Free Essay

Urban Farming

In: Other Topics

Submitted By marvz06estre
Words 1169
Pages 5
Open main menu

Search Wikipedia
Edit
Watch this page
Urban agriculture

An urban farm in Chicago
Urban agriculture, urban farming or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.[1] Urban agriculture can also involve animal husbandry, aquaculture, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, and horticulture. These activities occur in peri-urban areas as well, and peri-urban agriculture may have different characteristics.[2]

Urban agriculture can reflect varying levels of economic and social development. In the global north, it often takes the form of a social movement for sustainable communities, where organic growers, ‘foodies,’ and ‘locavores’ form social networks founded on a shared ethos of nature and community holism. These networks can evolve when receiving formal institutional support, becoming integrated into local town planning as a ‘transition town’ movement for sustainable urban development. In the developing south, food security, nutrition, and income generation are key motivations for the practice. In either case, more direct access to fresh vegetables, fruits, and meat products through urban agriculture can improve food security and food safety.

History Edit

Huerto (vegetable garden or orchard) Romita, organization dedicated to urban agriculture located in the La Romita section of Colonia Roma, Mexico City
Community wastes were used in ancient Egypt to feed urban farming.[3] In Machu Picchu, water was conserved and reused as part of the stepped architecture of the city, and vegetable beds were designed to gather sun in order to prolong the growing season.[3] Allotment gardens came up in Germany in the early 19th century as a response to poverty and food insecurity.[4] Victory gardens sprouted during WWI and WWII and were fruit, vegetable, and herb gardens in US, Canada, and UK. This effort was undertaken by citizens to reduce pressure on food production that was to support the war effort. Community gardening in most communities are open to the public and provide space for citizens to cultivate plants for food or recreation. A community gardening program that is well-established is Seattle's P-Patch. The grass roots permaculture movement has been hugely influential in the renaissance of urban agriculture throughout the world. The Severn Project in Bristol was started in 2010 for £2500 and provides 34 tons of produce per year, employing people from disadvantaged backgrounds

The idea of supplemental food production beyond rural farming operations and distant imports is not new and has been used during war times and the Great Depression when food shortage issues arose. As early as 1893, citizens of a depression-struck Detroit were asked to use any vacant lots to grow vegetables. They were nicknamed Pingree's Potato Patches after the mayor, Hazen S. Pingree, who came up with the idea. He intended for these gardens to produce income, food supply, and even boost independence during times of hardship.[5]

During the first World War, president Woodrow Wilson called upon all American citizens to utilize any available open space for food growth, seeing this as a way to pull them out of a potentially damaging situation. Because most of Europe was consumed with war, they were unable to produce sufficient food supplies to be shipped to the U.S., and a new plan was implemented with the intent to feed the U.S. and even supply a surplus to other countries in need. By the year 1919, over 5 million plots were growing food and over 500 million pounds of produce was harvested. A very similar practice came into use during the Great Depression that provided a purpose, a job, and food to those who would otherwise be without anything during such harsh times. In this case, these efforts helped to raise spirits socially as well as to boost economic growth. Over 2.8 million dollars worth of food was produced from the subsistence gardens during the Depression. By the time of the Second World War, the War/Food Administration set up a National Victory Garden Program that set out to systematically establish functioning agriculture within cities. With this new plan in action, as many as 5.5 million Americans took part in the victory garden movement and over 9 million pounds of fruit and vegetables were grown a year, accounting for 44% of U.S.-grown produce throughout that time.[citation needed]

In 2010, New York City saw the building and opening of the world's largest privately owned and operated rooftop farm, followed by an even larger location in 2012.[6] Both were a result of municipal programs such as The Green Roof Tax Abatement Program.[7] and Green Infrastructure Grant Program[8]

With its past success in mind and with modern technology, urban agriculture today can be something to help both developed and developing nations.

A tidy front yard flower and vegetable garden in Aretxabaleta, Spain
Perspectives Edit

A vegetable garden in the square in front of the train station in Ezhou, China
Resource and economic Edit
The Urban Agriculture Network has defined urban agriculture as:[9]

[A]n industry that produces, processes, and markets food, fuel, and other outputs, largely in response to the daily demand of consumers within a town, city, or metropolis, on many types of privately and publicly held land and water bodies found throughout intra-urban and peri-urban areas. Typically urban agriculture applies intensive production methods, frequently using and reusing natural resources and urban wastes, to yield a diverse array of land-, water-, and air-based fauna and flora, contributing to the food security, health, livelihood, and environment of the individual, household, and community.

