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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
“Technology... is a queer thing. It brings you great gifts with one hand, and it stabs you in the back with the other.”
Carrie P. Snow
With remarkable technological advancements in third world countries like the Philippines, modern electronic gadgets play a vital role in everyone’s lives. Virtually every day, we find ourselves in situations that require us to use gadgets and devices to boost up performance in tasks we ought to do. Because of the advent of modern technology, the incorporation of electronic gadgets in student’s education continuously remain as one of the “educational battlegrounds” that is fought over and over again.
Ever since, the introduction of technology in the country has evidently improved our performances in the various facets of our lives, not to mention the improvements it has done in the Philippine economy. Thus, the country is placing a high priority in technological advancements, with the hope of bringing the name of the Philippines in the list of “developed” countries in the world.

Background of the Study
In the Ateneo de Zamboanga University which is known for its innovative culture of technological revolution, students relatively have the capacity to acquire and own modern electronic gadgets. Because of these technological advancements, college professors tend to make their requirements or projects technically “modern”. Thus, electronic gadgets essentially have an impact most especially to the students for these will help them fulfil their requirements in accordance to the professors’ standards.
To note, Pohnpei (2011) states that to be able to carry all your textbooks around in one small electronic device would be a blessing. So, these devices are mainly useful because they make it easier for students to access information and use software like Microsoft Word to accomplish tasks. Pohnpei (2011) further explains that these gadgets will not serve its potential significance if not used with the proper discipline and without forgetting favourable study habits that ultimately determine a student’s output in class.
This research study sought to determine the factors that promote success among students considering the demographic characteristics and circumstances which place them at a higher risk of failure.
Hence, this was conducted with the primary goal of answering the researchers’ curiosity as to what are the effects of electronic gadgets and how exactly these gadgets aid students’ academic achievements or performances in the classroom setting. This further emphasizes that individual characteristics play an important role on influencing students’ performance regardless of having these electronic gadgets.
(http://www.enotes.com/edtechs/discuss/what-good-effects-electronic-devices-have-stu-92950)
Theoretical Framework Our research study is anchored on the theory of Charles Cobb and Paul Douglas, which focuses on the production function: Y=ALαKβ. In Economics, the production function denotes that A, the level of technology, affects the productivity in a way that it contributes to an increase in the total output. In the same manner, technology specifically modern electronic gadgets, is a contributing factor that affects students’ performance in class. Furthermore, we can also relate the concept of the MARS Model on Behaviour and Performance. This model highlights the idea that there are four factors that directly influences an individual’s resulting performance. Motivation, ability, and role perceptions will have a joint effect resulting to whether one performs well or poorly. Aside from these individual factors, there are also situational and external factors that significantly affect the overall performance of an individual. Situational factors may include time, budget, physical work facilities or gadgets.

Conceptual Framework We have observed that there are advantages when a student owns an electronic gadget such as laptop, netbook, etc. Applying the concept involved in Cobb-Douglas production function, we can say that acquiring these gadgets would result in an increase in the overall performance of a student. Acquiring his own gadget, a laptop per se, a student will have a better accessibility to his needs like retrieving information or using necessary software. In effect, a student will save time for he will be able to finish his work even before it is due. Better accessibility will minimize difficulty on the part of the student. The electronic gadgets, according to Cobb-Douglas theory, increase the quality of performance of a student in his subjects, giving him better grade remarks. The concept of MARS Model serves as a limitation of the Cobb-Douglas theory as far as this research study is concerned. We believe that although technology may result to increase in student’s performance in class, this does not necessarily mean that gadgets will serve as the sole determinant of the quality of performance of an individual. What results to one’s behaviours is his individual or personal characteristics. These include values, personalities, perceptions and emotions. Personal characteristics and modern gadgets will have a collaborative impact on one’s performance. This implies that even if you have your personal gadgets but you do not have good study habits and discipline, then performance will be certainly affected. Furthermore, even one has high-level motivation, ability and role perceptions; one cannot maximize his performance potentials without considering situational factors. Hence, along with individual factors, external factors like acquisition of electronic gadgets essentially influence an individual’s performance.

In a nutshell, the relationships among these variables are shown in Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Factors Affecting a Student’s Performance in Class

Statement of the Problem The study, “Perceived Effects of Electronic Gadgets on BS Accountancy 2nd Year Students’ Academic Achievements” aims to answer the following questions:
1. Do most of the BSAc 2nd year students own electronic gadgets nowadays?
2. What is the frequently owned electronic gadget of the 2nd year BSAc students?
3. How are these electronic gadgets useful to students?
4. What are the changes in the performance of the students because of electronic gadgets?
5. Are the grades of students dependent only on the acquisition of electronic gadgets?
Hypothesis
The hypothetical statements formulated below are to be tested and evaluated based from the findings, results, and discussions which will be done later on this study.
1. Electronic gadgets can serve as catalyst to increase the academic performance of students.
2. Owning electronic gadgets does not necessarily mean that a boost in the second year BSAc students’ academic performance can be expected.
3. Personality plays an important role in determining whether or not electronic gadgets can help increase students’ performance.

Assumption of the Study The researchers assume that individual characteristics and attitudes solely determine the students’ performance in class. This means, good grades and favorable classroom performance is dependent on the student’s good study habits and discipline.

Significance of the Study
As an adaptation to the ever changing and improving Philippine setup and as more advanced technologies are accepted in our societies, this research study will be fundamental to the various students in the Philippines. We believe that this study will potentially have a positive impact because this study would serve as a tool in determining the effects of electronic gadgets to students’ performance. This would serve as a guide to the students as well as their parents to assess whether or not it is worth it and practical to purchase personal electronic gadget as a tool for improving academic performance. Furthermore, this study would serve as an enhancement regarding students’ realization on how individual characteristics affect the use of electronic gadgets as an instrument in improving their performance.
At the end of the day, the researchers believe that this study will be helpful for students, for parents, and for other people in the academe.

Scope and Limitation of the study For the purpose of this research, the scope of the study is limited to the extent of the contributing factors that influence the overall performance of the students in class. These include the electronic gadgets and the individual characteristics of the students. Electronic gadget is limited only to devices which are deemed useful in terms of fulfilling academic requirements of the students. This may include laptop, tablet, iPhone and the like. Individual characteristics pertain to the discipline and the attitudes of the students towards academic excellence. Moreover, the researchers limit the study only to Ateneo de Zamboanga University (ADZU) sophomore BS Accountancy students from sections A, B, C and D who are currently enrolled this summer. Furthermore, the study would look over into the advantages of having electronic gadgets that would result to an increase in the overall performance in class.

Definition of terms:
1. Electronic gadgets – modern devices used by the students in their school requirements. These would refer to laptops, netbooks, ipad, and iphone.
2. Personal Characteristics – is the distinctive quality of a person that constitutes his/her individuality to other people.
3. Study habits – the unconscious study behavior of a person obtained through frequent repetition.
4. Discipline – mental self-control used in directing or changing behavior, learning something, or training for something and controlling self against vices and temptations.

5. Students – second year BS Accountancy students (belonging to sections A, B, C and D only) of the Ateneo de Zamboanga University (ADZU).
6. Academic achievement – the performance of the students in class measured through their grades.

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