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Understanding Future of Led Market in India

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SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT ON

UNDERSTANDING THE SALES PROCESS, PREPARING A STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE MANUAL & A STUDY OF THE FUTURE OF LED LIGHTS IN INDIA
FOR
INLITE PVT LTD.
BANDRA, MUMBAI

BY
KIRAN UIKEY (roll no.171)
(MMS 2012-14)
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE IN masters IN management studies (m.m.s)
FROM MET – INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, MUMBAI.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is my immense pleasure to present this report of summer training.
I am grateful to Mr. Naresh Shahri (Managing Director) for allowing me to do summer internship in the sales department of Inlite Pvt Ltd.
I would like to express my deep felt gratitude to my mentor Mr. Avinash Shahri (Head- Sales & Marketing) who has guided me from the inception till the successful completion of my project report. He has guided me through the 2months of the internship, taught me the basics of led lighting & the lighting industry and has helped me to comprehend the basics of my project. He was always open to suggestions and maintained a professional as well as friendly environment at the workplace.
I would also like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Mr. Ashwin Dsouza (Business development manager) who has been immensely supportive, friendly and a great source of knowledge.
I would like to thank the other staff members of Inlite Pvt Ltd for giving me their valuable time and constant support which made this project report a success.

KIRAN UIKEY
MMS (2012-14)

DECLARATION
I, Kiran Uikey, studying Masters In Management (MMS 2012-2014) in MET’s Institute Of Management, hereby declare that the project report is an original work done by me during summer internship in Inlite Pvt Ltd.
I further declare that the information presented in this project is authentic & true to best of my knowledge.

Date:
Place: Mumbai

CONTENTS SR No. | Topic | Page No. | 1. | Executive Summary | 5 | 2. | Introduction | 6 | | * Company profile | 6 | | * Basics of lighting | 10 | | * History of lights | 10 | | * Types of light sources | 11 | | * Types of lighting | 14 | | * Types of LED luminaires | 15 | | * Photometrics | 16 | | * Lighting quality | 17 | | * Life cycle | 20 | 3. | To understand the sales process and contribute towards sales | 22 | 4. | To study the Future of LED lights in INDIA | 29 | 5. | To Prepare a Standard Operating Procedure Manual | 36 | 6. | Learning | 41 | 7. | Recommendations & suggestions | 42 | 8. | Conclusion | 43 | 9. | References | 44 |

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report is the presentation of the project work carried out during the summer internship at Inlite Pvt Ltd, Bandra.
A Project entitled “Understanding the sales process, preparing a standard operating procedure manual & a study of the future of led lights in India” was undertaken during the 2months of internship.
The work involved was understanding the complete sales process, how the company works and contacting new client by cold visits & cold calling. The target was generating 20 lakhs of sales enquiry which was met.
The study of the future of LED light industry in India was done as a secondary research to gauge the potential of the industry which will help in the future planning of the company with respect to the product category.
Preparing the standard operating procedure manual was done with the help of the entire sales team and it is in the final approval stage after which it will be inducted as official document.

INTRODUCTION
Company Profile
Inlite Pvt Ltd is a lighting products, solutions and consultancy providing company.
Inlite Pvt Ltd has its genesis in Universal Trading Co. (estd 1948) which has a respectable market standing with respect to quality of material supplied.
Under the leadership of Mr. Naresh Shahri, the business ventured into Lighting Solutions in 2007.
With a distribution network spread across Maharashtra, Goa and Kerela, Inlite ventured majorly into the project supply segment late in 2007.
Now specializing in LED, Inlite Pvt. Ltd. manufactures tailor made luminaires of the highest quality with internationally accepted component brands.
Inlite caters to turnkey lighting project solutions, from lighting designing consultancy in coordination with the architect followed by material supply, right upto installation in coordination with the electrician.
Our Services
Layout Design – Planning light aesthetically nd scientifically in space.
Lighting Design – Designing elements involved in lighting in a creatively and functionally strong way
Luminaire Design – Designing never seen before and completely custom made light fittings | | | | | | | | | | | | |
Some of the top clients are :-
• Devnani Builders
• High Street Phoenix
• Abraham John Architects
• Suneil Shetty (Bollywood actor)
• Sameep Padora & Associates
• TBZ Nirmal Zavreri Store, Hughes Road
• Motiwala Jewelers
• ISCKON Temple, Chowpatty
• Welspun Group
• DDB Mudra Pvt Ltd.

DIFFERENTIATION:
Our Unique Selling proposition is Customization. Any kind of project is handled very efficiently as we have well equipped technical support team, lighting designers and dedicated sales team.

PRODUCTS:
Lighting plays a vital role in the quality of our daily lives. At work in offices, production or logistical facilities, good lighting brings employee satisfaction, performance, comfort and safety. In shops, galleries and public places, it creates ambience and helps to accentuate the architectural environment. While in the home, it not only lights our tasks but builds a comfortable, welcoming atmosphere that makes our homes a pleasure to live in.
Good lighting on a task and in the workplace is also essential for optimal (visual) task performance, especially with a progressively ageing population. Research on the quantity and quality of lighting over the past decades has shown that improvement of lighting quality from a low or moderate level increases the speed and accuracy with which objects can be detected and recognised. Accident risk in the workplace is also reduced when there is greater awareness of potentially dangerous situations and when the mood, alertness and health of industrial workers are promoted by good-quality lighting. This effect can’t be over-emphasised as poor levels of worker concentration and high levels of fatigue cause a considerable number of accidents. Besides its effect on visual performance and accidents, lighting also has a powerful influence on the creation of a stimulating working environment. Today, a lot of emphasis is given to layout and interior design of the workplace, but lighting too plays an important role. Whilst it can emphasise positive elements of a design, lighting can also detract from these elements, for example by glare effects.
Due to all the above reasons the products customization becomes an important factor which is the unique selling proposition (USP) of Inlite. We at Inlite study the project very closely and assess the surrounding, assess the required effect and suggest the lightings accordingly or design a completely new lighting fixture accordingly.
Some of the products are: * Ceiling Recessed Narrow Focus Light * Recessed High Lux Reflector Light * Swivel Niche Light * LED 5050 Strip * IP 65 Up Down Fitting * IP 65 Façade Grazer (Outdoor) * IP 65 Alpha Floodlight

