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Unemployment in Nigeria

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European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-2275 Issue 11 (2008) © EuroJournals, Inc. 2008 http://www.eurojournalsn.com

Reducing Unemployment Through the Informal Sector: A Case Study of Nigeria
Ishola Rufus Akintoye Senior Lecturer, (OOU) Room 116, Department of Economics Faculty of the Social Sciences, University of Ibadan Ibadan, Nigeria – West Africa Abstract This paper seeks to establish that unemployment as one of the macroeconomic problems could be reduced through the informal sector participation provided it is well supported and manged. The informal sector in itself may not be able to achieve much as we have presently due to inaccessibility to credit, but with the on-going policy of the Federal Government through the Central Bank of Nigeria on micro-financing the macroeconomic objective of reduced unemployment, if not full employment will become a reality in Nigeria. The microfinance policy has empowered the many microfinance institutions to provide credit to the informal sector. We therefore advise that the Nigerian Government and all relevant stakeholders continue in their quest towards reducing unemployment while they give their undivided support, in making sure that the informal sector continues to enjoy access to credit to finance its activities and accomplish its goal of unemployment reduction.

Introduction
Unemployment is one of the developmental problems that face every developing economy in the 21st century. International statistics portray that industrial and service workers living in developing regions account for about two-thirds of the unemployed. (Patterson et al, 2006). The Nigerian economy since the attainment of political independence in 1960 has undergone fundamental structural changes. The domestic structural shifts have however not resulted in any significant and sustainable economic growth and development. Available data show that the Nigerian economy grew relatively in the greater parts of the 1970s, with respect to the oil boom of the 1970s, the outrageous profits from the oil boom encouraged wasteful expenditures in the public sector dislocation of the employment factor and also distorted the revenue bases for policy planning. This among many other crises resulted in the introduction of the structural adjustment programme (SAP) in 1986 and the current economic reforms. The core objective of the economic structural reform, is a total restructuring of the Nigerian economy in the face of population explosion (Douglason et al, 2006). However, these economic and financial structural reforms put in place have not yielded significant results. In the light of this, this paper seeks to examine how a major macroeconomic variable, unemployment could be reduced through the informal sector which is a recent global issue targeted at empowering people towards being self productive and independent(Akintoye, 2006). We shall consider the key concepts in our study, unemployment in Nigeria, in previous and recent times, role of the informal sector as a mitigating factor, the role of micro finance institutions, and other relevant stakeholders, in meeting the needs of the informal sector, while we also recommend how the informal sector can be activated in order reduce unemployment in Nigeria, which will

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invariably result in reduced poverty, improved standard of living, improved productivity, and an overall improvement in economic performance among other benefits.

Conceptual and theoretical issues
Unemployment: The Nigerian experience According to Briggs (1973) unemployment is the difference between the amount of lab our employed at current wage lends and working conditions, and the amount of labour not hired at these levels, however, Gbosi (1997) defined unemployment as a situation in which people who are willing to work at the prevailing wage rate are unable to find jobs. The implication of the definition by Gbosi is that anyone who is not be counted as part of the unemployed labour force, in order to avoid overestimation of the official rate of unemployment. In recent times, the definition of unemployment by the International Labour Organization (ILO) is said to be more encompassing, “the unemployed is a member of the economically active population, who are without work but available for and seeking for work, including people who have lost their jobs and those who have voluntarily left work (World Bank, 1998). The application of this definition across countries has been faulted, especially for the purpose of comparison and policy formulation, as countries characteristics are not the same in their commitment to resolving unemployment problems, moreso, the preponderance of housewives who posses the ability and willingness to work, the definition of the age bracket all stand as limitations to the definition by ILO (Douglason et al, 2006). According to the Central Bank of Nigeria (2003) the national unemployment rate, rose from 4.3 percent in 1970 to 6.4 percent in 1980. The high rate of unemployment observed in 1980 was attributed largely to depression in the Nigerian economy during the late 1970s. Specifically, the economic downturn led to the implementation of stabilization measures which included restriction on exports, which caused import dependency of most Nigerian manufacturing enterprises, which in turn resulted in Operation of many companies below their installed capacity. This development led to the close down of many industries while the survived few were forced to retrench a large proportion of their workforce, furthermore, the Nigerian Government also placed an embargo on employment. Specifically total disengagement from the Federal Civil Service rose from 2, 724 in 1980 to 6,294 in 1984 (Odusola, 2001). Owing to this, the national unemployment rate fluctuated around 6.0% until 1987 when it rose to 7.1 percent. It is important to state here, that SAP adopted in 1986, had serious implications on employment in Nigeria, as unemployment rate declined from 7.1 percent in 1987, to as low as 1.8 percent in 1995, after which it rose to 3.4 percent in 1996, and hovered between 3.4 and 4.7 percent between 1996 and 2000 (Douglason et al, 2006). The analysis by educational status also suggests that people who have been majorly affected by unemployment are those without basic education. For instance, persons with and without primary school education accounted for 76.8/80.6 percent of the unemployment in 1974 and 1978 respectively. In recent times however, the situation has been compounded by the increasing unemployment of professionals such as accountants, engineers, among others. According to a 1974 survey, reported by Aigbokhan (2000) graduate unemployment accounted for less than 1 percent of the unemployed, in 1974, by 1984, the proportion rose to 4 percent for urban areas and 2.2 percent in the rural areas. Graduate unemployment, (Dabalen et al, 2000) accounted about 32% of the unemployed labour force between 1992 and 1997. It is impressive to note here that, in 2003, Nigerian’s unemployment rate declined substantially to 2.3 percent. This decline was attributed to the various government efforts aimed at addressing the problem through poverty alleviation programmes. This decline also pointed to an increased number of people who got engaged in the informal sector activities. A couple of recent studies have attempted to examine the contributions of Informal Sector to employment creation. Ajibefun and Daramola (2003) examined the efficiency of micro enterprises in the Nigerian economy using a sample of 180 micro enterprises. They reported evidence of a wide

