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Unemployment

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Submitted By Nalwanga
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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
1.0 Introduction.
This chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions to the study, justification of the study, scope of the study and significance of the study.
1.1 Background to the Study.
Wobst (2013) noted that there are 1.2 billion young people in the world estimating that the youth make up 18 percent of the global population, 25 percent of the total the working age population, about 90 percent of the young people from developing countries where around half of the total population living in rural areas.
Holden (2013) noted that young people aged between 18-25 years represent more than 60 percent of the continent’s total population account due to high fertility rate estimated about 133 million young people in Africa. Wobst (2013) noted that 25 percent the highest average annual population over the last ten years was registered in sub- Saharan Africa amongst the youth in rural areas. Ezewu and Ibukum (2012) noted that unemployment amongst the youth in Africa was caused mainly by illiteracy, inadequate skilled man powering the labour market thus exclusion from production, economic, social development in the continent. Holden (2013) also noted that Senegal, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Liberia are amongst the African countries most affected by youth unemployment.
In East Africa, the youth in the region are also becoming better educated but less productivity is benefited their countries. Estimates according to the Work4Youth project (2013), show that the proportion of 20-to-24-year-olds who complete secondary education will increase from 42 percent to 59 percent over the next 20 years. Consequently, as East Africa's workforce becomes larger and better educated, there is an overwhelming potential for economic growth and development. Countries must take the opportunity to cultivate the capacity of their youth, a valuable resource for their prosperity.
Uganda has been confronted with many challenges and crisis such as HIV/AIDS, floods, various endemic diseases, income inequality, famine and widespread poverty. Underlying all these is the phenomenon of unemployment and underemployment which has become central features of the Uganda’s economy. World Bank statistics (2012) indicate that Uganda has one of the youngest populations in the world at 83 percent and yet it also has the highest youth unemployment rates. Sam Lyomoki (2010) identified unemployment as one major problem that has worked against the development process in Uganda and noted that there is no proper follow up of employment trends and job market demands in Uganda.
Kukundakwe (2011) explained that in the rural areas of Namayumba village, majority of the youth are out of the school and have no regular work or source of income. 61 percent of the youth are not in any form of employment and are continually poor with higher poverty rates among 12-17 year olds as compared to the 18-30 years thus where there is unemployment, poverty, insecurity, crime, drug abuse and lawlessness are close by. Mayanja (2013) noted that Namayumba village has a population of about 3472 people, 2115 and 1357 respectively where 51 percent of young women and 43 percent of young men are unemployed.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Mayanja (2013) noted that despite the government’s and Non Government Organisation’s intervention in the creation of jobs through different projects like the NAADS program in Namayumba village, unemployment has persisted Namayumba village having the highest rate of youth unemployment amongst the villages in Namayumba Sub County, Wakiso district where 51 percent of young women and 43 percent of young men are unemployed.
This population indicates lost potential since the village fails to benefit from what the young people could theoretically contribute thus difficulties finding and sustaining employment detract from a young person’s lifetime productivity and earnings, making it more challenging to escape poverty thus the researcher’s interest in understanding the causes of youth unemployment, the dangers of having many unemployed youth and the ways to reduce youth unemployment in the rural areas of Namayumba village (ibid).
1.3 Purpose of the Study.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of unemployment amongst the youth in Namayumba village, dangers of having many unemployed youth and the ways to reduce on the problem.
1.4 Objectives of the Study.
1.4.1 General Objective
To examine causes of unemployment amongst the youth in rural areas in Namayumba village.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
1. To find out the causes of unemployment amongst the youths in Namayumba Village.
2. To find out the dangers of having many unemployed youth in rural areas like Namayumba.
3. To find out what can be done in order to reduce the unemployment among the youth.
1.5 Research Questions
1. What are the causes of unemployment amongst the youths in Namayumba Village?
2. What are the dangers of having many unemployed youth in rural areas like Namayumba?
3. What can be done in order to reduce unemployment amongst the youth in rural areas?
1.6 Justification of the Study.
The study will help the community know the causes of unemployment amongst the youth, how the educational system leads to youth unemployment and possible solutions of the problem.
The study will help the higher authorizes like the local council leaders, town clerks among other authorities to learn more ways of how to curb the youth unemployment in their communities.
The study will enable the government to implement on the programs like sensitisation about unemployment to be conducted in the villages so that the local people get to know the good things about job creation.
1.7 Scope of the Study.
1.7.1 Geographical scope
The study will be done in Namayumba village, Luguzi ward, Namayumba Sub County, Wakiso district. It will cover a sample population of 20 respondents mainly youth between the ages of 18-35, selected local leaders.
1.7.2 Content scope
This study will mainly focus on the causes of unemployment amongst the youth in Namayumba village. The study will find out how the defective education system, school dropping out lead to youth unemployment and identifying the possible ways of curbing youth unemployment.
1.7.3 Time scope
The study will be carried out for two months.
1.8 Variables
The researcher will use two variables which are the independent and dependent variable
1.8.1 Independent variables
IV
Defective education system
School dropping out
Poor performance of the agricultural sector
Lack of capital
Lack of local informal sectors
1.8.2 Dependent variable DV
Unemployment
1.9 Conceptual Frame Work
1.9.1 Unemployment
Spencer (2013) defined unemployment as share of the labour force that is without work but available for and seeking work differing by country.
1.9.2 Youth
NYC (2010) defines a youth as a person between the ages of 18-30 years.
1.9.3 Rural areas
A rural area is a geographic area that is located outside cities and towns according to Haworth (1997)

