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Chapter 3: Relational Model

Chapter 3: Relational Model 1
1 Objectives 2
2 Logical View of Data 3
2.1 Table characteristics 3
2.2 terms 3
2.2.1 domain 3
2.2.2 primary key 4
2.2.3 abstract data type 4
2.2.4 tuple 4
2.2.5 attribute 4
3 Keys 4
3.1 determinant 4
3.1.1 functional dependence 4
3.1.2 multi-functional dependence 5
3.2 types of keys 5
3.2.1 super key 5
3.2.2 candidate key 5
3.2.3 primary key 5
3.2.4 alternate key 5
3.2.5 foreign key 5
3.2.6 secondary key 5
3.2.7 composite key 6
3.3 entity integrity 6
3.4 referential integrity 6
4 DB Integrity 6
4.1 domain integrity 6
4.2 entity integrity 6
4.3 referential integrity 6
5 Relational DB Query Languages 6
5.1 relational algebra 6
5.1.1 select 7
5.1.2 project 8
5.1.3 join 8
5.1.3.1 equa-join 8
5.1.3.2 theta-join 9
5.1.3.3 natural join 9
5.1.3.4 outer join 10
5.1.4 intersect 11
5.1.5 union 11
5.1.6 difference 11
5.1.7 Cartesian product 12
5.1.8 division 12
5.2 relational calculus 13
6 Meta Data Components 13
6.1 data dictionary 13
6.2 system catalog 13
6.2.1 synonym 14
6.2.2 homonym 14
7 Relationship Types 14
7.1 1:1 14
7.2 1:N 15
7.3 M:N 16
7.3.1 intersection table 16
7.3.2 dummy table 17
8 Data Redundancy in Relational Model 17
9 Indexes 17
9.1 pointer 18
9.2 unique index 18
9.3 non-unique index 18

