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Ulti

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Submitted By Amreenaaa
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Utilitarianism.
Jeremy Bentham 1748-1832
It a teleological ethic, and a consequentialist approach as whether an action is right or wrong it doesn’t matter the consequences are most important.
Background.
Created by Jeremy Bentham, he was born in London at a time of great change. He was born in the eighteenth century. It was a time of great depression, alcoholism and violence plague the streets you can see this in gin lane. Jeremy Benthem saw humans were guided by two main motivations pain and pleasure. 'nature has placed mankind under the governess of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure it is from them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as determine what we shall do' this ethic is hedonistic, as it strives to obtain maximum pleasure. Pleasure is as the sole good and pain the sole evil.

Principle of utility for utilitarianism is the greatest good for the greatest number. This is hard to calculate as happiness is relative and different to all. So Jeremy Bentham created a quantitative method via the hedonic calculus.
It has seven factors: intensity- how deep or superficial the happiness is duration- how temporary or permanent the happiness is certainty- how sure the happiness is propinquity- how near or remote the happiness is fecundity-how likely the happiness is to recur or lead to further happiness purity- how free from pain the happiness is extent- how far the happiness,giving effects of action will spread.
This can be obviously criticised for reducing happiness to a mere almost chemical reaction, and also leaving room for really sadistic people to take advantage of the calculations. 'so long as they promised the best consequences... it would forbid adsolutely nothing: not rape, not torture not even murder' by Peter Pettit. This allows the majority to carry out violence on the minority.
J.S.Mill developing of...

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