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variation in technical and allocative efficiencies, both within and across industries. They also found that education of owner of a business enterprise was a significant factor influencing efficiency. They conclude that the evidence of variations in efficiency is indicative of the need for more proactive actions to raise the level of efficiency and employment among the firms in the sample. Also, Sanda et al.(2006) used a sample of 360 firms in Kano and its environs to examine whether or not, in comparison to large firms, small firms are relatively better at creation of employment opportunities. Their results were positive in that small firms were found to be relatively better, and the conclusion they derived was that a policy that gives special preference to small firms is justified. The Informal Sector The informal sector is unorganized, unregulated and mostly legal, but unregistered. As observed by Todaro (1997), the massive additions to the urban labour force by this sector do not show up in formal modern sector unemployment statistics. The buck of new entrants to the urban labour force create their own employment or work for small scale family owned enterprises. The concept of “informal sector” since its invention in the 1970s has attracted much interest, discussion and disagreement. There are currently two approaches to defining informal sector activities: the definitional and behavioural (Farrel, roman and Fleming, 2000). Farrel defines the informal sector as one which consists of economic activities which are not recorded in the grow domestic product (GDP) and or the national income accounts. The behavioural which is a times referred to as the legalistic definiting is based on whether or not an activity complies with the established judicial, regulatory, and institutional framework (Feige, 1990) however, Sethuraman (1981) defines the informal sector as consisting of small scale units engaged in production and distribution of goods and services with the primary objective of generating employment and income, notwithstanding the constraints on capital, both physical and human, and the technical-knowhow, Arimah (2001, opines that the informal sector does not appear to have a meaning independent of the formal sector, as it only derives its meaning when contrasted with the formal sector. Ademu (2006) also defines the formal sector. Ademu (2006) also defines the formal sector as comprising those employment generating activities of some urban residents, undertaken for survival in the absence of formal employment. These activities are characterized by the lack of regulations by institutions of society in a social and legal environment in which similar activities are regulated. Common features of operators in the informal sector includes: • Easier access to production factors which are derivable from social organisation of family and friends. • Involves entrepreneurs in virtually all branches of the economy ranging from productive activities general services and specialized services. • Technology is determined more by the constraints of the social relations. • Motivation for production by the operators in the informal sector is becoming more profit oriented. (Ademu, 2006).

