Premium Essay

Unequal Education

In: Social Issues

Submitted By nwagh507
Words 1172
Pages 5
1. After watching the video “Unequal Education”, reading “Savage Inequalities” by Kozol and all other assigned documents, it is clear that there is in fact a relationship between poverty, race, and school spending per pupil. The relationship is the impoverished are generally non-white (black or Hispanic) and their school districts spend less on students than those that are located in more affluent, white areas. As a result, the more affluent areas provide children with many facilities for different activities, equipment to keep students engaged, and after school activities to keep students away from community dangers while poorer neighborhoods teach classes in storage rooms, provide an inadequate amount of equipment for each individual, and practically have non-existent after-school programs. Additionally, poorer school districts cannot afford enough teachers to comfortably accommodate all students. The difference that Kozol points out between the Montclair and East Orange high-school students is shocking. East Orange High School with 2,000 students has only four physical education teachers while Montclair High School, with only 100 students less, has 13 physical education teachers. In many case, teachers from poorer schools will teach multiple subjects that they are not familiar with or certified in. Even more shocking is how in Jersey City, the art budget is $2.62 per student (for one year), which Kozol states as being “less than the price of a pad of drawing paper at a K mart store.”

2. In “Savage Inequalities,” Kozol states that “it is difficult to know what argument a counselor can make to tell a failing student that she ought to stay in school.” The difficulty that these counselors face is that considering the deplorable environments of poor schools, it is sometimes actually difficult to determine whether dropping out is “a logical decision.” The odds of…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Still Separate, Still Unequal

...Still Separate, Still Unequal Segregation is a topic that has been discussed for decades. Segregation in schools wasn't really dealt with. The government basically disguised it and kept it away from the public. Brown V. Board of Education, Plessy V. Ferguson, and Jim Crow Laws was the cover, but it didn't solve anything. Segregation isn't just about race, it's also financially. When money is involved in the situation there's a major advantage. Johnathan Kozol talks about how we're still separate, and unequal. Johnathan Kozol touched on some really great points, when it came down to gproving how we're separate, and unequal. Kozol digs a little deeper to back up his word on being separate and unequal. In the following paragraphs I will summarize Kozol's article "Still Separate, Still Unequal" and continue on what needs to be done to solve this problem. Many people wonder do segregation still exist, but not many people want to investigate. Jonathan Kozol, did a little more than investigate. Jonathan Kozol pointed out, in most poor neighborhoods the schools have mostly black and Hispanic students (348). The percentage of blacks and Mexicans students were higher than fifty percent. There was a teacher who was 65 years old who taught at a majority black school stated that "Out of eighteen years, this is the first white student I have ever taught" (348). It's not very common that white students attend underclass schools. Kozol stated that there is a school in New York City named...

Words: 1648 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Reading

...Separate, Still Unequal by Jonothan Kozol The general argument made by (Jonothan Kozol) in his work, Still Separate, Still Unequal is that there is still segregation in our schools all around the country. More specifically, (Kozol) argues that education starts even before pre-school and only the wealthy families are able to afford private programs for their children. He quotes Marina Warner “there are expensive children and there are cheap children” (pg6). In this passage, (Kozol) uses this quote to reiterate the point that he was making which was that middle-class/poor families don’t get the same education wealthy families get. The difference between early education is stressed by the author as he talks about wealthy families sending their children to advanced classes even before pre-school begins. Thus resulting in their children being smarter and having a better chance at success in the classroom atmosphere. In conclusion, (Kozol)’s belief is that every child in America should have equal opportunities to strive for excellence. The amount of money you have shouldn’t determine your academic success. In my view, Kozol is right because many individuals are being targeted at a young age and are told that they cannot succeed because of their certain circumstances. However, this shouldn’t be the case, every child should feel like they have the same chance at success. More specifically, I believe that all schools should be diverse and provide the same education every......

Words: 444 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

What Causes Socio-Economic Inequality?

...Eau Claire, WI 54701 What Causes Socio-economic Inequality? ABSTRACT This paper will look into the reasons of socio-economic inequality of individuals throughout society. The expansive framework of this theme is our class discussion on Stratification. Countless people think of socio-economic inequality specifically as social class. Although this is a part of it, there are many other factors such as gender and racism that contribute to this matter. Furthermore, the overall thesis for this paper is that the causes of socio-economic inequality are caused by more than solely economic factors. The arguments that will support this thesis will be: 1) Gender inequality in the workplace; 2) Discrimination towards age and race 3) Unequal access to education and power; and 4) How the social behaviors of members of society, through forms of discrimination, affect the attitudes of others. This topic has a social relevance, being that countless people around the world are affected by socio-economic inequality. I INTRODUCTION A study done on national income distribution shows that families in the top twenty percent are making 47.2 percent of the nation’s income, while the bottom twenty percent are making only 4.3 percent of it. Correspondingly, ten percent of households in the United States own 68 percent of the nation’s wealth. This proves that there is a problem of uneven distribution of income, and the reasons behind it are due to the social problems society has been facing......