Basics of Lighting
What is Light?
Light is a form of energy manifesting itself as electromagnetic radiation and is closely related to other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as radio waves, radar, microwaves, infrared and ultraviolet radiation and X-rays.
The only difference between the several forms of radiation is in their wavelength. Radiation with a wavelength between 380 and 780 nanometers forms the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and is therefore referred to as light. The eye interprets the different wavelengths within this range as colours – moving from red, through orange, green, blue to violet as wavelength decreases. Beyond red is infrared radiation, which is invisible to the eye but detected as heat. At wavelengths beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum there’s ultraviolet radiation that is also invisible to the eye, although exposure to it can damage the eye and the skin (as in sunburn). White light is a mixture of visible wavelengths, as is demonstrated for example by a prism which breaks up white light into its constituent colours.
Describing light as an electromagnetic wave is just one way of looking at radiation and explains some of its properties, such as refraction and reflection. Other properties, however, can only be explained by resorting to quantum theory. This describes light in terms of indivisible packets of energy, known as quanta or photons that behave like particles.

History of lights:
The development of electrical power well over a century ago revolutionized artificial lighting. It was then that the flame was replaced as the main source of artificial light in favour of electrically powered lighting. Since that time, the history of electric lighting has been one of continuous development punctuated by a series of major innovations. When incandescent lamps first appeared by the end of the 19th century, their efficacy* was just 3 lm/W, which has improved to around 14 lm/W today. In the 1930’s and 40’s, the appearance of gas discharge lighting and fluorescent lighting offered efficacies of around 30 to 35 lm/W. This was a major increase over the incandescent lamp and even today, the fluorescent lamp is still one of the most efficient white-light source available with efficacies up to 100 lm/W. A more recent innovation is lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Types of light sources: 1. Incandescent lamps
In the second oldest form of electric lighting – the incandescent lamp – an electric current passes through a thin high-resistance wire, nowadays always of tungsten, to heat it to incandescence. To prevent oxidation of the wire or filament as it is known, it is contained either in an evacuated glass bulb or one containing an inert gas (usually a mixture of nitrogen and argon). Over time, evaporation of tungsten atoms from the filament blackens the inside of the bulb and makes the filament thinner until it eventually breaks at its thinnest point, ending the life of the lamp. 2. The halogen incandescent lamp
Several techniques have been developed in an attempt to eliminate evaporation of the filament and so extend the life of the incandescent lamp, one of the most successful being the tungsten-halogen lamp. The filling of this incandescent lamp contains a halogen (bromine) that compound with the tungsten atoms that are ‘boiled off ‘ the heated filament. Because the glass envelope of this lamp is much closer to the filament, the temperature of the filling does not fall below 250o Celsius which prevents the condensation of the compound. Instead of depositing on the inside of the glass, the tungsten-halogen compound circulates by convection until it hits the filament. On the filament the compound is dissociated due to the filament’s temperature of 2800-3000o Celsius, leaving the tungsten atoms behind on the filament, and releasing the halogen atoms to the gas filling to start a new ‘halogen cycle’. Because of the relative small volume and the sturdy quartz wall, halogen lamps can be safely operated at high pressures, thus reducing evaporation of the filament even more. It also allows higher temperatures increasing the luminous efficacy of the lamp up to 45% higher compared to incandescent. 3. Gas discharge lighting
In a gas discharge lamp, an electric current passes through a gas between two electrodes at the opposite ends of a closed glass tube. Collisions between free electrons and the gas atoms excite the gas atoms into higher energy levels. These excited atoms subsequently fall back to their natural energy states, and release the corresponding energy surplus in the form of radiation. 4. Low-pressure sodium lamps
In a low-pressure sodium lamp, visible radiation is directly produced by the discharge of sodium. It emits most of its energy in the visible part of the spectrum at wavelengths of 589 and 589.6 nm (the characteristic yellow sodium light). When started, sodium lamps initially generate a red colour. This is caused by neon that is also present in the gas filling which serves to initiate the discharge process. These lamps must have a very efficient heat isolation, as they produce only very little heat by themselves. Lamp efficacy is very high. 5. High-pressure sodium lamps
High-pressure sodium lamps operate at much higher gas pressures, resulting in more interatom interactions than with low-pressure lamps, leading to a broadening of the emitted radiation pattern. The characteristic yellow radiation is completely absorbed, leaving a very warm-white light, with strong rendering of red colours. 6. Fluorescent lamps
The (compact) fluorescent lamp is basically a low pressure mercury gas discharge lamp with the inner surface of the discharge tube coated with a mixture of fluorescent compounds — called phosphors — that convert the invisible ultraviolet radiation emitted by the mercury discharge into visible radiation. With a broad range of phosphors available, the lamps are available in a wide range of colours and colour renderings, and are mostly used for general lighting. 7. Phosphor coatings