Efforts made at Combating Unemployment: National Directorate of Employment (NDE)
One of the steps taken by the Nigerian government to reduce the problem of unemployment in Nigeria was the establishment of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE), which was established in November 22, 1986. The objective of NDE was to promptly and effectively fight unemployment by designing and implementing innovative programmes, which are directed towards the provision of training opportunities through the guidance and management support services to graduate farmers and small scale entrepreneurs. The objectives of NDE spanned across the following programmes:

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Agricultural development programme Youth employment and vocational skills development programme Special public works Small scale industries and graduate employment programme The aim of the agricultural programme is to generate employment for graduates, non-graduates and school leavers in the Agricultural sector, with emphasis on self employment in agricultural production and marketing. The programme is monitored by a team of Agricultural professionals in the Agricultural department of the directorate. However, factors which includes inadequate funding and late release of funds from the federation account among others, have impaired the effectiveness of the NDE agricultural programmes (Chinedum, 2006). As stated earlier, this study seeks to recommend the informal sector as a medium of reducing unemployment in Nigeria, while outlining some of the pointers needed in making the objectives achievable. National Economic Employment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) The National Economic Employment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) was introduced in March 2004, inorder to confront the various macroeconomic imbalances, social challenges and structural problems in the Nigerian Economy. One of the principal goals is to build a modern Nigerian that maximizes the potential of every citizen so as to become the largest and strongest African economy, and a force to be reckoned with in the world. To achieve this goal NEEDS, as a development strategy anchored on the private sector is to engineer wealth creation, employment generation and poverty reduction, however, for NEEDS to achieve its objectives there’s need to design many integrated programmes that can generate employment for women and youths to enhance growth and development (Adebayo, 2006). As it is a medium – termed reform based development strategy, and action plan for the period 2003-2007, the impact of NEEDS is yet to be felt, in combating unemployment problem and this further points to the need to seek help in the informal sector inorder to drastically reduce unemployment. The tables below are presented inorder to make for an easier analysis and comparison of the unemployment situation in Nigeria both in previous and recent times.
Table 1: National Unemployment Rates (1985-2004)
Composite 6.1 5.3 7.0 5.1 4.5 3.5 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.2 1.9 2.8 3.4 3.5 17.5 18.1 13.7 12.2 14.8 11.8 11.9 Urban 9.8 9.1 9.8 7.8 8.1 5.9 4.9 4.8 4.0 4.0 3.6 4.4 5.7 4.5 11.6 14.2 10.3 9.5 17.1 11.0 10.1 Rural 5.2 4.6 6.1 4.8 3.7 3.0 2.7 3.0 3.2 2.8 1.6 2.4 2.8 3.1 19.6 19.8 15.1 13.3 13.8 12.1 12.6

Survey Period December 1985 December 1986 December 1987 December 1988 December 1989 December 1990 December 1991 1992 (annualized) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000* 2001* 2002* 2003* 2004* March 2005

Source: Federal Office of Statistics (FOS) and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (June 2005). NB: * data obtained from the Statistical Fact Sheet of NBS.

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Table 2:

European Journal of Economics, Finance And Administrative Sciences - Issue 11 (2008)
Unemployment Rates in Nigeria (2005)
% 11.9 6.5 14.4 9.8/27.4 29.7 9.9/4.5 18.6 6.3/8.0 11.1 21.4/3.4 16.5/7.9 12.1 19.1/19.1 23.8 2.9/8.7 6.5 0.2 2.5 6.2 5.3/1.9 2.8 7.0 4.1/19.9

States Nigeria Abuja Akwa-Ibom Anambra/Enugu Bauchi Edo/Delta State Benue Borno/Yobe Cross River Adamawa/Taraba Imo/Abia Kaduna Kano/Jigawa Katsina Kwara/Kogi Lagos Niger Ogun Ondo Oyo/Osun Plateau Rivers Sokoto/Kebbi
Source: Federal Office of Statistics, 2005.

Table 3:

Registered unemployed and vacancies declared in lower grade professional and executive levels
Professional and Executive Unemployed Vacancies 6123 606 15100 444 16293 591 14281 3091 10182 3695 12624 3989 22206 30188 108153 12605 28123 3307 32942 3708 67252 250 66461 83 99376 38 63669 138 104960 115

Lower grade Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Source: CBN, 2002

Unemployed 85158 145084 116162 96055 89752 110513 75143 75387 72277 81730 85441 85832 84727 86102 85368

Vacancies 13050 16502 14154 14052 7637 14529 3864 3735 3786 4182 7873 7831 6895 7313 6583

Placement 2378 4988 2506 3474 1917 2926 985 1251 859 1119 2020 2134 1352 1611 923

Placement 148 175 281 678 986 164 10 79 8 49 91 2 15 75 110

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Table 4:

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Shows the level of unemployment from 1970-2002.
Labour market development

Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Total Registered Unemployment 12250 12685 13573 15497 20918 23418 21026 14834 18796 256623 188438 106496 112588 123459 100745 91281 160184 132455 110336 99934 123137 97349 183540 100400 114672 152693 152293 184103 149693 190328 170287 180311

Total Vacancies declared 1613 1583 1983 2921 4186 4161 6044 6685 5608 15269 11904 13656 16946 14745 17143 11332 18518 6952 16340 7093 7890 8123 7914 6933 7451 6698 7564 7131

Vacancy Declared (junior cadre 1,533 1,520 1,870 2,829 4,061 3,989 5,864 6,373 5,410 34,947 58,204 47,557 18,310 14,612 11,156 13,050 16,502 14,154 14,052 7,637 14,529 3,864 3,735 3,786 4,182 7,873 7,831 6,895 7,313 6,583 7,437 7,010

Placement junior cadre 19,943 7,394 3,865 2,139 2,378 4,988 2,506 3,474 1,917 2,924 985 1,251 859 1,119 2,020 2,134 1,352 1,611 923 1,854 1,389

Vacancies Declared Executive cadre 80 63 113 92 125 172 180 312 198 657 748 606 444 591 3,091 3,695 3,989 3,088 12,605 3,307 3,708 250 83 38 138 115 127 121

Placement Executive cadre 145 26 145 148 175 281 678 986 164 10 79 8 49 91 2 15 75 110 93 102

Source: CBN Statistical Bulletin of various years.

Combating Unemployment via the Informal Sector
Studies on industrial development of different countries have shown that the informal sector constitutes an integral part in the overall industrial sector and play an active role in the growth and development of these countries. These enterprises contribute significantly to the employment generation and output growth of different developed and developing countries (Quarterly News letter of IYMC, 2005). In Nigeria, this sub-sector accounts for about 70% of the total industrial employment, generates about 6.2 percent of the aggregate employment in the United States, 22.3 percent in China, about 80 percent in India, as well as about 50 percent employment in Israel (Maryland, 2004). The foregoing therefore points to the fact that the informal sector given the needed support and regulatory framework could be a major player in the combat against unemployment saga in Nigeria, as well as in other developing countries. However, the informal sector cannot operate effectively at this task without the support of other key players, which is basically the availability of credit, as the best of ideas may never translate to

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reality without the wherewithal to make it happen – CREDIT, FUND; hence the availability of credit to finance the informal sector cannot be under placed. Roles of the Micro Finance Institutions Micro Finance continues to assume increasing importance as a result of the foregoing. The emphasis on micro credit in this century is such that the Global conscience believes that if unemployment is reduced, the world would be a better place as there would be a reduction in poverty, an improved living condition, increased productivity, and an overall resultant effect of an enhanced economic performance. Khandker (1998) observes that the lack of savings and capital makes it difficult for many poor people to become self-employed and to undertake productive employment generating activities. Furthermore, lack of capital makes it difficult for the disadvantaged to become self-employed. Consequently, the informal sector’s productive base and contributions remain small due to inaccessibility to credit (Ademu, 2006). In the light of the above, micro finance institutions in whatever social and economic climes can deliver credit to the informal sector which in turn makes use of the borrowed fund profitably, thereby reducing the level of unemployment in the country. Microfinance service providers are expected to: (i) Provide efficient and effective financial services, such as credit, deposits, commodity/inventory collateralization, leasing, and innovative transfer/payment services; (ii) Undertake appropriate recruitment and retention of qualified professionals through transparent and competitive processes; (iii) Adopt continuous training and capacity building programmes to improve the skills of staff; and (iv) Strictly observe their fiduciary responsibility, remain transparent and accountable in protecting savers’ deposits. Goals of Micro Finance Banks The establishment of microfinance banks has become imperative to serve the following purposes: (i) Provide diversified, affordable and dependable financial services to the active poor, in a timely and competitive manner, that would enable them to undertake and develop long-term, sustainable entrepreneurial; (ii) Mobilize savings for intermediation; (iii) Create employment opportunities and increase the productivity of the poor in the country, thereby increasing their individual household income and uplifting their standard of living; (iv) Enhance organized, systematic and focused participation of the poor in the socio-economic development and resource allocation process; (v) Provide veritable avenues for the administration of the micro credit programmes of government and high net worth individuals on a non-recourse case basis. In particular, this policy ensures that state governments shall dedicate an amount of not less than 1% of their annual budgets for the on-lending activities of microfinance banks in favour of their residents; and (vi) Render payment services, such as salaries, gratuities, and pensions for various tiers of government. With the effective implementation and monitoring of the on-going micro finance policy in Nigeria, it is expected that the issue of unemployment in Nigeria will be a thing of the past by the year 2020.