Words: 1717 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Education

...Theory and Research in Education http://tre.sagepub.com/ Individual choice and unequal participation in higher education Kristin Voigt Theory and Research in Education 2007 5: 87 DOI: 10.1177/1477878507073617 The online version of this article can be found at: http://tre.sagepub.com/content/5/1/87 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com Additional services and information for Theory and Research in Education can be found at: Email Alerts: http://tre.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://tre.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations: http://tre.sagepub.com/content/5/1/87.refs.html >> Version of Record - Feb 13, 2007 What is This? Downloaded from tre.sagepub.com at Templeman Lib/The Librarian on January 28, 2013 . . TRE Individual choice and unequal participation in higher education k ri st i n vo i g t Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford, UK a b s t rac t Does the unequal participation of non-traditional students in higher education indicate social injustice, even if it can be traced back to individuals’ choices? Drawing on luck egalitarian approaches, this article suggests that an answer to this question must take into account the effects of unequal brute luck on educational choices. I use a framework based on expected utility theory to analyse qualitative studies on educational choice.This......

Words: 12587 - Pages: 51

Free Essay

Inequality in Latin America

...implemented many elitist social structures that have held strong and are evident today (Harris). Income inequality is the most visible and greatest disparity that the region faces; yet inequality between gender, ethnicities, and education remain strong and significant problems with a necessity for improvement. Inequality of wealth and disparity of power and influence are Latin American’s greatest curses and are at the root of many of the developmental, social, criminal, and political problems that continue to plague the region (De Ferranti). Since inequality has pervaded into every feature of Latin American society, it is important to measure inequality accurately in order to obstruct the causes of the discrimination and prevent new ones from beginning. The Gini Coefficient is an effective way that people indicate the inequality of a country by measuring a frequency distribution of income or wealth. Using the "Gini Index" of inequality in the distribution of income and consumption, the researchers found that Latin America and the Caribbean, from the 1970s through the 1990s, measured nearly 10 points more unequal than Asia, 17.5 points more unequal than the 30 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and 20.4 points more unequal than Eastern Europe (De Ferranti). After inequality rose in the 1990s, the Gini coefficient for Latin America as a whole, declined from an average of 0.529 in 2000 to 50.9 in 2009. Of the 17 countries for which......

Words: 3191 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Gender Development

...Gender equality and equity are useful aspects in the development of communities. The importance of gender equality is underscored by its inclusion and recognised globally as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. In this writing the writer would first define terms gender equality and equity. The writer is going to dwell much on issues like income generating projects, education, health services, politics, family issues, and religion which are some of the useful aspects that promotes community development. Gender equality is, first and foremost, a human right. According to Momsen (2004), gender equality means equal valuation of men and women and sameness in the enjoyment of rights, power, opportunities, treatment, and control of resources between male and females in the society. P (2007) congruently agrees with Momsen when depict Gender equality, as that men and women should receive equal treatment, unless there is a sound biological reason for different treatment. This concept is a key factor in the development of communities, where the ultimate aim is to provide equality in law and equality in social situations, especially in democratic activities and securing equal pay for equal work. Momsen (2004) went on to define gender equity as a process of achieving fairness and justice among men and women in distribution of opportunities, responsibilities and resources as well as accessing and controlling benefits from these resources. Kaiser (2005) as well defines......

Words: 860 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Miss

...Outline and assess sociological explanations of gender inequality in contemporary UK (40) Intro: * There are many sociological explanations of gender inequality, for example, functionalist views contrast hugely with Marxists. * For hundreds of years, women have been seen as unequal, however in the late 19th and 20th century up until today, there has been a huge increase in the belief of gender inequality and numerous feminist movements to try and conquer gender inequality. Functionalists: * Different, not unequal * Men and women serve different social roles in society, fam & workplace. * Parsons: women = expressive. Men = instrumental (breadwinner). Differences are innate and prescribed at birth. Warm bath 4 husband * Murdock: One of roles of fam = to socialise children into gender roles to fit instrumental & expressive roles for society * Human Capital Theory: many women choose to prioritise role as homemaker, fitting with expressive instincts, therefore choosing their own position * Marxist feminists would argue that gender differences = used to exploit women through capitalism at work and in home. * Ansley: Women used to benefit economy, absorbing frustration & anger of husbands who are also exploited at work. ‘Women are the takers of shit’. * Benston: focused on economic aspects of gender inequality. Women = a reserve army of labour. Contribution of domestic labour to capitalism. Marxists: * More......