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction.
This chapter reviews what has been written about unemployment amongst the youth in rural areas. The Chapter reviews what different authors and organizations have written about the causes of unemployment, the dangers of having many unemployed youth in rural areas and what can be done in order to reduce unemployment amongst the youth in rural areas.
2.1 Causes of unemployed amongst youth in rural areas
Causes of unemployment are very many in the rural areas thus there are a number of key factors that have exacerbated unemployment in especially in the rural areas;

2.1.1 The malfunctioning education system
Brenk (2013) noted that over half of young unemployed people have no formal vocational training therefore primarily linked to a lack of qualifications since many have not completed their training or education have relatively poor prospects of finding a job. According to Cartel & Furlong, (2000) Due to the absence of training facilities and sufficient vocational guidance of the youth in rural areas are bond to unemployment. The education in rural areas is often of poor quality, inaccessible especially for the girls and has less relevance to the requirement in the labour market according to Wobst (2013).

2.1.2 Lack of training facilities and poor quality training
The provision for training for employment opportunities to improve skills, productivity and livelihoods in different activities are very few or focus on programmes that do not prepare the children and youth for productive work in the rural areas according to Wobst (2013).

2.1.2 The malfunctioning education system has caused unemployment amongst the youth
Holden (2013) noted that the education structure in many developing is less beneficial to the students as it does not correspond with the prevailing economic activities carried out in the rural areas as useful skills neglected instead theories take over thus a individuals taken in the labour market. Archibald (1971) revealed that large numbers of people completing different stages of education were not finding work due to theoretical education system to suit the changing situation which is less effective to the youth in the developing countries.
2.1.3 Lack of opportunities
Hawarth (1997) noted that the youth in rural areas have few quality jobs available as firms tend to be small and employ few people among the large numbers of young people in need of employment Employers in the rural areas tend to rely on seasonal workers due to the low demand for the young people in the view that they have little experience and have poor quality skills to occupy the most insecure positions.

2.1.4 Lack of local informal networks
Many countries lack local informal networks that can provide information about forthcoming employment opportunities or personal recommendations for available jobs thus making the youth ignorant about available jobs. The youth in rural areas tend to be disadvantaged and stigmatized by the community thus need job centers vacancies where the Rural Career Officers can match the youth to available vacancies.

2.1.5 Poor performance of the agricultural sector
Mirza (2011) noted that under developed countries depend upon the agricultural sector and production of agriculture that is challenged by the nature of production. There is subdivision of land and the youth in the rural areas have very small holdings on it, neither can they buy it, sell it or cultivate (ibid)

2.1.6 Lack of capital
While there are developments in any country, there is need of huge capital to set up different projects to facilitate development Mirza (2011). So the lack of capital becomes a huge hindrance for the young people in the rural communities even if they have the skills according to Mwogela (2013)

2.1.6 Low rate at which old people retire.
There are few jobs in Uganda and yet those that posses them do not want to retire. Many youth have gone to school but have failed to get jobs due to the low rate at which people are retiring

2.2 Dangers of having many unemployed youth in rural areas.

2.2.1 Idleness among the youth
O’Higgins N. (1997) noted that due to lack of what to do can lead to crime and violence among the youth. Some young people enter the criminal world at the very young age and end up becoming victims of crime themselves.

2.2.2 Discontent towards the authority
Prolonged unemployment amongst the youth may trigger social unrest and violent demonstrations with any provocative incident or issue made by the authorities thus leading to causalities and destruction of property. 2.2.3Destroys the family structure
Unemployment among the youth causes a lack of funds for basic household’s maintenance as well as other essentials like health; education of the children among others as noted by Hawarth (1997). There is constant friction and feuds in the families as demands are too much especially when one spouse does not work thus leads to quarrels, nagging, reduces ones’ self confidence, and social status rural areas, the worst being separation with no solution

2.2.4 Poverty.
Wobst P (2013) noted that due to lack of job basic needs such as shelter, clothes, food, water, education to mention but a few will be limited hence a problem of urban unemployment among the youth.