Fluorescent lamps are low-pressure mercury gas discharge lamps with the inner surface of the discharge tube coated with phosphors. When ultraviolet radiation generated by the mercury discharge within the lamp strikes the phosphor, the electrons in the phosphor atoms jump to a higher energy level. The electrons subsequently fall back to their normal level, emitting radiation with longer wavelengths, within the visible range, than that of the original ultra violet radiation. The most important factor determining the light characteristics of a fluorescent lamp is the type and mixture of the phosphors used. This determines the colour temperature, colour rendering and luminous efficacy of the lamp. Some phosphors show an emission band covering almost the whole visible spectrum and therefore produce white light when used alone. Mostly, however, a combination of phosphors with different, complementary colour characteristics is used. In this way either a combination of good colour characteristics with a very high luminous efficacy can be obtained, or even excellent colour characteristics, be it at the at the cost of luminous efficacy. 8. High-pressure mercury lamps
High-pressure mercury lamps contain mercury vapour confined in a quartz discharge tube (called: burner) that operate at a pressure between 200 and 1500 kPa, at which pressure the discharge process is found to emit a large proportion of its energy in the visible part of the spectrum (in contrast to the low-pressure mercury lamp which emits predominantly invisible ultraviolet). The discharge tube, which emits a bluish-white light, is housed within an outer glass bulb. The inner surface of this outer bulb can be coated with fluorescent powder that emits mainly red to improve the colour rendering, with about 10% increase of the luminous flux. 9. Metal halide lamps
Metal halide lamps have been developed from high-pressure mercury lamps by adding other metals in the form of halide salt to the discharge. With each metal having its own characteristic radiation pattern, the result is a substantial improvement of efficacy and colour quality. 10. Ceramic metal halide lamps
A more recent development is the ceramic metal halide lamp that features a discharge tube made of ceramic material instead of quartz glass. By applying ceramic, the lamp can be operated at a higher discharge temperature, and it also enables an optimal geometry of the burner. Both innovations have resulted in substantially improved colour characteristics. 11. Solid-state lighting
The most recent evolution in lighting is solid state lighting based on light emitting diode (LED) technology. The light generation principle is similar to what happens in gas discharge lamps, but now the discharge happens in a solid state material: orbit changing electrons cause atoms to get ‘excited’ that subsequently fall back to their natural state thereby releasing its surplus energy in the form of radiation. LED technology has been around since many years but due to its modest luminous flux and monochromatic light quality few applications existed for many years and LEDs were primarily used for signal lighting in control panels and in traffic lights. Recent technological breakthroughs, however, have lead to significant advances in performance including the generation of white light which has opened a whole new future for accent and general lighting applications. It’s key features are: long life, robust, small size and low maintenance.
White light generation with LEDs
By its very nature, LEDs can only generate monochromatic colours. So in order to create white light, two or more colours need to be combined. One solution for white LED light is by mixing red, green and blue semiconductor chips into one single LED, or, by placing separate red, green and blue LEDs very close together, and optically mixing the emitted radiation. A more common approach, is to use LEDs that emit blue light and cover them with a phosphor coating that converts a part of the blue light to yellow light, together creating white light. These white LEDs have colour temperatures ranging from 4500 to 8000K. By applying multiple phosphor coatings, the blue light is converted into more colours, which improves the colour rendering index to a level of >80 which is good to excellent.
Types of Lighting: 1. General lighting
General lighting provides a uniform level of illumination over a large area. In some rooms, for example closets, storage rooms, utility rooms and garages, one luminaire or a group of luminaires can provide all necessary illumination. These indoor areas tend to be where the style and appearance of the room itself is secondary to the objects to be lighted, and cost is a deciding factor. The requirement is for good general lighting distribution, primarily horizontal illumination and no shadows. 2. Architectural lighting
Architectural lighting aims to accentuate the features and specific elements of the space itself, like walls, ceilings, floors, etc, instead of the objects present. Luminaires for architectural lighting usually produce only modest amounts of illumination and are often chosen for their appearance as well, with complementary luminaires providing the room’s general or the task lighting. 3. Task lighting
As its name suggest, task lighting illuminates specific work areas like desk- and counter-tops. Task lighting reduces the reliance on general overhead lighting and provides better quality lighting for specific tasks with lighting pointed directly at the work area. Most task lights are directional and local. 4. Accent Lighting
Accent lighting is used to highlight specific features within a room such as art objects in museums and special offers in shops. This type of lighting should not create too much brightness contrast. 5. Ambient lighting
Ambient lighting is used to set the mood or ambience within a living or working space. It is commonly a combination of general, architectural, task and accent lighting to create a highly specific atmosphere in a room.
Type of LED luminaires:
While the lamp is the primary source of light, reflectors and lamellae are required to help spread the light and direct it where it’s needed. The luminaire is the apparatus that performs these functions. The luminaire can also act as a screen for glare and protects the lamp. It contains elements for distributing, filtering and transforming the light emitted by a lamp and includes all items necessary for fixing and protecting the lamp(s) and for connecting it (them) to the power supply.
The broad scope of luminaires can be sub-divided into various categories, each of which has specific applications. These are summarised below.
Luminaire types:
• Recessed-mounted luminaires
• Spots/projectors
• Surface-mounted luminaires
• Decorative luminaires
• Pendant luminaries
• Free-floor-standing luminaires
• Up lights
• Down lights
The style and construction of the luminaire housing reflects the function it has been designed to do and can range from utility for industrial lighting right through to stylish designs for top-of-the-range shops and architectural lighting.

