Premium Essay

Universal Adult Suffrage

In: Historical Events

Submitted By shivamsatyam
Words 16345
Pages 66
The campaign for suffrage - a historical background
Today, all British citizens over the age of eighteen share a fundamental human right: the right to vote and to have a voice in the democratic process. But this right is only the result of a hard fought battle. The suffrage campaigners of the nineteenth and early twentieth century struggled against opposition from both parliament and the general public to eventually gain the vote for the entire British population in 1928.
-------------------------------------------------
Who took part in the campaign?
The first women's suffrage bill came before parliament in 1870. Soon after its defeat, in 1897, various local and national suffrage organisations came together under the banner of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) specifically to campaign for the vote for women on the same terms 'it is or may be granted to men'. The NUWSS was constitutional in its approach, preferring to lobby parliament with petitions and hold public meetings.
In contrast, the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), formed in 1903, took a more militant view. Almost immediately, it characterised its campaign with violent and disruptive actions and events.
Together, these two organisations dominated the campaign for women's suffrage and were run by key figures such as the Pankhurstsand Millicent Fawcett. However, there were other organisations prominent in the campaign, including the Women's Freedom League (WFL). These groups were often splinter groups of the two main organisations.
-------------------------------------------------
What did they campaign for?
Before the first of a series of suffrage reforms in 1832, only 3% of the adult male population were qualified to vote. For the most part, the right to vote depended on how much you earned and the value of your property. For this reason, the majority of people who...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

How Far Could Britain Be Described as a Democratic Country by 1911?

...doubled the British electorate and gave one in three men living in towns the vote if they were property owners or paid an annual rent of over £10. This was a step towards democracy however, although a greater number of men were now liable to vote the electorate system was still dominated by middle classes and voting remained open to bribery and corruption. The 1884 Reform Act proposed further parliamentary reform, allowing working class men living in the countryside the same voting rights as those in towns; thus ensuring the electorate was further doubled to almost 5million. Universal suffrage was quickly evolving and political parties faced increasing pressure. The rapid extension of the franchise stimulated differentiating political ideology and this aided democracy as voters were given more choice, however not all adults held the right the right to vote. Historian TC Smout argued that “some 40%of the adult males in...

Words: 1066 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Speech About Democracy

...people of Hong Kong must resist the foreign invasion of our rights, privileges and lifestyles that mainland government is attempting to forcibly impose upon us. Despite the policy being regarded as “universal suffrage”, I feel the need to clarify its definition to those who support this lie. Universal Suffrage is when all adult citizens of Hong Kong are able to partake in a fair election of any candidates from any political party or background. You must truly be naive if you believe that this is what the new ‘democratic’ system China offers in 2017 encapsulates any ideas of true democracy or universal suffrage. Does anyone here today truly believe that the Hong Kong government, our government, intend to offer us true democracy? I very much doubt CY Leung himself believes what he’s saying. Sweeping issues under the carpet seems the be the chief executive’s forte. Democracy and universal suffrage seems to play second fiddle in his priorities, as he must prefer to plaster his disastrous family life onto the mass media. Refusing meetings and any rational discussion is by no means desired qualities from a so called leader of a city, but then again, we didn’t choose him did we? A mock democratic system whereby an elected Chinese puppet are our only options, is by no means universal suffrage. Ergo, we must resist this blatant corrupt system, and fight for Hong Kong’s democracy. As the last holy grail of freedom within the net of expanding Chinese territory, we must ensure we......

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Susan B Anthony

...as a child was not extraordinary, she lead a regular life. However, what she became in adult life challenges some curiosity. She was an American reformer and well recognized leader worldwide. The work, in which Susan B Anthony devoted her life to, perhaps her most memorable contribution, was her struggle with striving for women’s rights. What was it about Susan B Anthony that made her a strong persuasive, dignified individual of the nineteenth century society? After becoming the headmaster of the Kenyon boarding school, when Eunice Kenyon fell sick. Susan B Anthony had her first taste of freedom. Susan B Anthony would no longer bow to the authority of others. It was at this very moment when Susan B Anthony decided to set herself apart from other woman and become an individual who fought for universal rights. Some may have ask themselves why? “Not because she was robbed of her personal identity and independence, but because she had experienced a progression into independence that she became to see as essential for all women. The spark, which lit Susan B Anthony‘s fire. It begin in 1852 in Albany, New York while attending a temperance rally where she quickly learned that she would not be permitted to speak because she was simply just a woman. Now setting out to conquer her destiny. Susan B Anthony over the next several years would not only fight for women’s suffrage, but for universal suffrage as well. She combated the low income of women by pioneering for economic......

