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U.S. History

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Notes * U.S. Diplomacy and Russia

In 1923, President Calvin Coolidge addressed the issue of Russian war debts. The President noted that the United States was resuming diplomatic relations with nations that had been cut off during World War I. The Russians, however, presented a problem for Coolidge because their communist form of government opposed democracy. * Italy

Italy was a democracy when World War I began in 1914. The country's army fought alongside Allied forces. Unfortunately, the war left the government and economy of Italy unstable and a fertile ground for revolutionaries. Decisions made at the Paris Peace Conference denied the large territorial gains the Italian government expected after the war.

In 1921, Benito Mussolini founded the National Fascist Party and rose up as a revolutionary leader. * Fascism was based on a foundation of authoritarianism and nationalism. For Mussolini, the most important aspect of a nation or state was the unity and survival of that state.

Mussolini rejected democracy because he thought different political views and political parties weakened the unity of the state. * Taking Fascism on the Road

Fascists disagreed with the communist belief that private property and businesses should belong to the state. The Fascists also believed that the nationalism of a state must be aggressively exported to other countries. In other words, the Fascists maintained that a nation had a right to invade and conquer a weaker nation.

Mussolini proclaimed himself as dictator of Italy. He came to power in October of 1922 and took control of all aspects of the Italian government, society, and economy in 1925. He served until he was overthrown on July 25, 1943. * Roman Empire Revived

Mussolini wanted to return Italy to the glory days of the Roman Empire and gain colonies for Italy. In 1935 and again in 1936, he...

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