Photometrics
There are four basic photometric units that lighting practitioners use for the quantitative measurement of light: 1. Luminous flux (ᵩ)
This expresses the total quantity of light radiated per 1 second by a light source. The unit of luminous flux is the lumen (lm)
Examples:
• 75W incandescent lamp: 900 lm
• 39W fluorescent lamp: 3500 lm
• 250W high pressure sodium lamp: 30000 lm
• 2000W metal halide lamp: 2,00,000 lm

2. Luminous intensity (I)
This is defined as the flux of light emitted in a certain direction. The unit of luminous intensity is the candela (cd)
Examples (centre of beam):
• 5W bicycle lamp without reflector: 2.5 cd
• 5W bicycle lamp with reflector: 250 cd
• 120W incandescent reflector lamp: 10,000 cd
• Lighthouse: 20,00,000 cd

3. Illuminance (E)
This is the quantity of light falling on a unit area of a surface. The unit of illuminance is lumen/m2, or lux (lx)
Examples:
• Summer, at noon, under a clear sky (equator): 1,00,000 lux
• In the open under a heavily-overcast sky: 5000 lux
• Artificial light, in a well-lit office: 800 lux
• Full moon, on a clear night: 0.25 lux

4. Luminance (L)
This describes the light emitted from a unit area in a specific direction. The unit of luminance is expressed in cd/m2 (apparent surface)
Examples:
• Surface of the sun: 1,65,00,00,000 cd/m2
• Filament of a clear incandescent lamp: 70,00,000 cd/m2
• Fluorescent lamp: 5000-15000 cd/m2
• Road surface under artificial lighting: 0.5-2 cd/m2
Lighting quality
Good quality lighting is a crucial factor affecting our ability to perform tasks at work and at home. It also has a profound effect on our mood and (as recent research confirms) on our health and well being. It embodies a combination of several criteria including lighting level, luminance contrast, glare and spatial distribution of the light.
a. Lighting level
The lighting level should always be high enough to guarantee sufficient visual performance for the tasks at hand. Research has shown that improvement of the lighting level from a low or moderate level to a high lighting level increases the speed and accuracy with which objects can be detected and recognised. In an office or factory, a person’s visual performance depends upon the quality of the lighting and of his or her own “seeing abilities”. Here, age is an important criterion since lighting requirements increase with age - a sixty year old requiring an average of 15 times more light to perform a specific visual task than a ten year old. Moreover, in general, the amount of light required increases with the speed with which the visual information is presented and decreases with the size of object being viewed. A tennis-ball, for example, is smaller than a soccer ball and moves faster. Consequently, the lighting levels required to play well are higher for tennis than for soccer and a production process involving the detection of small object details calls for higher illuminances than one where visual requirements are less demanding.
b. Luminance contrast
Luminance contrast, or, luminance distribution within the field of view, is an extremely important criterion of lighting quality. If luminance contrasts are too low, the result will be a dull and flat visual scene with no point(s) of interest. Too high contrasts, are distracting and give rise to adaptation problems for the eye when changing from one visual target to the other. Well-balanced contrasts give a harmonious visual scene, which gives satisfaction and comfort. As a general rule in interior situations, it can be taken that for satisfactory results the luminance contrast ratio (= ratio between highest and lowest luminance) in the field of view should not be larger than 3 and not smaller than 1/3.
c. Glare restriction
Glare is the sensation produced by brightness levels within the visual field that are considerably greater than the brightness to which the eyes are adapted. This can lead to reduced visual performance and to discomfort. Too much glare can even lead to complaints such as veiling, eye strain and headache. It’s therefore important to limit glare to avoid errors, fatigue and accidents. The degree of glare restriction attained depends very much on the optical quality of the luminaires used in combination with the type of lamp used. Thanks to their larger dimensions, fluorescent lamps have lower luminances than high intensity gas discharge lamps and it is therefore easier to limit glare with these lamps.
d. Spatial distribution of the light
An important criterion of lighting quality is the way in which the light is spatially distributed since it is this that determines the pattern of illuminances that will be created. The illuminance recommendations applicable to indoor lighting can be implemented in a number of ways. The light sources can be spread fairly evenly using a system of so-called diffuse general lighting, it can be concentrated in certain areas using directional lighting, or it can be distributed throughout the space but with local accents where needed using a combination of the two systems just mentioned.
e. Colour and colour rendering
An object is seen as being coloured by virtue of the fact that it reflects only part of the waveband of the light incident on it. The way in which the colours around us are rendered therefore depends strongly on the colour composition of the lighting. Proper colour rendering is of importance when objects must be seen in their ‘true’ colour appearance. Generally speaking, the lighting employed in a interior must be so chosen that familiar objects (e.g. foods, drinks, people) appear pleasant and natural. A proper choice of light source (colour rendering of at least Ra 80), easily avoids this problem. Having said that, there are also situations where colour rendering is of little or no importance. Road lighting is an example, the purpose here being to make the road and objects on it clearly discernable to the motorist, and surface colours play practically no part in this.

Life cycle

Inlite Pvt ltd entered into the LED lighting market in 2007 but because of the hold and respect of the parent company, Universal Trading comp., in the market it has grown rapidly and is currently in the growth stage of its life span.
Like any other company Inlite Pvt ltd too has had its share of Ups & Downs. But under the experienced leadership of Mr. Naresh Shahri the company has maintained its pace and is well on the verge of breaking the geographical barriers and set to grow widely across the country.
The company is in the process of appointing distributors and franchisees across India so as to improve the presence of the brand Inlite. The company also recently got into solar panel lights.
The company publishes a journal every 2months which is named as LANTERN.
LANTERN tries to focus on the various projects undertaken by Inlite and also various new trends and researches done in the LED lighting industry.