The roles and Responsibilities of Stakeholders
The roles and responsibilities of stakeholders in ensuring the effective performance of the informal sector are hereby outlined. Government shall be responsible for:

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European Journal of Economics, Finance And Administrative Sciences - Issue 11 (2008) Ensuring a stable macro-economic environment, providing basic infrastructures (electricity, water, roads, telecommunications, etc), political and social stability; (ii) Fostering adequate land titling and other properly rights sufficient to serve the collateral needs of borrowers and financial institutions; (iii) Instituting and enforcing donor and foreign aid guidelines on micro-finance to streamline their activities in line with this policy; and (iv) Setting aside an amount of not less than 1% of the annual budgets of state governments for on-lending activities of microfinance banks in favour of their residents.

Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) The roles of the CBN shall include the following: (i) Establishing a National Microfinance Consultative Committee. (ii) Evolving a clear micro-finance policy that spells out eligibility and licensing criteria, provides operational/prudential standards and guidelines to all stakeholders; (iii) Evolving a microfinance sub-sector and institutional policies aimed at providing regulatory harmony, promoting healthy competition and mainstreaming micro financing with formal intermediation; (iv) Adopting an appropriate regulatory and supervisory framework; (v) Minimizing regulatory arbitrage through periodic reviews of the policy and guidelines; (vi) Promoting linkage programmes between universal/development banks, specialized finance institutions and the microfinance banks; (vii) Continuously advocating market-determined interest rates for government-owned institutions and promote the channeling of government microfinance funds through MFBs; and (viii) Implementing appropriate training programmes for regulators, promoters and practitioners in the sub-sector, in collaboration with stakeholders. Donors agencies and NGO’s Donor agencies offer free or subsidized funds, donations or technical assistance for the development of the microfinance industry in Nigeria. They include bilateral and multilateral institutions, NGOs and missionaries with a pro-poor orientation. The services provided by donor agencies include grants, donations, technical assistance, etc. The donor agencies, in conducting their microfinance activities, shall comply with the relevant provisions of this policy. The target clients for donors’ support may include: MFIs, NGOs, regulators and other relevant agencies. However, for the purpose of leveraging the evolving micro financial initiative, donors are expected to direct most of their assistance to licensed MFBs to ensure an orderly resource injection, transparency and synergy. (CBN, 2005).

Conclusion and Policy Implications
From our study, employment generation has been seen as a means of alleviating poverty, increasing the level of economic activities which translate into economic growth. The situation of unemployment in Africa, Nigeria as a case study has been on the increase which has resulted in increase in social vices among other negativities. Although the Nigerian Government in previous times had put in place policies and programmes which are meant to combat this menace, few of which are considered in this study, but up till now these programmes have not made much impact. We therefore examine how unemployment can be reduced, by expanding the activities of the informal sector. Although the informal sector has its challenges, which revolves round the inaccessibility of credit to finance its activities but there is a glimmer of hope, considering the on-going policy of the Federal Government through the Central Bank of Nigeria, on microfinance, which has

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brought microfinance banking into the limelight making it a more realistic programme. It is hoped that if the microfinance programme continues to enjoy the support and regulatory framework it presently enjoys from Government and stakeholders, it will no longer be crippled by lack of fund, while the employment generation and job creation goals of the millennium also become a reality. We hereby recommend the informal sector as a medium of reducing unemployment in Nigeria and advise that Government and all relevant stakeholders continue in their quest towards reducing unemployment, as well as give their support in ensuring that the informal sector is not downtrodden but embraced in this task.