Words: 969 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Women's Rights Convention Analysis

...The first ever woman's rights convention was held I Seneca Falls in July of 1848. Elizabeth Cady Stanton made her first public statement for women's suffrage. Her call to her to action was codified in the groundbreaking piece of literature known as the declaration of sentiments. This moment in history marks the beginning of the woman's right's movement. The beginnings of the Seneca Falls Convention drawback to the anti-slavery movement, or more specifically the World's Anti-slavery Convention of 1840. The British abolitionist had denied female representation at the convention. Stanton and Mott, who were in attendance of this convention, decided to organize a protest convention back in the states. It would take several years for Stanton and...

Words: 1471 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Politics

...Edexcel A2 Political Ideologies 1 Liberalism A Short-answer questions 1 Distinguish between economic liberalism and social liberalism. • Economic liberalism means both classical liberalism and neo-liberal economic theory. • Its core idea is the notion of the self-regulating market, based on Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’ and the belief that the market tends towards long-term equilibrium. • Individuals are seen as rational, self-interested and largely self-sufficient; and market competition ensures choice and consumer responsiveness as well as efficiency and growth. • In line with the principle of laissez-faire, the state should leave the economy alone because state intervention is likely to have more economic disadvantages than advantages. • Economic liberalism is associated with negative freedom. • Social liberalism, by contrast, is modern liberalism, also sometimes known as welfare liberalism, associated with the belief that an unregulated market economy results in an unequal and unfair distribution of wealth. • The state, therefore, has important social responsibilities, especially in safeguarding individuals from the social evils that can cripple their existence: poverty, disease, unemployment etc. • Social liberalism is thus linked to a qualified form of welfarism: the desire to help people to help themselves, thus still reflecting a general liberal preference for self-reliance. • Social liberalism is associated with positive......

Words: 1135 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Susan B. Anthony

...as a child was not extraordinary, she lead a regular life. However, what she became in adult life challenges some curiosity. She was an American reformer and well recognized leader worldwide. The work, in which Susan B Anthony devoted her life to, perhaps her most memorable contribution, was her struggle with striving for women’s rights. What was it about Susan B Anthony that made her a strong persuasive, dignified individual of the nineteenth century society? After becoming the headmaster of the Kenyon boarding school, when Eunice Kenyon fell sick. Susan B Anthony had her first taste of freedom. Susan B Anthony would no longer bow to the authority of others. It was at this very moment when Susan B Anthony decided to set herself apart from other woman and become an individual who fought for universal rights. Some may have ask themselves why? “Not because she was robbed of her personal identity and independence, but because she had experienced a progression into independence that she became to see as essential for all women. The spark, which lit Susan B Anthony‘s fire. It begin in 1852 in Albany, New York while attending a temperance rally where she quickly learned that she would not be permitted to speak because she was simply just a woman. Now setting out to conquer her destiny. Susan B Anthony over the next several years would not only fight for women’s suffrage, but for universal suffrage as well. She combated the low income of women by pioneering for economic......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Human Rights Paper

...Human Rights Paper One of the most undeniable and challenging foreign policy debates of the last several years has concerned the future of democracy and its role in human-rights law. The idea of Western societies encouraging democratization of non-western societies is believed to be cultural imperialism, which abuses the power of states in the developing world. However for the purpose of this paper, I view the support of democratization by Western societies as a positive approach to achieving the core significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that is supposedly recognized by all states. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was created on the notion of a common human race. It represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are naturally entitled. Of the fifty-eight countries that were members of the United Nations in 1948, forty-eight countries initially approved the document. Essentially all of the world’s states have approved it since then, which indicates that in any event its principle articles should be used by all states as an instrument in binding international law in spite of the presence of treaty ratification or state of war. Considering the fact that most countries have agreed to abide by the Declaration of Human Rights, it can be assumed that all states would have the intention to accomplish that in the best way possible. With the intentions of protecting essential human rights, the promotion of......