2.2.5 Leads to Drug Abuse amongst the Youth
Young people not attending school, living on the street and outside the reach of mainstream services, are more likely to abuse illicit substances than are employed young people. The major problem drugs in Uganda as reflected by treatment demand. In Uganda, the main drug used by adolescents is marijuana, which in 2002 accounted for 99 per cent of seizures made by the authorities, with 34.6 million users representing 7.7 per cent of the continent’s 15-24 year-old population. In other parts of Uganda, drug abuse decreases young people’s possibility of finding employment and results in additional costs to the economy. John A. (2009)

2.3 Ways to reduce unemployment amongst the youth in rural areas.
2.3.1 Adjustment in the education system.
Odyek (2012 noted that there is need for a purposeful focused and targeted education system for the youth to avoid being dumped in courses that are not relevant to the labour market thus advised universities to avoid crafting their courses depending on how idealistic they sound to them but are not helpful to the youth after graduation.

2.3.2 Youth participation in the private sectors.
Kyateeka (2013) noted that the youth should get involved in the private sector especially with the private enterprises, stressing that so far shs.15 billion has already been accessed by 3500 different organisations from different districts across the county from the government’s Youth Venture Fund.

2.3.3 Create job centres with a specific youth department in the rural areas.
Job centres coordinate demand and supply on the labour market: private sector enterprises can advertise vacancies, saving job-seekers time and money from going to the enterprises to ask for a job. To successfully establish job centres it is important to go beyond mere administration of vacancies according to Cartemel F and Furlong A. (2000)

2.3.4 Provision of vocational training and voluntary work
Wobst P (2013) suggested the provision of vocational and technical trainings of the youth in rural areas like their urban counterparts as it will increase their potential for employment or self employment, improved income and quality of life without constant aid from the government and NGOs. Voluntary work must be offered to keep unemployed youth occupied and the government must step into to help people find other methods for their needs to be fulfilled according to Daniel H. (2013)

2.3.5 Good governance
Leaders should provide structures where the youth segments of the society are gainfully employed either self employment or public sectors of their communities through the entrepreneurial activities as according to Hawarth W (1997)

2.3.6 Enhancing Income and Productivity
The government and the local leaders should facilitate better access to essentials of production like capital, land and enhancing training and technology to facilitate marketing of products in the rural areas thus promoting rural employment and providing support to cottage industries and agriculture according to Daniel H. (2013)

2.3.7 Improvement of Social Services
Hawarth (1997) noted that there should be an improvement of health care programs to create provision of free health care, expansion on the social welfare programmes and employment benefits which include rent, subsidization of clothing and food amongst the unemployed youth.

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction.
This charter will present the procedures and processes that will take place that the researcher will use during the study. It will explain the study design, area of the study, study population, sampling selection techniques, sample size, data collection techniques, data processing and analysis.
3.1 Research Design.
The Study used a descriptive survey design in which both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. The qualitative approach mainly dealt with identifying the causes of unemployment amongst youth of Namayumba village, examining the dangers of having many unemployed youth and the ways of reducing on unemployment. The quantitative approach specifically aimed at the demographic characteristics in the study area and looked at the problem of youth unemployment in terms or gender differences and also calculating and developing statistical results from the responses given by the respondents.
3.2 Area of the Study
The researcher will carry out the study in the village of Namayumba-Kabilingo, Namayumba Sub County, Luguzi ward, Wakiso district. Namayumba Sub County has got 22 villages and one named after the sub county because it’s the centre of the sub county and the largest. The researcher chose the village because it’s the most affected village in the sub county with youth unemployment as it was evidenced by the number of young people with no jobs hence becoming the area of the study.
3.3 Study Population
Namayumba village has got a population of 3472 people, where women are 2115 and men are 1357 in number. Due to the big population, the researcher will sample 180 respondents thus will represent the rest of the population of the village during the study.

3.4 Sampling method
The researcher will use 180 respondents to represent the whole population of 3472 people in Namayumba village of which 85 are men, 94 are women, and 58 will be parents, 52 community leaders and 70 youth. The researcher will use the above sample because they have better knowledge about unemployment amongst the youth in rural areas.