Words: 569 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hiv and Drugs

...family, traditional values * Lack of information/education * Poor parenting * Peer pressure, experimentation, curiosity The following are the Effects of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. * Social impact (Crime, GBV, breakdown in the social cultural norms, dysfunctional families/ separation/ divorce, child trafficking, immorality, orphans, high number of dependents, diseases, accidents, school unrest) * Economic impact (high poverty levels, high medical costs, unproductivity, overburdening of service provision , diversion of essential resources, economic crises such as bribery, corruption and money laundering) * Political impact – Breakdown of law and order, rise in vigilante groups and organized crimes, terrorism. How HIV AIDs can lead to Alcohol and Drug use. * Self medication * Loss of hope * Stigma * Discrimination 2. Across cultures, there exists unequal power balance found in the socio-economic sphere in gender relations that favors men in the following stated ways. * Men have access to productive resources and decision-making authority. * Women have less access over and control of productive resources than men ( income, land, credit and education) * Men have greater control than women over when, where and how takes place * Unequal power balance is reflected in sexual relationships. * Gender based violence (GBV) refers to violence that arises as a result of the unequal power relationships between men and......

Words: 417 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Suburban School Policy

...that public school resources and reputations are spread unevenly across separate and unequal suburban school districts, even as small and autonomous suburbs face mounting pressures to sustain themselves economically. It also means that once predominantly white and middle-class communities and their public schools begin to change demographically, absent a concerted effort to stabilize the housing market and public schools, a downward fiscal and educational spiral can ensue. First, the “perception” of the school districts change, and home buyers and realtors begin talking about these communities as “less desirable” – even when tangible measures such as test scores and course offerings are the same. The major assumption is that a minority student base will result in lower standardized scores for the district. This leads to a decline in property values, and once perceptions and the value of a community and its public schools change, a self-fulfilling prophecy unfolds, as both the tax revenues and the reputation decline. If people with the income to pay higher property taxes and the education levels and political clout to demand more of public schools leave in search of “better” communities, then the distinctions between separate and unequal public schools become greater. The cycle of separate and unequal schools and communities tends to repeat itself again and again. Separate and most probably unequal schools is what white residents of a central California school district was......

Words: 1486 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Educational Policies Essay

...will be regarded as unequal to some extent. Before 1870 educational policies reproduced social class inequalities extremely as education was only available to a tiny minority of the population. This generally consisted of the wealthy as formal schooling included fees. Some lower class children received an education during this time which was taught by either the church or local charities however this was extremely limited and not everybody received this. This in itself is a social inequality as not all children received any educational opportunities so had to rely on the knowledge and socialisation of their families. As times progressed and as the need for better educated people came about the 1870 Forster Act was introduced in the country. This act ensured that all those who didn’t receive any educational opportunities previously would be able to receive education from an elementary school, this was introduced to stop their being any inequalities throughout the class. Sadly this act did not fully allow class inequality to disappear, this was down to the fact that the education that occurred in the elementary schools was still minimal as it was only available between the ages of 5 and 10 due to the fact that the government wanted only minimal reading, writing and arithmetic for success at future jobs. This was extremely unequal as the upper class children who still went to a fee paying school got to stay there till they were 18 and had a much thorough education to allow them......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Examine Sociological Explanations for the Unequal Distribution of Wealth and Income in Contemporary Britain (24 Marks)

...Britain is often described as an unequal society in terms of wealth and income. Social inequality from a sociological point of view means a lack of fairness between different groups of people living in society. The essay aims to explore the reasons behind the unequal distribution of wealth and income from a functionalist, Marxist and Weber point of view. From a functionalist point of view, the unequal distribution of wealth and income in contemporary Britain is necessary for the survival of society. They would argue that all aspects of society, even poverty, contribute to Britain’s overall stability. Functionalists such as Davis and Moore argue that those who perform the difficult and important jobs are therefore entitled to more power, prestige and money. This motivates the most qualified people to exercise their talents in the most important social positions. However, this can be criticised because it is too difficult to determine the functional importance of any jobs. Nurses are an example of people who are not highly compensated and do not have notably high prestige, but who work long hours and are essential to maintaining society’s health. The high stress of their job and low incentives to do it contradict the theory of functionalism. Another explanation of the unequal distribution of wealth and income is that the means of production is controlled by a small and powerful ruling class. Marxist sociologists argue that in a capitalist society, the bourgeoisies exploit......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sociology Poverty and Equality