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Essay

...There exists not only theory, concept or model of democracy, but clearly a pluralism or plurality of different theories and models. The concept of "democracy" is contestable. It is understood by many people to mean a form of government in which a significant portion of the governed society has a franchise to elect members of the governing body. Other observers would argue that a "true" democracy is a system of government that embraces a universal adult franchise. While flaws exist in all democratic systems of government, most advocates accept Churchill's dictum that contemporary democracy as we know it is the least bad of all systems of government. What is democracy? The popular understanding of the term "democracy" is that there are three basic forms: direct, representative and constitutional. Direct democracy is a form of government in which the right to participate in making political decisions is exercised directly by all citizens, acting under procedures of majority rule. Representative democracy is a form of government in which the citizens exercise the same right of participation in making political decisions, not in person but through elected representatives. Constitutional democracy developed to counter this possibility and is a form of representative democracy in which the powers of the majority are enshrined in constitutional provisions designed to guarantee the individual and collective rights of all citizens. There is an abundant literature relating to......

Words: 1360 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Ghdhgf

...government in which people are governed by their own elected representatives. It is a government of the people, for the people and by the people. In this system of government, it is the people who are supreme and sovereign. They control the government. They are free to elect a government of their own choice. Freedom of choice is the core of democracy. Democracy existed in ancient Greek and Roman republics but with little success. It had very little scope in ancient India. Democracy entered its golden stage in he twentieth century. Many countries in the world today follow the democratic form of government. Democracy depends on the following conditions (i) co-existence of ideas and of parties; (ii) the right to free discussion; (iii) universal adult suffrage; and (iv) periodic elections. Indian is the largest democracy in the world. The Constitution of Indian was enforced on 26 January, 1950. It ushered in the age pf democracy. India became a democratic republic infused with the spirit of justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. The Preamble, the Directive Principles of State Policy and the Fundamental Rights reflect the Indian ideology as well as the caste, creed, religion, property, or sex have the right to cast their vote. After and election, the majority party or coalition forms the government and its leader become the Prime Minister. Political parties are the vehicles of ideas. Parties act as the bridge between social thought and political decision in democracy.......

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Essay on Democracy in India

...government in which people are governed by their own elected representatives. It is a government of the people, for the people and by the people. In this system of government, it is the people who are supreme and sovereign. They control the government. They are free to elect a government of their own choice. Freedom of choice is the core of democracy. Democracy existed in ancient Greek and Roman republics but with little success. It had very little scope in ancient India. Democracy entered its golden stage in he twentieth century. Many countries in the world today follow the democratic form of government. Democracy depends on the following conditions (i) coexistence of ideas and of parties; (ii) the right to free discussion; (iii) universal adult suffrage; and (iv) periodic elections. Indian is the largest democracy in the world. The Constitution of Indian was enforced on 26 January, 1950. It ushered in the age pf democracy. India became a democratic republic infused with the spirit of justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. The Preamble, the Directive Principles of State Policy and the Fundamental Rights reflect the Indian ideology as well as the caste, creed, religion, property, or sex have the right to cast their vote. After and election, the majority party or coalition forms the government and its leader become the Prime Minister. Political parties are the vehicles of ideas. Parties act as the bridge between social thought and political decision in democracy. The......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Indian Decmocracy

...government in which people are governed by their own elected representatives. It is a government of the people, for the people and by the people. In this system of government, it is the people who are supreme and sovereign. They control the government. They are free to elect a government of their own choice. Freedom of choice is the core of democracy. Democracy existed in ancient Greek and Roman republics but with little success. It had very little scope in ancient India. Democracy entered its golden stage in he twentieth century. Many countries in the world today follow the democratic form of government. Democracy depends on the following conditions (i) co-existence of ideas and of parties; (ii) the right to free discussion; (iii) universal adult suffrage; and (iv) periodic elections. Indian is the largest democracy in the world. The Constitution of Indian was enforced on 26 January, 1950. It ushered in the age pf democracy. India became a democratic republic infused with the spirit of justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. The Preamble, the Directive Principles of State Policy and the Fundamental Rights reflect the Indian ideology as well as the caste, creed, religion, property, or sex have the right to cast their vote. After and election, the majority party or coalition forms the government and its leader become the Prime Minister. Political parties are the vehicles of ideas. Parties act as the bridge between social thought and political decision in democracy. The......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations

...active and rejuvenated workforce that facilitate her progress. The government has a role to ensure that her citizens meet basic health requirements through the provision of essential services to the public. This paper will discuss health situation among the African Americans for comparison and contrast to the national averages. Current Health Status of African Americans Gee (2012) noted that the African Americans have a substandard health status compared to the national average. For instance, this racial group had the highest death rates in 2009 according to the reports of the Center for Disease Control of the United States of America. The deaths occur following severe heart disease and stroke among this race. Moreover, the adults above 65 years in this race had the highest prevalence of hypertension thus surpassing the average records for the CDC. These health risks and diseases make health status of the African Americans poorer than their counterparts from other races in the USA. How African Americans Define Health Promotion The race defines health promotion as an involvement of programs that are community-based with the view to foster participation in health practices. For instance, there is a need for...

Words: 1334 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Conservative or Liberal: My Choice

...Conservative or Liberal: My Choice Angela J Flemister Liberty University Conservative or Liberal: My Choice A political ideology is a closely linked set of beliefs about politics. Political ideologies offer their adherents well organized theories that propose goals for the society and the means by which those goals can be achieved. (Americian Government pg.18) The two most common ideologies that come to my mind are the conservatism and liberalism, to in nonprofessional terms Republican and Democrat. The two parties differ in what they believe. The beliefs of one are totally opposite to the next. George Lakoff (Moral Politics) penned this book which simply asks “How Liberals and Conservatives think. In my reading of some of the book I was able to easily identify my personal political ideology immediately. Professor Whitham instructed class to research the elected officials in my district. Phil Gingrey and David Scott. The two could not be anymore different than they actually are as Congressman Gingrey is white and Congressman Scott is black. The color of the skin really should not matter but honestly we all know that at some point in time when an issue is presented and needs to be addressed by a vote there is some wrangling be it truth or not, race intervenes. The voting records of my elected officials provided an insight to their ideologies. By viewing the many interest groups it became evident that there is not a non-partisan accumulation of the facts. ......

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

India's Law

...A good link, but I could not copy from: http://www.socialwatchindia.net/IMAGES/Low_Under_Globalization_for_desktop_printer.pdf http://www.accountabilityindia.in/accountabilityblog/1351-process-lawmaking-india The Process of Lawmaking in India Sruti Bandyopadhyay This post is an attempt to explain the process of law making in India. It also explains how citizen groups can participate in the process of lawmaking.  Who makes laws?  In India, at the central level, laws are formulated by the Parliament and at the state level by Legislative Assemblies and Councils. How is a law made? The process of enacting a new law can be broadly divided into four steps: Step 1: The need for a new law, or an amendment to an existing piece of legislation, is identified. This may be done either by the government or by citizen groups who can raise public awareness regarding the need for the law. Step 2: The concerned ministry drafts a text of the proposed law, which is called a ‘Bill’. The Bill is circulated to other relevant ministries for inputs. Comments from the public on the proposed draft may also be invited. For example recently, the UIDAI has invited public feedback on the Draft National Identification Authority Bill. Following this, the draft is revised to incorporate such inputs and is then whetted by the Law Ministry. It is then presented to the Cabinet for approval. Step 3: After the Cabinet approves the Bill, it is introduced in Parliament. Under the Indian......

Words: 1716 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Business Management

...Women Breadwinners By: Arcelia Orozco-Medina MGMT 358 – Culture & Gender Issues in Management Dr. Dolores Olson August 7, 2013 Women of Yesteryear The traditional women has always been portrayed as the home caretaker, but was this always the case. We can look into centuries of history and see women of different eras and of different ethnic backgrounds, were they a picture of the traditional woman? Let’s look at some examples; let’s turn back the clock to Egyptian times. During the 15th Century B.C. there was Hatshepsut a women of political power promoting trade and arts. It wasn’t until a later times that she received the title of Pharaoh, Queen of Egypt. She was also one of the first known finding in Egyptian history. We follow with the most famous and ambitious of all, Cleopatra. She is mostly know for her struggles to win the crown and keep her country free among other things. She was with Julius Caesar, Roman general bearing him a son. Additionally she won the protection of Rome through an affair with Mark Anthony, and had three children with him. A lesser-known fact is that Cleopatra was highly educated and possessed an impressive intellect, being a student of philosophy and international relations We move now to the Victorian times and start off with Joan of Arc. Joan came from a peasant family, became a French heroine by leading the army of Charles VII. She captured and put on trial for......

Words: 2663 - Pages: 11