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Unknown

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Ivan Pavlov was originally known for his studies on the digestive system which won him a Nobel prize but was later known for his research on learning. He researched classical conditioning which is when a subject learns to associate two stimuli together to anticipate events. He then went on to do studies of higher-order conditioning which is when a conditioned stimulus is paired with another neutral stimulus created making the third stimulus neutral but weaker than the first conditioned stimulus. He conducted his experiments with dogs and presented them with food and recorded how much they salivated with the food they were presented. Then they were presented with food again but before they received the food the dogs heard a tone, Pavlov recorded how much they salivated when they heard the tone. Pavlov kept on using the pattern in which they present the tone before food and soon the tone became a conditioned stimulus and the dogs began to salivate to the tone as though they were presented with the food. This showed how we can condition animals (including humans) to something. Then he did other experiments in which the conditioned stimulus was paired with a neutral stimulus which created a similar but weaker conditioned stimulus. This is used in real life when humans pair one smell and sight to a memory such the smell of freshly baked cookies at grandma’s house or a feeling such as sexual house. People begin to feel something when they see that object or smell the aroma, as though they were actually presented with something. John Watson founded behaviorism which is very important in learning. Watson suggested that the science of psychology should be the study of how organisms respond to stimuli in their environments, it should be an objective science based on behavior. With his new approach to science and studying the behaviors of animals, Watson influenced North...

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