Project 1:
Objective: To understand the sales process and contribute towards sales
Since this was mainly a sales internship, the objective was to get on the field and do sales along with the sales representatives of Inlite.
Target: Sales enquiry generation of 20 lakhs.
Internship Plan:
1st week – I studied about the basics of lighting and gave a written test on the topic at the end of that week.
2nd week – I was given training through mock calls and mock sales meetings.
3rd week – I started going out for shadow visits with the senior sales executive and also underwent training on cold calling techniques over phone.
4th week – I started going on the field on my own. I started up fixing client meetings and the days I did not have any meeting I used to just do cold visits in a particular area.
Client list Sr No. | Contact | Date | Status | 1. | Apex Project Solutions12G / 7C, Juhu Sangeeta CHS, Juhu Rd, Santacruz (W), Mumbai, Maharashtra 400049Contact: 022 6521 5303 | 21st May | No current requirement then.Follow up after 15th july | 2. | Ajay Maurya – MET institute, Bandra (west)MET institute, Reclamation, Bandra (west)Contact: 9324516419 | 22nd May | 3W Square swivel light approved, Quotation sent. follow up Required | 3. | A.S MotiwalaA.S Motiwala Jewellers, Hill road, Bandra West | 22nd May | Strip Light Requirement.Regular follow up Required | 4. | Malabar GoldPhoenix mills, LBS road, kamani, Kurla westContact: Kapil Solanki - 9833732846 | 23rd May | Cold Visit to the Phoenix mall. Company Profile sent.Regular Follow up Required | 5. | Tanishq JewelleryKhar Linking Road | 27th May | Cold Visit.Centralised Decision Making Process. Call Head office | 6. | Vandana Sarees,Khar Linking Road | 27th May | Cold Visit.Newly Renovated. No Current Requirement. | 7. | Gemstar jewellery2nd Floor, Link Square mall, Khar Linking road | 28th May | Owner interested, Company Profile Given. Next meeting scheduled in 1st week of August. | 8. | Brighton Architects Pvt LtdTrade star, ground floor, marol naka, Andheri east | 28th May | Company Profile Given. 5050 strip lights requirement. Regular Follow up Required. | 9. | Ar Ajit Gupte204 Stanford Plaza Plot No B-65, Off Link Rd, Andheri West, Mumbai – 400053Contact: 26345470 | 28th May | Company Profile Given. Continuous requirement but meeting possible only in mid August. | 10. | Panchal & Panchal ArchitectsSuren Panchal10, Laxminarayan shopping centre, Poddar Road,Malad – east, Mumbai 400097Contact: 022 28834233 | 1st June | Cold Visit on 1st June. Follow Up Done on 14th June. Next Follow up in last week of July. | 11. | Mr AltafCatwalk, INORBIT mall, Goregaon westContact: 9833377880 | 1st June | Cold Visit on 1st June. Follow Up Done Regularly. Next Follow Up in August 1st Week. | 12. | Kalpataru DevelopersKalpatau Pinnacle, opp INORBIT mall, Goregaon west | 1st June | Cold Visit. Got Card of Purchase Manager Mr Sunil Khobre. General lighting requirements for lobby. | 13. | Ajmera Builders,J. S Shah1st floor, Mount Everest, Bhaktipark, Near IMAX Theatre, wadala EastContact: 9930456925 | 4th June | Meeting on 4th June. Green Building Initiative. Follow Up required. (big ticket order estimated to be above 50lakhs) | 14. | Manisha MalhiArchitect, fort areaContact: 9004663479 | 1st June | Cold Call. Follow up in 1st week of August. | 15. | Xllent PerspectivesMr Shinto, Shop no-16, 57/58, Navgrah Building,
Poonam sagar complex, Mira road-EastContact: 9867147806 | 5th June | Meeting done.No current Requirement. Regular Follow up required. | 16. | Angel Impressions1st floor, office no.1, Sukh sagar, Akurli Cross No 1, Near Mangalam dairy, Kandivali EastContact: 9820689200 | 6th June | Meeting postponed.Regular Follow up Required. | 17. | Anil Jayakar1247, Barkat Ali Durgah Road, Antop Hill, Wadala | 6th June | Company Profile Sent. No Current Requirement, will let know if any requirements. | 18. | Bombay architectural ConsultantAr Ravindra RathodNear Manavtha hospital, Shop No 14/Venus apt, Navghar Road, Bhayendar eastContact: 9821748482 | 7th June | Requirement for a new project. Still in planning stage, next meeting in September 1st week Regular Follow up required. | 19. | Ellora Project ConsultantMr KarimContact: 8108832373 | 10th June | Regular Follow up required. | 20. | SDM ArchitectsKinara Building, 29-B Carter Road, Bandra (West)Contact: 022-26431924 | 10th June | No current Requirement. Regular Follow up required. | 21. | Temple Architects703/A, Landsend Bldg, Lokhandwala Complex, Andheri (West)Contact: 022-26330130 | 10th June | No current Requirement. Regular Follow up required. | 22. | Salim Dawawala Architect37, 9th road, off hill road, Almeida park, Bandra westContact: 022 26456055 | 13th June | 3W square swivel requirement – 50 nos. quotation sent, follow up required | 23. | Manjunath Shenoy Architects23, Guldevsagar, 4Th floor, 212, Waterfield Road, Bandra westContact: 022 26411319/ 26420539 | 13th June | Introductory call done. Need to call back in 2nd week of July | 24. | Ahmed & Associates304, God gift tower, M.R Chowk, Hill Road, Bandra westContact: 022 26557983 | 13th June | Introductory call done. Call back in last week of July | 25. | Mithila HyundaiMr. Manodeep PaulUnit A3 & A4, Hatkesh Ind Estate, Mira Bhayandar Road, Mira Road eastContact: 8108182308 | 18th June | Went for sampling Meeting on 18th June.Follow Up required. | 26. | Godbole Mukadam & AssociatesMr Satish2, Gr Floor, Nakshatra Heritage, near karvey Hospital, Hindu Colony, Brahmin Society, Naupada, Thane westContact: 9892250835 | 19th June | Meeting done.2 Projects in Planning Stage. Regular Follow up Required | 27. | Design ElementsK R RajeshH-7/ 225, KEDAR, Lok Puram, Opp Hiranandani Meadows, Thane westContact: 9892224814 | 20th June | Meeting Done. Follow up in 3rd week of July. | 28. | Rajesh Patel Architects4, Utkarsh, J A Ravil Marg, Off Sayani Road, Prabhadevi, Mumbai, MaharashtraContact: 022 24361508 | 21st June | Company Profile Sent. No Current Requirement, will let know if any requirements. | 29. | Rajnikant Velji Savla ArchitectsAnkit Savla2 Nanakar Building, Ground Floor, Appasaheb Marathe Marg, Opp Prabhadevi Temple, Prabhadevi, MumbaiContact: 9820892332/ 022 24301159 | 24th June | Company Profile Sent. No Current Requirement, will let know if any requirements. | 30. | Ar Milind mankameShop No F-9, Optionz shopping Plaza, Nahar’s Amrit Shakti, Near Chandivali Mhada Bus stop, Andheri- EastContact: 9820129619 | 26th June | Cold call. Website address sent. Follow up on 5th July. | 31. | Neterwala & Aibara Consultants41/42, Kamal Mansion, #rd Floor, Arthur Bunder road, ColabaContact:022 66100363/ 4/ 5 | 27th June | Introductory call done. Meeting fixed on 7th July. | 32. | Shaukat Mukhi ArchitectsKomil MukhiContact: 9821038128 | 28th June | Need to drop in company Profile and visiting card in his office personally. | 33. | Sanjay Puri ArchitectsContact: 022 24965840 | 28th June | Got 2 contacts, need to mail them company details.dpatel@sanjaypuri.inpsethi@sanjaypuri.in | 34. | Narsi & AssociatesContact: 022 42505555 | 29th June | Introductory call done. Need to call back on 4th July. Extention no. 517. | 35. | The Indian Institute of Architects5th Floor, Prospect Chambers Annexe, Dr Dadabhai Naoroji Rd, Fort, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400001Contact: 022 22884805 | 1st July | Introductory meeting done. Follow up needed. |

CONCLUSION
Establishing a new contact is very crucial as a minimum business of 5lakh can be expected from one client over the period of 5years. The above contacts consist of clients who handle big ticket project and thus the value of enquiry generated is far more. * I was able to generate total sales enquiries of more than Rs. 50 lakhs.