References
1] 2] Adebayo, A (1999).”Youth unemployment and the National Directorate of Employment, Selfemployment programmes”. The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 41(1). Adebayo, A. and Ogunrinola, I.O. (2006)”Contemporary Dimensions of unemployment problem in Nigeria: A special challenge under the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy”. NES 2006, Ibadan, Nigeria. Ademu, W.A (2006) ”The informal sector and employment generation in Nigeria: The role of credit”. NES 2006 Annual Conference. Akintoye, I.R(2006) “Enhancing the performance of the Informal Sector for the Economic Development of Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos State” International Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 5 No 1, pp 100-112 Alabi, R.A and Osasogie I.D (2006) “Income Generation by participants in the National Directorate of Employment in Edo State”. NES 2006, Ibadan, Nigeria. Arimah, B.C. (2001)”Nature and determinants of the linkages between informal and formal sector enterprises in Nigeria”. African Development Review 13 (1). Briggs, J.E (1973) “Unemployment statistics and what they mean”. Monthly Labour Bulletin, Washington DC; US Department of Labour. CBN/FOS/NISER (2001) A study of Nigeria’s informal sector/statistics of Nigeria’s informal sector, Vol. 1, Lagos. Central Bank of Nigeria (2005)Microfinance Policy, Regulatory and Supervisory framework for Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria. Douglason, G.U and Gbosi, A (2006) ”The Dynamics of productivity and unemployment Nexus: Implications for employment generation in Nigeria NES 2006”. Annual conference, Ibadan, Nigeria. Federal Office of Statistics (1998) Review of the Nigerian Economy 1997, Lagos. Feige, E.L. (1990) Defining and estimating underground and informal economies: The new institutional economic, approach world development. Gbosi, A.N. (2006) Modern Labour Economics and Policy Analysis. Abakaliki, Pack Publishers. Ilo (1996) World Employment. www.ilo.org/public/english bureau/inf/pkits. Khandker, S.R. (1998) Micro-credit programme evaluation: A critical review. IDS Bulletin 29(4). National Bureau of Statistics (2005) The Nigerian statistical fact sheets on Economic and Social Development, FOS, Nigeria. Odusola, A.F. (2001) Nigeria’s unemployment problem in the 80s and 90s: Implication for policy directions in the 21st century. NCEMA Policy Seminal Series. Ibadan, Nigeria. Patterson, Okafor & Williams (2006) “Globalization and employment Generation” Evaluating the impact of trade on Aggregate employment in Nigeria’s In Industrial Sector” NES 2006 Annual Conference Nigeria. Sethuraman, S.V (1981) The urban informal sector in developing countries: Employment, poverty and environment, Geneva.

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European Journal of Economics, Finance And Administrative Sciences - Issue 11 (2008) World Bank (1990) Alleviating unemployment and poverty under adjustment. Report of an ILO?JASPA Employment Advisory Mission, Addis Ababa. World Bank (1995) World Development Report. New York Oxford University Press.…...

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...Topic : Identify the effects of unemployment among the fresh graduates in Malaysia. Problem statement Unemployment has been a serious problem facing in our country especially among the fresh graduates. By some estimation, the increase of Malaysian populations within last one decade causes the increased amount of Malaysian labour force. This may results to the in unemployment that considered as damaging issue to the national economy because high unemployment may reduce the aggregate income and give the negative impact on the government. It will slow down the economic development progress of Malaysia. Other factor that affects labour market is technology, when technology rises, the labour market will drop. Thus, many people loss job because of new technology arise, completely for fresh graduates that seeking their job could not get the opportunity and will turn to increasing in unemployment. The best solution to overcome this problem can be implementing the set of mind to be more creative and innovative person rather than depending to the job that provided by government or private sectors such as create their own business as well as be an entrepreneur. Other than that, the problem can be settled by not too choosy in making decision to get a job, even it is not related to the qualification but must consider as started from below is much better. The purposes of this study are: 1. To investigates the effects of unemployment among fresh graduates. 2. To......

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Unemployment

...Unemployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina has reached a not so enviable level of 57 % . At the beginning of the year 2013 the records of employment were registered at 553,501 unemployed . Every month, the number of unemployed persons increased by 0.89 %. The fact that I have to mention is that the unemployment rate (official unemployment rate) in Greece is 22 % , which is struggling with the recession . One of the devastating fact is that 262,996 unemployed people or 49.93 % of job seekers are women. Is sexism in question? A fear that we may have a woman who will take a job, be a leader ? Additionally, highest unemployment rate is among young people and it is at 67 %, which is as much as 9 % more than in the previous five years. I think that the particularly troubling fact is that every year it is recorded only a continuation of the negative trend when it comes to the position of young people who are getting worse, and the problems are only deeper. The high rate and the level of youth unemployment has lasting negative consequences for the economy. Young people are choosing to leave Bosnia and Herzegovina every year. Statistics show that 37% of young people will leave Bosnia and Herzegovina, while 10 % have already taken concrete steps to leave out country. On step to hunger is 60 % of the BiH population. With the current level of economic activity, I think that there will be no improvement in the situation until the year 2017. This is leading to additional pressure, especially...

