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Ups, How It Works.

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sacra
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Licenciatura em Tecnologia e Gestão Industrial
Unidade Curricular de Sistemas de Informação Laboratórios - 2011/2012

- Case Study 1 “UPS” -

EST|IPS – Setúbal, 20 de Abril de 2012

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Índice
Conteúdo
Índice .............................................................................................................................................. ii Índice de ilustrações ....................................................................................................................... ii 0. Introdução ................................................................................................................................ 3 1. O que são na UPS as "etiquetas inteligentes"? Qual o papel que elas desempenham nas operações da UPS?.......................................................................................................................... 4 2. Descreva as etapas que um pacote desde a recolha por um motorista da UPS, até à entrega, incluindo o papel do DIAD, do Data Center da UPS, e do centro de pacotes da UPS. ....................... 5 3. Qual é o papel das comunicações sem fio (wireless) nos sistemas da UPS?............................... 6 4. De que forma as TIC transformaram o negócio de entrega de pacotes?.................................... 7 5. Como é que o investimento em TIC ajuda a UPS a atingir os objectivos estratégicos de negócios? ........................................................................................................................................ 8 6. Conclusão ................................................................................................................................. 9

Índice de ilustrações
ILUSTRAÇÃO 1 ..................................................................................................................................... 4 ILUSTRAÇÃO 2 ..................................................................................................................................... 4 ILUSTRAÇÃO 3 ..................................................................................................................................... 6

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1. Introdução

Este trabalho surgiu no âmbito da disciplina de Sistema de Informações, leccionada no 2º ano da licenciatura de TGI e que tem como finalidade a reflexão da seguinte questão: “Cases Study, UPS”.

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2. O que são na UPS as "etiquetas inteligentes"? Qual o papel que elas desempenham nas operações da UPS?
Estas “etiquetas inteligentes” são o principal documento de controlo de um “package” usado pela UPS (United Parcel Services). Estas podem ser geradas em pontos da própria “UPS” ou por qualquer organização ou pessoa a partir de um computador. Servem para a “UPS” transaccionar e controlar/monitorar todo o processo de transacção dos “package”, isto é, deste a sua origem até à sua entrega.

Ilustração 1

É através do conteúdo da etiqueta, mais propriamente do código de barras que é lido através do “DIAD” ou dos sistemas de leituras existentes nas “HUB” que permite o acesso e consequente actualização de toda a informação sobre o package, que depois de processada pela central de dados fica disponível, também ao cliente. A informação contida é por exemplo: origem, peso, meio de transporte, horário e tempo previsto de recolha/entrega, destino e etc.

Ilustração 2

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3. Descreva as etapas que um pacote desde a recolha por um motorista da UPS, até à entrega, incluindo o papel do DIAD, do Data Center da UPS, e do centro de pacotes da UPS.
O processo começa inicialmente com o cliente a introduzir todas as informações referente á encomenda e qual o seu ponto de origem e destino. Toda esta informação é enviada/processada para um centro de dados da UPS que gera automaticamente uma etiqueta inteligente. O Motorista da UPS no ato de recolha, através do aparelho “DIAD IV” (Delivery Information Acquisition Device), efectua a leitura da etiqueta inteligente. Conectam o DIAD a um dispositivo especial existente no camião que permite transmitir informações através da rede GPRS (actualmente também podem transmitir e receber informações usando o rádio interno do DIAD IV). A informação é então transmitida, à rede de computadores da UPS para processamento e armazenagem pelos servidores centrais da empresa, que por sua vez disponibiliza os dados às partes interessadas no processo. A partir deste passo o package está dentro da rede de UPS e o cliente pode-o acompanhar, via on-line de qualquer ponto do globo, durante todo o processo de transacção. Uma vez chegado á Hub (Centro de pacotes da UPS), o package é encaminhado para os conveyors (sistema de passadeiras de transporte para o processamento/encaminhamento de pacotes) com o objectivo de seleccionar o seu envio para o destino final. Durante este processo de transporte, sempre que este passa por zonas de leitura do código de barras toda a informação é actualizada de modo a que o cliente possa acompanhar o seu estado. Uma vez chegado ao final da Hub é seleccionado o transporte, aéreo ou terrestre, mais apropriado e este segue o seu rumo. Normalmente o último passo é dado novamente por um motorista que fará a sua entrega em mão ao cliente ou a alguém que o mesmo designou. O processo termina quando o package é entregue e o cliente (a pessoa que recebe) assina a recepção com uma assinatura digital no próprio “DIAD IV”.