Project 2:
Objective: To study the Future of LED lights in INDIA
LED (Light emitting Diode) is a semiconductor which emits light on passage of electric current. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.
When a light-emitting diode is switched on, electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching.
The first practical visible-spectrum (red) LED was developed in 1962 by Nick Holonyak, Jr., while working at General Electric Company. Holonyak first reported this breakthrough in the journal Applied Physics Letters on the December 1, 1962. Holonyak is seen as the "father of the light-emitting diode". M. George Craford, a former graduate student of Holonyak, invented the first yellow LED and improved the brightness of red and red-orange LEDs by a factor of ten in 1972. In 1976, T. P. Pearsall created the first high-brightness, high-efficiency LEDs for optical fiber telecommunications by inventing new semiconductor materials specifically adapted to optical fiber transmission wavelengths.
The first commercial LEDs were commonly used as replacements for incandescent and neon indicator lamps, and in seven-segment displays, first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment, then later in such appliances as TVs, radios, telephones, calculators, and even watches.
As LED materials technology grew more advanced, light output rose, while maintaining efficiency and reliability at acceptable levels. The invention and development of the high-power white-light LED enabled its usage for illumination, and has started slowly replacing incandescent and fluorescent lighting.
Evolution of LED’s * Monochrome Indicators * Traffic lights, automotive, exit signs etc * Portable appliances, cell phones, PDAs * Signage * Direct view displays; video screens * Emerging Applications * Transportation: marine, auto, aviation etc. * Lighting niches * Now & the Future * General Illumination
The life span of an LED is projected at around 50,000 hours (> 13years assuming 10hrs of usage per day). It starts gradually dimming after 80% of its life period. Immediate failure of LED light like the CFL’s is unheard of.

FIG 1
The future is very bright for the LED lighting in India as we face ever increasing demand for electricity with a very limited supply. LED could be great for future use as the energy consumption is just 10%-15% of that of a CFL. The sale of CFL’s though rising has slowed down and the LED sales have been growing for sometime which indicates a slow but steady inclination towards LED’s. As we can see in the above graph (FIG 1) the CFL’s manufacturing output is growing but the growth is declining. The qty is increasing by 27.5% in 2009, 19.2% in 2010 and 11.1% in 2011.
Lighting Market in INDIA

FIG 2
The CFL market is shrinking steadily but as we can see from the above graph (FIG 2), the lighting industry in INDIA is ever growing. This presents a great opportunity for LED market to capture the attention. The estimated growth of LED market in INDIA can be seen in the graph below (FIG 3)

FIG 3
India as a Prospective market
The Indian lighting market is impacted by multiple factors – three are particularly important. The first is the macroeconomic situation, which is influencing new construction and consequently the number of new lighting installations. Second, energy efficiency regulations and greater energy awareness are redefining future lighting product portfolios. And third, government action limiting certain energy sources – key being nuclear power due to events over the last year – will result in additional demand for energy efficient products, such as LED’s. Assuring these environments for change is vital to understand current and (probable) future shifts in global lighting market.
Many countries have started banning Incandescent lights and switching to efficient lighting sources. Countries such as USA, Brazil, Russia, China and Japan have already banned the halogen lights and the other incandescent lights are being phased out. In India, state governments of Tamil Nadu & Karnataka have banned the use of incandescent lamps in publicly affiliated institutions and have started replacements of the existing lights with CFL.
Trying to seek the advantage of these factors, the Chinese LED’s are already in the market which have priced the products very low but also have a very low quality due to which the general public is cautious about switching to LED. The Chinese products are unreliable and the life span is uncertain and after the experience with these Chinese lights the Indian consumer is afraid in investing quality LED lights.
SWOT Analysis STRENGTH * Wide range of designs. * Customization, improvisation & personalisation possible | WEAKNESS * High per unit prices * Initial investment for switching to LED is high. | OPPORTUNITY * Evolving market, global demand. * Very high potential. * Due to power shortage, switching to LED would be a common trend in future. * Special incentives from governments for using green technology which helps in reducing carbon footprint. | THREAT * Only threat is the emergence of the various competitors. * No immediate threat but could be replaced by a more efficient technology in the future. |

LED prices
LED being a new technology is still very much expensive especially when compared to the traditional lighting. The initial cost of LED light fixture is high, but when compared to the cost incurred over the life of the traditional light, the LED is less costly.
Regrettably, the lighting installation is sometimes among the last items to be considered when budgeting a building project, with the result that often cheaper alternatives are chosen just to keep total expenses within financial limits. The outcome may then be less than adequate: sub-optimal lighting conditions and decreasing employee productivity and motivation, leading to more errors and failures, or even worse accidents.