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Unemployment in Nigeria

...Unemployment in Nigeria Its heart aching to see a good number of Nigerian graduates unemployed. It’s one of the most critical problems the country is facing as a result of long years of corruption, bad government/leaders, military rule, civil war and mismanagement of wealth and resources. Unemployment is a state when one is unable to gain any meaningful means of living and unfortunately, this state has been nationalized in Nigeria. Unemployment in Nigeria has hindered the economic growth of the country. Unemployment is of great harm to the society and the youth age; it drastically increases illegal activities in the society and the youth are left with no choice other than to indulge in illegal activities. Nigeria is one of the countries with the highest rate of unemployment. In Nigeria, about two-third of the working population is unemployed. This is as a result of lack of job opportunities and productivity of the government. Lack of employment has an adverse effect on the society and on youths especially. For example, it creates false employment such as militancy, theft (armed robbery), and prostitution (both in male and female). This false employment increases the crime rate in the country and contributes to the gradual crumble of the economy of the country. According to the CIA World Fact-book, in 2008 the rate of unemployment in Nigeria was about 4.90%, and in 2009 it increased to 4.90%. Firstly, for a country like Nigeria that dwells mainly on oil as a source of...

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Unemployment

...Unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. The most frequently cited measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate. This is the number of unemployed persons divided by the number of people in the labor force. Many different variations of the unemployment rate exist with different definitions concerning who is an "unemployed person" and who is in the "labor force." For example, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' commonly cites the "U-3" unemployment rate as the official unemployment rate but this definition of unemployment does not include unemployed workers who have become discouraged by a tough labor market and are no longer looking for work. The various schools of economic thought differ on their explanation of the cause of unemployment. Keynesian economics proposes that there is a "natural rate" of unemployment because the skills of laborers and the positions available are slightly out of sync even under the best economic conditions. Neoclassical economics postulates that the labor market is efficient if left alone, but that various interventions, such a minimum wage laws and unionization, put supply and demand out of balance. The nature of unemployment differs according to the level of economic development in a country. India is an underdeveloped economy. The following types of unemployment exist in India: 1. Rural Unemployment: India is...

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Unemployment

...also had a negative impact. “the rate of unemployment or underemployment was highest for teens (aged 16-19) who were African American (60%) or Hispanic(52%) compared to their White counterparts (35%” (Youth Employment Matters, 3). When you look at these statistics, you may wonder how or why these numbers are so drastically different. Well I feel as though the real problem isn’t getting job, so much as it is the youth being malinformed. I mean most peers assume that just saying and attempting to get a job will get them said job. Well that really isn’t going to happen is it? and i’m sure it won’t help bring the numbers of unemployment for black and hispanic youth down either. Because i’m black youth myself, I see the differences in the African Americans and Hispanics that actually have jobs and those that don’t. The ones that usually have some type of family structured support, tend to have an easier time accessing information or getting help on Wegner 2 how to prepare for a job interview or how to have proper work etiquette. The youth that doesn’t have jobs are typically the one’s who are unmotivated and see “no purpose in wasting one's life away with job”(Tyler Wegner, Conversation with my parents). well they most likely weren’t introduced to the idea of working or going to school for higher education until they were much older and set in there unproductive ways. I believe if we are ever to truly separate this gap of unemployment it will start at school and at a much......

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Unemployment

...------------------------------------------------- M5A1: GDP, Unemployment and Inflation [Document subtitle] November 20, 2015 November 20, 2015 If the government guarantees income to those who are unemployed I think it could lower the unemployment rate. The individuals that currently receive unemployment benefits are counted in the unemployment rate. Those people are able to work and they are actively seeking employment. If the government guaranteed an income, the people that don’t really want to work would stop looking for a job which would drop them from the labor force. If they are not part of the labor force then they are not counted in the unemployment rate. I don’t think a cost of living adjustment should apply for those that are unemployed. If the government income is not enough to support the individual or a family that person would only need to earn enough to supplement the support. That means they could take an important but lower paying job which are usually much easier to find and don’t require an extensive skill set. Okun’s Law says that each additional percentage of unemployment translates into a loss of 3 percent in real output, that number was adjusted to 2 percent due to the change in the labor force (Schiller, 2013). The labor force will continue to grow each year and with less people looking for jobs those that want to work should be able to find employment. A guaranteed ...