...Poverty and Social Inequality ‘Inequality remains a significant part of life in contemporary Britain’ Some argue that Britain is the most unequal society in Western Europe, Research conducted by Sutton Trust from 2010 suggests that poverty affects children’s ability to do well in schools, the study indicates that just 45 per cent of children from poorest fifth of families were ready to read daily by the age of three compared to 78 per cent of children from richest fifth of families. This proves that British society is unequal; there are social groups that have access to better standards of living than others (Morning Star Online 2010) In order for Inequality to take place, some people need to have more than others, creating boundaries in society that stop some people from getting equal status despite their work and effort. There are several ways of measuring social class, subjective method simply is based on people’s perception of what social class they should be in. However it is quite vague as some people may be middle class and have a lot of money whereas other might have education, lifestyle and manners of the middle class but are poor. Where objective method takes things into account like occupation, unemployment, income, education and so on therefore it is more reliable way of measuring social class. In order to measure social class effectively, stratification is needed to enable evaluation of inequalities; best way to do it is consider morbidity and mortality......

Words: 3565 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Making Gender Equality a Reality

...flabbergasted to acknowledge that achieving gender equality necessitates the presence of men; those men, because of whom, the word gender inequality came mostly into existence. Notwithstanding it is an incontestable fact that gender inequality includes both sexes, yet women are the most vulnerable to these disparities. The equality of men and women has become one of the fundamental constituent of human rights, ever since the adoption of the United Nations Charter in 1945. As stated by the Gender and Development group, gender inequality tends to lower the productivity of labour and the efficiency of labour allocation in households and the economy, thereby aggravating the unequal distribution of resources. Thus, it is of a prime importance for all Governments to combat this phenomenon as far as possible. In line with this, the Government of Mauritius enacted a law against sexual discrimination in 2000, and a further law in 2003, to combat sexual violence. On an international basis, there were also many agreements to promote gender equality such as the Convention of the Elimination of all forms of Discriminations against Women (CEDAW) in 1979, the world conference of human in 1993, the Millennium Development Goals [goals 3] of the UN in 2000, inter alia. There are also institutions involved, for instance, the Women in Development (WID), which focuses on raising the knowledge and skills of women to......

Words: 1768 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Education

...States undervalues education. Our school districts depend on and enforce property taxes to pay for schools. b. Educational assessments prove that we are far behind other countries. c. America needs to increase state aid rather than property taxation. Practical Implications a. Implications for school funding b. Implications for curriculum c. Implications for foreign countries Evidence a. PISA Survey Assessed 15 year-old students’ ability to read. Proves Canadians, on average, one school year ahead of American children. b. School funding and Property Taxes Conclusions: All my evidence supports my hypothesis. There is room for improvement in American schools, as well as more opportunities to more appropriately fund schools. When compared the Unites States is below average compared to the majority of other countries. References: The Editorial Board. (2013, December 17) Three Reasons Students Do Better Overseas. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/18/opinion/why-students-do-better-overseas.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1& OECD. (2011) Lessons from PISA for the United States, Strong Performers and Successful Reformers in Education, OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264096660-en Ryan, Julia. (2013, December 3) American Schools vs. the World: Expensive, Unequal, Bad at Math. Retrieved from......

Words: 256 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Examine the Role of Opportunity Structures in Causing Crime and Deviance

...release men’s sexual frustrations without threatening the nuclear family. Also deviance acts as a warning light. Cohen argues that deviance indicates that an institution is malfunctioning e.g. high truancy rates may indicate problems with the education system. However, it must be noted that functionalism assumes crime performs positive functions for society as a whole e.g. promoting solidarity, but ignores how it might affect individuals within it e.g. crime obviously is not functional for its victims. Similarly, Durkheim claims society requires a certain amount of deviance to function but offers no way of knowing how much is the right amount. Durkheim and other functionalists explain crime in terms of its function e.g. to strengthen solidarity. But just because crime does these things does not necessarily means this is why it exists in the first place. Deviance is argued to be the result of unequal opportunities, however, not everyone agrees with this view, for example, Merton’s (1938) ‘Strain theory’ argues that deviance arises from society, people engage in deviant behaviour because they are unable to achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means, and when most people share similar goals for example financial success in an unequal society not all individuals have the opportunity to realize those goals by approved means, therefore they feel different, as the dominant rules how to achieve success don’t meet their needs, and as a result deviance occurs. Merton......

Words: 1650 - Pages: 7