Table 1: sample size from the community.
Category Sample
Parents 58
Community leaders 52
Youth 70
Total 180

3.4 Sampling techniques
The researcher will use the following sampling methods;
The stratified random sampling will be used where the researcher will divide the study population into groups that is the community leaders, parents, and the youth separately to ensure that all stakeholders are adequately represented in the sample and are knowledgeable about the study.
The purposive random sampling will also be used to particularly cover categories of respondents that is unemployed and the employed, school dropouts and the schooled, married and unmarried; this will ensure openness amongst the respondents thus making data collection easy.
3.5 Data collection tools.
The researcher will use a number of methods during the process of data collection and among them will include;
3.5.1 Interview method.
The researcher will also use the interview method in data collection with the help of an interview guide as a way to compare different views of the respondents where the individual will use individual respondents.
3.5.2 Focus Group Discussion.
The researcher will also use the method where the respondents will be organised according to their sex, age, educational level, occupational status and marital status. This will be so because it will encourage freedom and will save time.
3.5.3 Questionnaire Instrument.
The researcher will use a questionnaire with both open-ended and closed ended questionnaires to enable respondents to express their views and opinions about the variables in the study.
3.6 Data Processing and Analysis
The data collected will be transformed into finished and meaning information which will include;
3.6.1 Editing
The researcher will edit the data obtained from the respondents to avoid making mistakes thus will come up with acute and clear data for batter results.
3.6.2 Tabulation
The researcher will put the data in tables to form figures and percentages to have a meaning interpretation.
3.6.3 Coding
The researcher will group the answers from respondents according to their responses.

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...One of the most important social problems faced by any person is unemployment. Unemployment may lead to loss of self-esteem, depression, and chronic worry about how to provide for dependents. Underemployment is when a person is either not actually out of a job, but due to need for money, has taken a job which does not allow him (her) to take care of the people and housing as it was done before. It also may include joblessness when people give up on looking for a job. Both situations can be stressful and lead to serious emotional and physical illness. It is not only the loss of income… but also represents loss of control over what may happen in the future to their home and family. A parent no longer able to supply children with what they and most of their friends have had in the past may develop a sense of failure or shame. Unemployment (also underemployment) is a serious social problem, especially since most of those experiencing unemployment are dealing with something that was lost through no fault of their own and reversal of it is also out of their control. The amount of people unemployed is expressed as a percent of the total work force, and has been regarded as a marker for how the economy is doing in general. Calculation of the rate of REAL UNEMPLOYMENT (the unemployed and the underemployed and those who have given up) is actually much higher. While there is no agreement on any one cause of the great depression of 1929, it is generally noted the final blow to the......

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Premium Essay

Unemployment

...Introduction When an economy is in a recession, total spending falls, businesses produce a lower volume of goods, and as a result, unemployment occurs. For example, during the great depression of the 1930’s in America, the unemployment rate rose to a record high twenty-four percent*. Two other notable times of recession yielding unemployment include the oil crisis of the 1970’s and 1980’s, and the great recession of 2008. During these times, the labor force, or people who are able and willing to work, has a higher amount of people without jobs than usual. Unemployment, of which there are many types, is a problem within the business cycle that can cause negative effects on a countries’ economy and businesses alike. Measurement Unemployment is measured each month by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). The process of which they conduct this survey consists of questioning a random 60,000 households and ascertaining as to who is employed and who is not**. With a series of questions, the BLS finds which members of the households are working, who is looking for work, who is not looking for work, etc. After receiving this information, the BLS uses the data and forms an unemployment rate for the entire nation. By the BLS’ definition, there are three groups of the U.S. population. The first consists of people under the age of sixteen and those who are institutionalized; these people are not considered members of the labor force. Another group not considered to......

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Unemployment

...Unemployment Economists try to determine the health of economies by monitoring data sets, statistics and indices. Economic data, which are permanently released by the government and statisticians, are a helpful tool to assess the current stage of an economy (e.g., recession, depression). The national unemployment rate, which is released monthly by the Bureau of Labor, is one of the most important economic indicators. This memo will focus on the different types of unemployment, the ways to measure unemployment, the unemployment data itself, and policies that are used to target unemployment. The different forms of unemployment Although unemployment as a concept has a negative connotation, there are three types of unemployment, which differ in terms of their impact on the economy. The first type, frictional unemployment, is the least severe kind of unemployment. According to the website Investopedia.com, frictional unemployment “is always present in the economy, resulting from temporary transitions made by workers and employees or from workers and employers having inconsistent or incomplete information” (“Frictional Unemployment”). Clearly, no tall job seekers have the tools to find the right company. Even people who can access job offers online might not be able to find the right position. However, employers face the same problems. For example, a company might have an open position for a bilingual administrative assistant, but hiring managers may not have the......

Words: 1412 - Pages: 6