1 Objectives
• The relational database model takes a logical view of data.
• The relational model's basic components are entities, attributes, and relationships among entities.
• Entities and their attributes are organized into tables.
• Know relational database operators, the data dictionary, the system catalog.
• How data redundancy is handled in the relational model.
• Why is indexing important?
2 Logical View of Data
Relational model
• Enables us to view data logically rather than physically
• Reminds us of simpler file concept of data storage
Table
• Has advantages of structural and data independence
• Resembles a file from conceptual point of view
• Easier to understand than its hierarchical and network database predecessors
2.1 Table characteristics
Table: two-dimensional structure composed of rows and columns
Contains group of related entities (an entity set)
Terms entity set and table are often used interchangeably
Table also called a relation because the relational model’s creator, Codd, used the term relation as a synonym for table
Think of a table as a persistent relation:
• A relation whose contents can be permanently saved for future use
5 "Rules" of a relational table:
1. tuple and attribute order is immaterial
2. every tuple is unique
3. cells contain single values
4. all values within an attribute come from the same domain
5. relation names within the database and attribute names within the relation are unique
These 5 rules fully describe relations in the relational database model.
2.2 terms
2.2.1 domain
The set of allowable values that an attribute may take on.
2.2.2 primary key
• Primary key (PK) is an attribute (or a combination of attributes) that uniquely identifies any given entity (row)
• Key’s role is based on determination
• If you know the value of attribute A, you can look up (determine) the value of attribute B
2.2.3 abstract data type
Data types that describe a set of similar objects with shared and encapsulated data representation and methods. An abstract data type is generally used to describe complex objects. Similar to a class in object oriented domain.
2.2.4 tuple
A row in a relation.
2.2.5 attribute
A column in a relation.
3 Keys
Generally speaking, keys consist of one or more attributes that determine other attributes. There are various types of keys, but all share this characteristic.
Keys are generally associated with indexes; however, keys and indexes are not the same thing. An index is a small file that uses key information to speed up the lookup process into another file. Keys, on the other hand, are a type of integrity constraint.
3.1 determinant
When one value can be used to "determine" another, it is said to be its determinant.
3.1.1 functional dependence
"The attribute B is functionally dependent on the attribute A if each value in column A determines one and only one value of column B."
For example: if it is true that when you know A, you also know B and C, it is true that A --> B,C (read A determines B and C). Likewise, B and C are functionally dependent on A.
3.1.2 multi-functional dependence
The attribute B is multi-functionally dependent on the attribute A if each value in column A determines a well defined set of values for column B.
3.2 types of keys
3.2.1 super key
Superkey
• Any key that uniquely identifies each entity
3.2.2 candidate key
Candidate key
• A minimal superkey (one without redundancies)
3.2.3 primary key
Primary key
• A candidate key that is selected as the “prime” key
3.2.4 alternate key
Alternate key
• Candidate keys that are not selected to be the primary key
3.2.5 foreign key
Foreign key (FK)
• An attribute whose values match primary key values in the related table
• Foreign keys are related to Referential integrity in that it exists when a foreign key points to a valid primary key.
3.2.6 secondary key
Secondary key
• A set of attributes that determine other attributes based upon the values currently held. Values not required to be unique.
3.2.7 composite key
Composed of more than one attribute. Also known as a "concatenated key"
3.3 entity integrity
The formal type of integrity associated with primary keys.
Says that all primary keys must be unique in the relation and may not be null. Nor can any part of a composite primary key be null.
3.4 referential integrity
A term related to foreign keys. Referential integrity is said to exist when a foreign key has a matching primary key in another relation.
4 DB Integrity
4.1 domain integrity
Property that the value of an attribute conforms to the domain defined for the attribute.
4.2 entity integrity
Primary keys must be unique and no null values are allowed in any part of a primary key.
4.3 referential integrity
Referential integrity is said to exist when a foreign key has a matching primary key in another relation.
Said another way, referential integrity means that if the foreign key contains a value, that value refers to an existing valid tuple in another relation.
Custom integrity rules that are specific to the business. Can be anything. Modern DBMS's are capable of accepting and enforcing these rules.
5 Relational DB Query Languages
5.1 relational algebra
A procedural approach to data query language that processes data a "set-at-a-time".
Defines theoretical way of manipulating table contents using relational operators:
• SELECT
• PROJECT
• JOIN
• INTERSECT
• UNION
• DIFFERENCE
• PRODUCT
• DIVIDE
Actually, only select, project, unioin, difference, and product are needed because the rest can be derived from this base set of operators.
The most commonly used operators are the select, project, and join.
Use of relational algebra operators on existing tables (relations) produces new relations
5.1.1 select
Select (restrict)
• Yields values for all rows found in a table
• Can be used to list either all row values or it can yield only those row values that match a specified criterion
• Yields a horizontal subset of a table

5.1.2 project
Project
• Yields all values for selected attributes
• Yields a vertical subset of a table

5.1.3 join
Join
• Allows us to combine information from two or more tables
• Real power behind the relational database, allowing the use of independent tables linked by common attributes

5.1.3.1 equa-join
Equijoin
• Links tables on the basis of an equality condition that compares specified columns of each table
• Outcome does not eliminate duplicate columns
• Condition or criterion to join tables must be explicitly defined
• Takes its name from the equality comparison operator (=) used in the condition
5.1.3.2 theta-join
Theta join
• If any other comparison operator is used
5.1.3.3 natural join
Links tables by selecting only rows with common values in their common attribute(s)
Result of a three-stage process:
• PRODUCT of the tables is created
• SELECT is performed on Step 1 output to yield only the rows for which the AGENT_CODE values are equal
• Common column(s) are called join column(s)
• PROJECT is performed on Step 2 results to yield a single copy of each attribute, thereby eliminating duplicate columns
• Final outcome yields table that
• Does not include unmatched pairs
• Provides only copies of matches
• If no match is made between the table rows,
• the new table does not include the unmatched row
• The column on which we made the JOIN—that is, AGENT_CODE—occurs only once in the new table
• If the same AGENT_CODE were to occur several times in the AGENT table,
• a customer would be listed for each match

5.1.3.4 outer join
Matched pairs are retained and any unmatched values in other table are left null
In outer join for tables CUSTOMER and AGENT, two scenarios are possible:
• Left outer join
• Yields all rows in CUSTOMER table, including those that do not have a matching value in the AGENT table