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4. Qual é o papel das comunicações sem fio (wireless) nos sistemas da UPS?
Antes de respondermos, vamos fazer uma apresentação do “DIAD IV” (Dispositivo de Aquisição e Entrega de Informação) porque nos parece relevante para a resposta a esta questão. Características:               Sistema Operacional Windows CE. NET Processador Intel XScale de 400 MHz Peso £ 2,6 Tamanho 10 "x 6,4" x 1,9 " Ecrã 2,8 "x 2,1" colorido Bateria 3.2AH, 7.2V, Li-on Teclado Alto-falante, microfone 128 megabytes de memória – 20 vezes mais que o DIAD III Modem acústico para acesso dial-up Conectividade Bluetooth, WiFi e GPRS ou CDMA Comunicação via RFI (radio frequência) Apresenta informação de Global Positioning Satellite. Receptor de informação electrónica (assinatura digital)

Ilustração 3

Através do DIAD IV (implementado em 2004) as comunicações sem fio ficaram mais facilitadas em vários aspectos, como a seguir apresentamos.  As novas ligações de comunicação por rádio permitem a comunicação entre a UPS e os motoristas a qualquer hora e em praticamente qualquer lugar.  A comunicação/informação por via GPS (satélites de posicionamento global) permite aos condutores facilmente verificar os locais de recolha/entrega solicitados pelos clientes.  A conectividade Bluetooth e de rede sem fio (WiFi) permite comunicar com dispositivos periféricos e computadores.  Realçamos ainda que o seu ecrã colorido permite ler melhor as informações recebidas e usar um código de cores como mensagens de alerta para os motoristas. Deste modo facilmente se percebe, como graças ao DIAD IV, as vantagens das comunicações sem fio nos sistemas UPS foram potenciadas. De uma forma geral foi alterada toda a forma de trabalhar do sistema de entregas. Passou-se a confirmar recolhas/ entregas quase que instantaneamente, bastando para tal: o motorista simplesmente scanear/ler o código de barras da label; receber a assinatura (digital) no receptor por via electrónica; Deixou de ser necessário recorrer ao uso de telefones celulares ou retornar ao veículo para colocar o aparelho(DIAD IV) em Comunicação/transmissão com os centros de comunicação centrais. Pelas pesquisas efectuadas para nós esta tecnologia é actualmente o núcleo da estratégia wireless da UPS e parte integrante na estratégia de como a empresa conduz seus negócios. 6

5. De que forma as TIC transformaram o negócio de entrega de pacotes?
A American Messenger Company, mais tarde (1917) daria lugar à famosa UPS, foi fundada em Seattle, Washington, no ano de 1907 , por dois sócios, James Casey e Claude Ryan. O nome inicial era bem adequado aos objectivos comerciais da nova empresa, porque se cingiam a alguns serviços de mensageiro (recolha/entrega) na área de Seattle. O processo era simples, recebiam chamadas telefónicas na sede, localizada numa cave e os mensageiros recebiam/entregavam a maior parte das entregas a pé ou usavam bicicletas para as viagens mais longas. Foi essencialmente com a inovação/introdução de tecnologia e das TIC que foi possível transformar uma empresa que actuava apenas numa cidade, para uma que passou a cobrir todo o País (USA) e mais tarde na empresa que todos nós hoje conhecemos, isto é, que cobre praticamente todo o globo. Foi na década de 90 com a introdução de um conjunto de TIC’s que a UPS alterou significativamente o seu negócio de entrega de packages. Com a consola DIAD passou a ser possível efectuar o registo e transferência imediata das informações contidas na smart label no acto de recolha/entrega de um package, para a central de dados suportada por uma rede de computadores que por sua vez reuniam, processavam/classificavam/calculavam/guardavam e disponibilizavam as informações à UPSnet, que é uma rede global de comunicações de dados por via electrónica que faculta um esquema de processamento de informações sobre entrega e processamento internacional de pacotes. Esta utiliza mais de 500.000 milhas de linhas de comunicações, bem como um satélite dedicado, para ligar mais de 1.300 locais de distribuição UPS em 46 países. O sistema faz diariamente o seguimento de 821.000 pacotes. Foi desta forma que em 1992, a UPS começou a fazer o controlo de todos os pacotes terrestres. Em 1994, a UPS.com tornou-se uma realidade e a procura de informações sobre os pacotes em transacção, por parte do consumidor, aumentou drasticamente. No ano seguinte, a UPS adicionou funcionalidade ao seu Web site, permitindo assim aos clientes seguir os respectivos pacotes em transacção. A popularidade resultante do seguimento de pacotes on-line excedeu todas as expectativas. Hoje em dia, a UPS.com recebe diariamente milhões de pedidos de seguimento on-line.