Proper initial investment in a well designed lighting installation usually repays itself not just in higher return-of-investment but also in lower total cost of ownership during its lifetime. Clearly, good lighting does not come by itself. It requires weighing various factors and circumstances that are different for every project. But whether as part of a completely new project or of a renovation scheme, for best results it needs to be planned and designed from the very outset in close cooperation with experienced lighting application experts. This will help in completing the project in the least possible cost, least time and will help in recovering the capital cost sooner.
On an average a 40 Watt incandescent bulb costs 30 rupees but a LED light of 40 watt may cost anywhere around 5000 rupees, But a LED of 8 Watt gives the same effect of a 40 Watt incandescent bulb which would cost around 1200 rupees. Also the life of the bulb is around 8months – 1year, whereas the LED light has a life span of around 12years which is more than enough to recover the initial costs and give huge savings in electricity bills.
Another reason why the prices are not coming down significantly is because the technology is still evolving, the efficacy (lumens/watt) of a LED 5years before was around 60 lm/W, and today the efficacy of a good quality LED light is 140 lm/W, which is significantly high. The new development in the technology is trying to reach the 200 lm/W mark.
Effect of price erosion of LED
As the consumption of LED lights is increasing the high manufacturing costs have started coming down, hence as the consumption will rise in future the prices of LED lights will come down dramatically and there may be a time when we might get LED lights for the price which we pay today for CFL lights.
The time may not come in immediate future, it will take time but it will come for sure. As the price comes down the demand for the LED will increase twice as fast and the market share of the traditional lights will tilt in the favour of LED lights.
Conclusion
The future of LED lights in India look very bright as the scope is diverse and the market will increase at a tremendous speed as there is awareness about the benefits of LED lights over traditional lights.

Project 3:
Objective: To Prepare a Standard Operating Procedure Manual 1. Purpose: To establish procedures, responsibilities and working standard of the sales team at Inlite Pvt Ltd. 2. Scope: This SOP would apply to all the team members of the sales department of Inlite Pvt Ltd. 3. Objective: a. To completely understand the sales process and the working of the company. b. To deliver comprehensive sales support and services for maximizing opportunity, customer satisfaction, and profitability for the firm. 4. Responsibility: Sales Team

A. PERSONAL * Punctuality
You have to report at 9.30 am sharp. A delay of more than a minute will cause a rating of -2. In case you are going to get late you must inform your senior authority before 9.00 am about how late you are going to come.
After informing about getting late if you don’t comply to the timings then for every hour of late coming will cause rating of -2.

* Grooming a. For Gents:
You should always be in formal attire.
Hair should be properly trimmed.
No flashy accessories.

b. For Ladies:
You should always be in formal attire.
Hair below shoulder length should be neatly tied.
No flashy accessories.

B. TRAINING
Training duration: 2 months
2 weeks – Study the basics of lighting.
2weeks – Training through Mock calls and meetings.
2weeks – Shadow visits with the senior sales executive.
2weeks – attending client meets with senior sales executive present only for assistance. C. REPORTING
Reporting is to be done every day. We have a standard report template which needs to be filled daily. The daily plan report is the one which needs to be filled in the morning first thing after you come to the office. The daily work to be done, number of meetings scheduled for the day, number of calls to be made – first calls & follow up calls, the payment to be collected for the day. These are the targets you set for yourself for the day.
At the end of the day you need to fill the report with the details of what were you able to achieve, the outcome of the meetings done, the new meetings fixed due to the calls made, any new order placed, repeat meeting fixed, payments received.

Month & Year | Date | Day | Time In | Time Out | Time Reward | Update Penalty | July-13 | 1 | Monday | 9:30:00 | 20:15:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 2 | Tuesday | 9:30:00 | 22:00:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 3 | Wednesday | 9:30:00 | 18:45:00 | 1 | | July-13 | 4 | Thursday | 9:58:00 | 19:30:00 | -2 | OT | July-13 | 5 | Friday | 9:30:00 | 21:00:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 6 | Saturday | Sick | | | | July-13 | 7 | Sunday | | | | | July-13 | 8 | Monday | Sick | | | | July-13 | 9 | Tuesday | 9:30:00 | 21:00:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 10 | Wednesday | 9:30:00 | 22:30:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 11 | Thursday | 10:05:00 | 19:20:00 | -2 | | July-13 | 12 | Friday | 9:30:00 | 19:45:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 13 | Saturday | 9:30:00 | 20:00:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 14 | Sunday | | | | | July-13 | 15 | Monday | 9:40:00 | 20:30:00 | 0 | OT | July-13 | 16 | Tuesday | 9:30:00 | 20:00:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 17 | Wednesday | 9:30:00 | 19:30:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 18 | Thursday | Sick | | | | July-13 | 19 | Friday | 9:30:00 | 20:00:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 20 | Saturday | 9:30:00 | 19:30:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 21 | Sunday | | | | | July-13 | 22 | Monday | 9:30:00 | 20:00:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 23 | Tuesday | 9:30:00 | 21:00:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 24 | Wednesday | 9:30:00 | 22:30:00 | 1 | OT | July-13 | 25 | Thursday | 10:00:00 | 19:00:00 | 0 | | July-13 | 26 | Friday | 9:50:00 | 19:30:00 | -2 | OT | July-13 | 27 | Saturday | 9:55:00 | | 0 | | July-13 | 28 | Sunday | HOLIDAY | | | | July-13 | 29 | Monday | 9:30:00 | 20:00:00 | 1 | | July-13 | 30 | Tuesday | 9:30:00 | 20:30:00 | 1 | | July-13 | 31 | Wednesday | 9:30:00 | 19:30:00 | 1 | |
Sample attendance record D. SALES PROCESS
The sales process is a simple and well defined process. It is as below, 1. Establishing a new contact: by means of cold calling, cold visit, reference from another client etc. 2. Giving company introduction of Inlite over the phone or sending the company profile via email so as to get an appointment. 3. Meeting with the client. 4. Meeting with the samples and giving Demonstration. 5. Visiting the actual project sites. (This step may or may not take place). 6. Approval from client. 7. Sending quotations for the approved products 8. Quotation approval followed by order placement. 9. Order acceptance along with 50% payment in advance. 10. Preparing Invoice. 11. Product delivery within 14 working days. 12. Order completed. Sale successful.