• Right outer join
• Yields all rows in AGENT table, including those that do not have matching values in the CUSTOMER table

5.1.4 intersect
Intersect:
• Yields only the rows that appear in both tables

5.1.5 union
Union:
• Combines all rows from two tables, excluding duplicate rows
• Tables must have the same attribute characteristics

5.1.6 difference
Difference
• Yields all rows in one table not found in the other table—that is, it subtracts one table from the other

5.1.7 Cartesian product
Product (Cartesian product)
• Yields all possible pairs of rows from two tables

5.1.8 division
DIVIDE requires the use of one single-column table and one two-column table 5.2 relational calculus
A non-procedural query language that processes data a 'set-at-a-time'. Superior to relational algebra because it is non-procedural; however, it does not have any more "expressive capability" than relational algebra. That is, it cannot do any more than relational algebra, it is just easier to use.
4 Forms
• Tuple calculus
• Domain calculus
• transform-oriented languages (SQL)
• QBE
6 Meta Data Components
The structural component of the database is called 'metadata.' This component is normally stored in the data dictionary and the system catalog.
6.1 data dictionary
Data dictionary
• Used to provide detailed accounting of all tables found within the user/designer- created database
• Contains (at least) all the attribute names and characteristics for each table in the system
• Sometimes described as “the database designer’s database” because it records the design decisions about tables and their structures
6.2 system catalog
System catalog
• Detailed system data dictionary that describes all objects within the database
• Terms “system catalog” and “data dictionary” are often used interchangeably
• Can be queried just like any user/designer- created table
6.2.1 synonym
Different names to describe the same attribute. For example, teacher and instructor are likely synonyms in a college setting.
6.2.2 homonym
Same attribute name with different meanings. For example, 'phone' in one relation might mean home phone while 'phone' in another could mean work phone (or cell, or fax, ...). Can cause a good deal of confusion.
7 Relationship Types
1:M relationship
• Relational modeling ideal
• Should be the norm in any relational database design
M:N relationships
• Must be avoided because they lead to data redundancies
1:1 relationship
• Should be rare in any relational database design
7.1 1:1
• Found in some database environments
• One entity can be related to only one other entity, and vice versa
• Often means that entity components were not defined properly
• Could indicate that two entities actually belong in the same table
• Sometimes 1:1 relationships are appropriate (e.g., true 1:1 such as dept to supervisor)
• Reasons you may want to have 1:1 are 1) true 1:1 (see above), 2) single relation with all attributes would be too big to store, 3) performance better if you split it up, 4) subtype-supertype structure. 7.2 1:N
The most common relation in reality. Most database models are designed to show these by default.

7.3 M:N
Most data models cannot handle this directly due to the complex nature of the relationship.
Can be implemented by breaking it up to produce a set of 1:M relationships
Can avoid problems inherent to M:N relationship by creating a composite entity or bridge entity (also known as an intersection table) 7.3.1 intersection table
Intersection Table
• Implementation of a composite entity
• Yields required M:N to 1:M conversion
• Composite entity table must contain at least the primary keys of original tables
• Linking table contains multiple occurrences of the foreign key values
• Additional attributes may be assigned as needed 7.3.2 dummy table
Same as in intersection table, but one that only has key information, no additional attributes included.
8 Data Redundancy in Relational Model
Data redundancy leads to data anomalies
• Such anomalies can destroy database effectiveness
Foreign keys - controlled redundancy
• Control data redundancies by using common attributes shared by tables
• Crucial to exercising data redundancy control in the relational model
Sometimes, data redundancy is necessary (foreign keys and efficiency concerns are two main reasons)
9 Indexes
Data structure used to speed up access to rows in a table
Index key
• Index’s reference point (i.e., the primary key)
• Points to data location identified by the key
Unique index
• Index in which the index key can only have one pointer value (row) associated with it
Each index is associated with only one table and a single table can have multiple indexes.
Be aware that while indexes speed up access, they slow down update and delete and take up space on the disk drive.
9.1 pointer
The address (or indirect link) to the tuple pointed to by the index. Can be absolute (physical address), relative (an offset from a known starting point), or logical (computed using an algorithm).
9.2 unique index
An index guaranteed to point to a unique tuple. No duplicates allowed. Required for primary keys.
9.3 non-unique index
An index that allows duplicate values. Associated most often with secondary keys.