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Unemployment

...Unit 2 Macro: Reducing Unemployment after a Recession Monday, July 11, 2011 by Geoff Riley [pic] How quickly do people find new work after they have been made redundant and experienced a period of unemployment? According to new research published in the May 2011 edition of the Economic Journal, only around one person in every ten unemployed in Britain finds fresh work within a month and nearly half of the extra unemployed created in the wake of an economic shock such as the fallout from the global financial crisis are still without a new job after six months. If government economic policies and the labour market generally are failing to get people back into paid jobs the impact of a recession on unemployment rates can last for a substantial time period bringing with it increased economic and social costs. [pic] According to the research, in the 2008-09 recession UK unemployment rose by over 850,000: from 1.6 to 2.5 million. Although this increase was less than many had feared on the basis of past recessions and the severe 6% drop in UK output, the end of recession has not brought a significant fall in unemployment. Instead, the unemployment rate has continued to fluctuate between 7.9% and 8.2%, having risen from a pre-recession low of 5.2% in April 2008 and standing at 7.8% as of February 2011. [pic] Some economists argue that government policy in the short term should focus on preventing widespread extra unemployment in the first place - for example subsidies for...

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Unemployment

...solutions for the unemployment problem using Keynesian economics, which brought the idea of forcing the government to spend when the private sector cannot or not able to support adequate levels of economic expansion. Conservatism and its position On the other hand, conservatism which is a political and social philosophy that simply believes that there is something in life worth redeeming and they also think that the role if governments should be to provide the citizens the freedom they need to achieve their own goals. Conservatives in the United States believe in and support the free market solutions, and they suggest to reduce the government rules and restriction of the private job areas. Moreover, they do not agree with the government in terms of motivation spending or aiding. They want it to be a free market that can govern feat and failure. To do so, they suggested to reduce the income tax rate which is the main effect on the free market. Back in the 19th century, the conservatives have worked to stop the labour unions and tried to push the free trade by encouraging agreements. Some of these agreements are still valid and used by the party to support the free trade. They also demonstrated some agreement that reduces inflation. Political and economic issues facing the citizens based on poll data Most of the rich and wealthy citizens of the United States do not support the active side of the government that try to kill the high rates of unemployment, they......

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Unemployment

...Today, a global recession has become a biggest threat to world. Due to this global recession, it is a macroeconomics crisis. In last few years, unemployment has become a serious and top most problem in many part of the world. Also increased globalizations have put more employee job into risk. The under developing countries like India, china are facing their bad time. Emerging economies like China and India are affected by the negative influence of the US Subprime Market Crisis. By reducing the demand for labor we can bring economic downturn, but it tends to increase the unemployment level in the formal sector and bring the wages charge down. It means the poverty rate is increasing and as well as the unemployment is also increases at the same rate. Such both effects try to tend the unemployment and poverty in formal economics. Thus recession works into two ways, directly or indirectly. Directly, in this scenario it decreases the wages of employees and it creates more jobless Is this essay helpful? Join OPPapers to read more and access more than 600,000 just like it! get better grades employees it means more number of poor in formal economy. In directly in this scenario it brings wages down those already employed in formal economy. In other word when the economy is passing through in a recession scenario the GDP rate will be high. The goods, service and product demand would be low. When demand of the product would be low the consumer expenditure also will be low. When......

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Unemployment

...Unemployment Name: Institution: Date: Unemployment refers to the situation which occurs when individuals who are actively seeking jobs are unable to find them (Brophy, 2010). On the other hand, unemployment rate refers to the prevalence of unemployment. Unemployment is normally used as a measure of the state of the economy. Before the industrial revolution in the United States, the production of goods was not systemized. Peasants produced goods for their own benefit and for that of their landlords. For this reason, they were not paid and could not be employed or unemployed. There was therefore no unemployment. However, the industrial revolution began which required the employment system (Maddison, 1982). Because of the search for cheap labor, industrial revolution brought about labor exploitation and unemployment. Unemployment in the United States started in the year 2008 when the private sector fell into a depression. This was as a result of the global recession. Since then, Unemployment has been an issue to date (Brophy, 2010). Unemployment is considered to be the main cause of poverty. As a result, people may not afford necessities which in turn lead to various businesses performing poorly. This in turn causes the laying off of more people and this becomes a chain reaction. Unemployment is also a problem because it the unemployed may not afford to pay bills thus lowering their standard of living. Furthermore, the number of homeless people in the United States has...

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