E. FOLLOW UP
Once you establish a contact with prospective client, follow up becomes utmost important factor that will help you to get the new business. There are numerous other sales executives from various other organisations calling those clients, visiting them and bombarding them for getting orders. You have to differentiate yourself from this group.
You have to follow the proper approach for following up with the client. * Follow up is a process, of letting the client know that you exist in the market. * Don’t bombard the consumer with frequents phone calls. * Know the client and follow up accordingly. Also having client knowledge will help in conversation and converting the call into order generation. * Follow up if done systematically will give a ‘Recall Value’ to you in the mind of the client. * The most important thing is building relationship with the client. There might not be immediate requirement but due to the relation with you, the client will remember you first whenever there is requirement.

F. MAIL WRITING
Sending e-mail is an integral part of the job; hence, it has to be done systematically. * Always start with the greetings for both internal and external emails. * Format the replies to the emails properly (e.g. delete the fwd from the subject line if you are forwarding an email) * Keep the emails short and up to the point. Don’t make it text heavy. * Write perfect subject lines, which will help the reader to understand the content.

G. PREPARING PERSUASIVE PROPOSAL
Preparing a proposal which is persuasive will help in getting the proposal cleared. Some things to be kept in mind are: * Understanding the client needs and state of mind perfectly and drafting the proposal accordingly * The drafting of proposal will also depend on the type of client e.g. HNI client, Price sensitive client, Quality sensitive client * While drafting the proposal, the project size should be considered. * The proposal should explain completely how the client will benefit and it should explain how you can effectively & efficiently provide solution to the problem.

H. CLIENT MEETING
Client meeting is crucial in building a long relation with a client. An average architect or interior designer gives a business of around 10lakhs over a period of 5 years. Hence, the meeting is very important. Some guiding points: * Know your client – gather as much information about your client as you can so that you can re-align your sales pitch accordingly. Personalized sales pitch always works. * Know your product – though this is a given, product knowledge is one of the key factors in having a successful meeting. It will enable you to answer the client queries and it also gives the client a professional outlook towards you. * Plan the agenda – plan in advance what all things you are going to highlight in the meeting. E.g. if the client is High Net Worth Individual then talking about low prices will not be of much relevance as the client is not that price sensitive. * Always carry the company profile and business cards. * If you are carrying the samples, then carry relevant samples instead of random samples. It would be helpful in case the client has scheduled the meeting for less duration. * Listen – a general understanding is that a sales executive has to talk more but the contrary is true. The sales person has to listen more to the client and talk less. Only then he would be able to understand the problems faced by the client and provide perfect solution. * Ask for the business - As the meeting draws to a close don’t forget to tell the prospect specifically that you want their business. It seems direct, but asking for the business really works. You may get the business right then, but even if you don’t, at least the prospect knows that you’re serious. * Follow up - After the meeting is over, don’t just let the client or prospective client drop off your radar. Drop them a note to tell them how much you appreciated meeting with them. If you didn’t get the business at the meeting, call in a few days to see if they’ve made a decision.

I. PLACING THE ORDER
Placing the order is the next logical step after the approval of the required products during the client meetings. Proforma Invoice is sent to the client so as to confirm the order. The Invoice consists of all the terms and conditions necessary to the sales process.
PROFORMA INVOICE Consignment to <Said Company- Co /individual's name, address,Tel,Mob, Email ID,Vat number> | | Inlite_PI_01210313 | For <Said Project> | Kind attn : <Said Person> | | | | | | | | | To be delivered at <Said Address> | | | | | | S.No | Product | Light Output | Fitting Colour | Quantity | Rate Rs | Amount Rs | 1 | | | | | | | 2 | | | | | | | 3 | | | | | | | 4 | | | | | | | 5 | | | | | | | 6 | | | | | | | 7 | | | | | | | 8 | | | | | | | 9 | | | | | | | 10 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Terms and Conditions | | | | Total Before Tax | 0 | Delivery period 10-14 days after receipt of purchase order | | | | | | 100% Advance Payment along with PO to confirm order | | | | Add VAT @ 12.5% | 0 | Warranty period 1 year | | | | | | Warranty includes service warranty | | | | TOTAL | 0 | Lead time for after sales service 24-48 hours | | | | | | Warranty does not include breakage or misuse of product on site | | | | | Goods once sold cannot be returned | | | | | | All rates are ex Mumbai | | | | | | All production will be processed only as per sampling and approval from Client & Architect/Interior Designers | | Order once confirmed and placed cannot be cancelled | | | | | | Bank Details | | | | | | Universal Trading Co. | | | | | | Canara Bank, | | | | | | Sabharwal house, | | | | | | P D Hinduja Marg, | | | | | | Khar West, | | | | | | | Mumbai 400 052 | | | | | | A/c No 0207256009640 | | | | | | IFSC : CNRB0000207 | | | | | | | | | | | | | Prepared By : | | | | | | Approved By : | | | | | | Conclusion:
Making a Standard Operating Procedure manual for a company is a great learning process since you need to learn the company’s working completely so as to draft it into a theoretical manual. Hence, not only did I get an opportunity to work closely with the whole team but I was also able to learn the whole process which helped me in adhering to the work culture.
LEARNINGS:
The sales internship exposed me to the industrial environment and helped in gaining valuable Insights. Some of the learnings were: * Gained knowledge about the light industry in India and about the market potential for LED lighting. * Making a confident sales pitch. * Conducting a meeting with the client. * Working in a team. * Planning the work so as to achieve the sales target

RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS:
Inlite pvt ltd is still in its growth stage. Hence, the brand building exercise has just begun. Some of the suggestions are: * Build a range of standard projects which may be sold without delay so as to make the new sales executives more confident in the process of sales. * Print the product catalogue soon so the sales executive can have an effective tool to help in the sales process

CONCLUSION
The sales target was achieved and the enquiries generated exceeded the expectations.
The standard operating procedure manual was primarily approved and is under the final approval stage after which it would be inducted as an official document.

REFERENCES 1. Journal on lighting, by Philips electronics 2008 2. ELCOMA journal , Jan 2012 3. Perspectives on global lighting market, by McKinsey & company 4. LED market overview & forecast, ELCOMA Journal , March 2012 5. Inlite Pvt Ltd company profile & manual

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