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...The words that I have chosen are to represent Macbeth, throughout the play Macbeth became heartless after the murders he had committed. Macbeth became a danger to everyone by his actions and deeds. He chose to cut his emotions off because he knew that it would be the only way for him to successfully do whatever it took to fulfill the prophecies that the witches had told him. He did whatever he had to do in order to get what he wanted. When Lady Macbeth committed suicide Macbeth took it in a nonchalant manner; however he pitied her for her weakness. He was evil itself, he was darkness, like a nightmare come true. This quote relates to Lady Macbeth, throughout the play Lady Macbeth so desperately wanted Macbeth to become king. She wanted him to become king so much that she convinced Macbeth to kill King Duncan. She was so corrupt that she even helped to finish the cover up of King Duncan’s murder by taking the daggers back to the room. Lady Macbeth wanted to be on top, she wanted to rule Scotland. She, like her husband was willing to do whatever it took to get what they wanted. Her wish for Macbeth to become king came true, but the guilt of the murders made her horrified and she committed suicide. This quote reminds me of Malcolm, after the death of his beloved father he fled in fear that him or his brother would be next. He knew that evil was among Scotland, but never understood why someone so evil and malicious would want to kill his father. He couldn’t......

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...In 1989, Stephen R. Covey penned The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People(public library), a book that went on to sell millions of copies worldwide and defined a new genre bridging self-improvement, business management, and personal productivity. This week, Covey died at the age of 79. Here's a look back at his legacy with some of the keenest insights from his beloved bestseller. Habit is the intersection of knowledge (what to do), skill (how to do), and desire (want to do). Sow a thought, reap an action; sow an action, reap a habit; sow a habit, reap a character; sow a character, reap a destiny.* People can't live with change if there's not a changeless core inside them. Until a person can say deeply and honestly, 'I am what I am today because of the choices I made yesterday,' that person cannot say, 'I choose otherwise.' To learn and not to do is really not to learn. To know and not to do is really not to know. It is one thing to make a mistake, and quite another thing not to admit it. People will forgive mistakes, because mistakes are usually of the mind, mistakes of judgment. But people will not easily forgive the mistakes of the heart, the ill intention, the bad motives, the prideful justifying cover-up of the first mistake. Admission of ignorance is often the first step in our education. Our behavior is a function of our decisions, not our conditions. The ability to subordinate an impulse to a value is the essence of the proactive person. How you treat the one......

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...AMAZING RACE 1. Big Orange 2. The Earthquake 3. Animal Party 4. Follow the Leader 5. New game: There are 2 games that are pretty similar, you can choose which one is better a. “Money game”: (girls 1 yuan, boys 0.5 yuan) * There is a host who control the game (EP & buddy), the students go around in a circle. Each of the girl will be a 1-yuan, each of the boy will be a 0.5-yuan. * And when the host call a random amount of money (like 3.5 yuan) and then the students have to count in their head and rush into a group which they belong to in order to get the total amount of 3.5 yuan * Who eventually can’t find their partners (group) will be eliminated (or he/she/they’ll get a small punishment, just for fun) b. “So you think you have 2 legs?!” * There is a host who control the game (EP & buddy), the students go around in a circle. * When the host stop and order the number of people and legs in one group E.g: Host: “5 people 2 legs” And then the students have to rush into a group of 5 and they have to manage to make sure that 5 people in that group only have 2 legs left on the ground (they can do anything like carrying each other or whatever that makes sense) Also, Who eventually can’t find their partners (group) will be eliminated (or he/she/they’ll get a small punishment, just for fun). And if there’s a team that can’t manage the number of legs on the ground also get punishment ^^) 6. New game: “Save the boy” ...

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