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6. Como é que o investimento em TIC ajuda a UPS a atingir os objectivos estratégicos de negócios?
O investimento em TIC ajuda a UPS a atingir os objectivos estratégicos de negócios por exemplo:  Através da criação de serviços como a UPS e-logistics. Esta oferece às empresas que optam pelos seus serviços uma rede de centrais (Hub’s) de distribuição, armazenagem, processamento de pedidos, controle de stocks, serviços de transporte, gestão de devoluções e centrais de atendimento ao cliente de forma estes se possam concentrar apenas em aceitar pedidos pelos seus sites Web.  Através da proximidade entre o cliente e o fornecedor. Qualquer empresa, em qualquer lugar e a qualquer hora pode usar o site Web da UPS para contratar a expedição de mercadorias e escolher o modo de pagamento (transferência bancária ou cartão de credito) à distancia de um simples “clic”.  E por último só através de um constante investimento em tecnologia e inovação é possível gerir uma organização com duas Centrais de Dados, o 11 Mainframes, 1 servidor UNIX, 18,229 Servidores Físicos, 193,431 Computadores portáteis e Estações de Trabalho, 108,999 DIAD’S, 1 Rede Global de Telecomunicações da UPS com 2,900 Instalações de Rede, de forma a controlar/gerir numa Área com Mais de 220 países e territórios: o Clientes: 8,8 milhões diariamente (1,1 milhões de recolhas, 7,7 milhões de entregas); o Instalações de Operação: 1.860 o Frota Aérea da UPS: 223 o Frota de Entrega: 94,946 veículos terrestres, incluindo 2,593 veículos de combustível alternativo o Um Volume de Entregas em 2011: 4 bilhões de pacotes e documentos; o Um Volume de Entregas Diárias: 15,8 milhões de pacotes e documentos; o Um Volume Aéreo Diário nos EUA: 2,2 milhões de pacotes e documentos; o Um Volume Internacional Diário: 2,4 milhões de pacotes e documentos: o Um Uso Médio Diário do www.ups.com de 21.8 Exibições de Páginas, uma Média Diária de Uso do Rastreamento Online de 32.1 milhões por dia úteis de Solicitações de Rastreamento; o E com 40,398,300 Funcionários, de forma a sobreviver neste mercado mundial super competitivo, com o objectivo de permitir o comércio ao redor do mundo tendo sempre como meta atingir a sua Identidade/formula: “Melhor Serviço ao Melhor Preço”

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7. Conclusão
Os princípios que estiveram na base da criação da empresa fundada por Jim Casey, continuam perfeitamente actuais e orientar a actual UPS. Assim o slogan ““Melhor Serviço ao Melhor Preço” continua a ser a base do sucesso desta empresa, há mais de 90 anos. Para tal também tem, em muito contribuído, uma aposta continuada nas novas tecnologias, tendo em conta a sustentabilidade não só económica como também tendo em vista a preocupação ambiental. O uso do DIAD, por exemplo, evita o uso de 89 milhões de folhas de papel, o que equivale a aproximadamente 7300 árvores também o uso de viaturas de transporte com combustíveis alternativos aos de origem fóssil, mostra a preocupação ambiental desta empresa. Ao nível da sustentabilidade em contexto de concorrência, a UPS através do forte investimento em TIC´s que aproximam o cliente á empresa, que facilitam o cliente nas suas necessidades, que tornam o seu serviço num serviço e excelência consegue assim liderar o negócio das entregas ao nível mundial. A aposta em serviços, também eles apoiados nas TIC´s, paralelos ao core business possibilita assim um aumento da sua presença no mercado bem como uma maximização dos recursos instalados.

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