LLC Pending Acquisition/Investment Electric Utilities Dec-21-2009 - - - - Website: www.eagleenergyllc.com Business Description: Eagle Energy, LLC provides alternative energy supply, and electricity and natural gas consulting and aggregation services to commercial, industrial, and governmental entities. The company also......

Words: 7861 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Oil Spills

...English 1301, 9:05 MW P. Schmidt, HLN Paper# 3 Research Paper October 22, 2014 After the oil spill in Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a research by Douglas. B. Inkley shows that scientists are still assessing the effects of the estimated 170 million gallons of oil that flooded into the Gulf after the explosion of BP's Deepwater Horizon oil rig. The effects of oil spills can have wide ranging impacts that are often portrayed by the media as long lasting environmental disasters. Such perceptions are understandable as they are often fuelled by distressing images of oiled animals and other wildlife. More than 8,000 birds, sea turtles, and marine mammals were found injured or dead in the six months after the spill. In the months following the Gulf oil disaster, wildlife managers, rescue crews, scientists and researchers saw many immediate impacts of the oil impacting wildlife. Though oil is no longer readily visible on the surface, it isn’t gone. Scientists have found significant amounts on the Gulf floor, and the oil that has already washed into wetlands and beaches will likely persist for years. We likely will not see the full extent of impacts for many years, which makes creating and implementing successful restoration plans a serious challenge. Here is a list of some animals that were affected by the oil spill: * Sick Dolphins - As part of the official investigation into impacts of the Deepwater Horizon disaster, a team of scientists did comprehensive physicals on dolphins......

Words: 1286 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Academic Research Papers

...USED ENGINE OIL AS SIGN PEN INK COMPONENT 1 Potential of Used Engine Oil as an Additive Component for Sign Pen Ink An Investigatory Project Presented to the Faculty of Science and English Area In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Science and Technology 10 and English 10 Benitez, Danielle C. Cartagena, Roland L. Florentino, Mikhael C. Medina, Alexandra Marie P. Peñaflorida, Andrea Raecristine F. G10 – Our Lady of the Assumption December 10, 2014 USED ENGINE OIL AS SIGN PEN INK COMPONENT 2 Abstract This research’s sole purpose is to find an ideal alternative for sign pen ink. Specifically, it aimed to experiment upon the concept of whether or not used engine oil (UEO) can be used as a suitable component for sign pen ink. In doing so, the researchers have conducted a test that makes use of varying amounts of two main ingredients, namely,UEO and pounded charcoal. Throughout the course of the experiment, three types of ink were produced with the compositions of: 70% UEO and 30% powdered charcoal (Ink A), 80% UEO and 20% powdered charcoal (Ink B), and lastly 100% UEO and no charcoal (Ink C). Ink A was recorded to have the highest tone quality and highest viscosity, which was proven through the chromatography test. Ink B was found to be second highest in terms of both tone quality and viscosity, while Ink C exhibited the lowest tone quality and lowest viscosity level. Tone quality was recorded by testing the pens for writing, and viscosity......

Words: 4213 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Api Design Saperator

...METRO HAZ WASTE LIBRARY SEATILE, WA. 11lllll1 lllllIIIllll l1 lI1 l 3202625 Monographs on Refinery Environmental ControlManagement of Water Discharges Design and Operation of Oil-Water Separators API PUBLICATION 421 FIRST EDITION, FEBRUARY 1990 - METRO LIBRARY SEAnLE, W A 98109-1658 HAZARDOUS WASTE MGMT. PROGRAM 130 NICKERSON ST., SUITE 100 AUG 2 1 1995 ME7hb u i r . , 45 WASTE LIBRARY American Petroleum Institute 1220 L Street, Northwest Washington, D.C. 20005 TD 427 .P4 41’ M8 1990 Monographs on Refinery Environmental ControlManagement of Water Discharges Design and Operation of Oil-Water Separators Refining Department API PUBLICATION 421 FIRST EDITION, FEBRUARY 1990 METRO LIBRARY HAZARDOUS WASTE MGMT, PROGRAM 130 NICKERSON ST., SUITE 100 SEATTLE, WA 98109-1658 American Petroleum Institute SPECfAL NOTES 1. API PUBLICATIONS NECESSARILY ADDRESS PROBLEMS OF A GENERAL NATURE. WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES, LOCAL, STATE, AND FEDERAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS SHOULD BE REVIEWED. 2. API IS NOT UNDERTAKING TO MEET THE DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS, MANUFACTURERS, OR SUPPLIERS TO WARN AND PROPERLY TRAIN AND EQUIP THEIR EMPLOYEES, AND OTHERS EXPOSED, CONCERNING HEALTH AND SAFETY RISKS AND PRECAUTIONS, NOR UNDERTAKING THEIR OBLIGATIONS UNDER LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL LAWS. 3. INFORMATION CONCERNING SAFETY AND HEALTH RISKS AND PROPER PRECAUTIONS WITH RESPECT TO PARTICULAR MATERIALS AND CONDITIONS SHOULD BE OBTAINED FROM THE......

Words: 19030 - Pages: 77

Premium Essay

Vacuum Dehydration in Oil Reconditioning

...vacuum Dehydration in Oil Reconditioning Lavarias, Mark Daniel B. ME 511A Moisture presence in oil used for lubricating machineries poses a threat for possible corrosion of its parts. In addition to, lubrication may also not be efficiently carried out in low temperature applications because the existing moisture in the oil will freeze, hence, slowing the oil flow to the necessary machine components and parts such as journal bearings. Therefore, flowing oil must always be maintained to be in a pure condition as much as possible up to its maximum usage life, that is, free of moisture and other contaminants that may diffuse in the oil during its circulation. Moisture in the oil may exist in three forms. One, as a free water, two, as an emulsified water, and three, as a dissolved water. Free water is water that have settled at the bottom of a container of an oil-water mixture. This type of water can be easily removed by draining or by decantation in which oil is carefully transferred to an empty container to leave the bottom layer of water in the previous container. Emulsified water is water that has dispersed or scattered within the oil phase, appearing as tiny, suspended droplets. Presence of emulsified water in oil makes the oil cloudy and slightly dense in appearance as compared to a pure and clean oil that is clear in appearance. This type of water can be removed by filtration or centrifugal separation in which the oil-water mixture......

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Agriculture

...The Industry Handbook: The Oil Services Industry By Investopedia Staff   A A A There is no doubt that the oil/energy industry is extremely large. According to the Department of Energy (DOE), fossil fuels (including coal, oil and natural gas) makes up more than 85% of the energy consumed in the U.S. as of 2008. Oil supplies 40% of U.S. energy needs. (Visit the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Sources information page for more insight.) Before petroleum can be used, it is sent to a refinery where it is physically, thermally and chemically separated into fractions and then converted into finished products. About 90% of these products are fuels such as gasoline, aviation fuels, distillate and residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), coke (not the refreshment) and kerosene. Refineries also produce non-fuel products, including petrochemicals, asphalt, road oil, lubricants, solvents and wax. Petrochemicals (ethylene, propylene, benzene and others) are shipped to chemical plants, where they are used to manufacture chemicals and plastics. (For more insight, read Oil And Gas Industry Primer.) There are two major sectors within the oil industry, upstream and downstream. For the purposes of this tutorial we will focus on upstream, which is the process of extracting the oil and refining it. Downstream is the commercial side of the business, such as gas stations or the delivery of oil for heat. Oil Drilling and Services Oil drilling and services is broken into two major areas:......

Words: 2461 - Pages: 10