Environmental Edit
The Council on Agriculture, Science and Technology (CAST) defines urban agriculture to include aspects of environmental health, remediation, and recreation:[10]

Urban agriculture is a complex system encompassing a spectrum of interests, from a traditional core of activities associated with the production, processing, marketing, distribution, and consumption, to a multiplicity of other benefits and services that are less widely acknowledged and documented. These include recreation and leisure; economic vitality and business entrepreneurship, individual health and well-being; community health and well being; landscape beautification; and environmental restoration and remediation.

Modern planning and design initiatives are often more responsive to this model of urban agriculture because it fits within the current scope of sustainable design. The definition allows for a multitude of interpretations across cultures and time. Frequently it is tied to policy decisions to build sustainable cities.[11]

Food security Edit
Main article: food security
Access to nutritious food, both economically and geographically, is another perspective in the effort to locate food and livestock production in cities. With the tremendous influx of world population to urban areas, the need for fresh and safe food is increased. The Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC) defines food security as:

All persons in a community having access to culturally acceptable, nutritionally adequate food through local, non-emergency sources at all times.

Areas faced with food security issues have limited choices, often relying on highly processed fast food or convenience store foods that are high in calories

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Farming

...Factory Farming Each year millions of pigs, chickens, cows, and other mass produced animals are being abused, brutally murdered, and have even become a health hazard to human beings. Many people have turned a blind eye to this world wide epidemic so they can continue to benefit from the prices and convenience of factory farmed animals. It is true that man is the ruler over animals, but they are still living creatures that do feel pain from abuse and do still suffer when neglected. It’s bewildering to realize that we as a human race have revolutionized women’s rights, civil rights, and even going as far as protecting the environment but we continue to accept the horrific abuse of animals. It’s time for a change! Today’s farming has come a long way from what it was like forty or fifty years ago but trust me not in a positive way. Since what most people focus on now a day is money that is all they seem to care about. First lets define the word brutality according to the free dictionary on on-line brutality is the state or quality of being ruthless, cruel, harsh, or unrelenting (Brutality, 2000). Many large corporation run most of the farms today due to the economy and regular farmers not being able to afford to run let alone own a farm, factory farming has become the way to do business, despite the fact that animals are meant to graze on green pastures and drink from clean watering holes many animals are instead being confined to small cages, being brutally abused,......

Words: 1745 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Vertical Farming

...1. Definition: Vertical farms are multistorey多层的 buildings used for growing crops or rearing animals. The basic idea is to produce food without soil in specially constructed skyscrapers. Vertical farming takes the idea of indoor farming, control of environmental factors, by cultivating agricultural products in skyscrapers, claims to solve the food crisis and offer a green solution to farming 2. Examples: * Commercial-scale vertical farm in Singapore: In 2012, the first commercial-scale vertical farm has opened in the tiny, densely populated city of Singapore, with the aim of decreasing dependence on food imports. The vertical farm, which has been developed by Sky Green Farms, consists of 120 aluminum towers, each extending up almost 30 feet in height. It can produce over 1,000 pounds of three kinds of vegetables per day, all of which are sold in the local FairPrice Finest supermarkets. However, they do cost a little more than imported vegetables. * Vertical farming in Chicago: The largest scale vertical farm project probably closest to realization is Chicago’s The Plant, a collaboration of the Chicago Sustainable Manufacturing Center and the Illinois Institute of Technology, a vertical farm that would occupy a former meatpacking plant in Chicago’s Back of the Yards neighborhood. The Plant is to try to create a zero-net-waste ecosystem including mushroom and vegetable gardens and a fish farm. * Zoo farm : The 100 square meter farm at Paignton......

Words: 1396 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Organic Farming

...Why the government should Subsidize Organic Farming Organic farming is a farming method focused on advancing environmental and ecosystem benefits, as opposed to the external output in farming. It promotes the health of the ecosystem, biodiversity, and the soil biological activity. Government subsidies farmer receive are aimed at promoting healthy and beneficial and responsible farming. To understand why it is crucial for the government to subsidize organic farming, it is good to evaluate the benefits that accrue from organic farming. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the gains achievable if the government was to subsidize organic farming. One of the focuses of most governments is the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG). A UN framework for climate change is now a key focus for most governments. One way of achieving this is the subsidizing farmers to do organic farming. The aim of doing that is that, by the use of organic farming methods, the increase in greenhouse gases reduces. The essence of this is to reduce the number of energy intensive farming that have a negative impact on farming. In addition, using less energy intensive methods means more saving on the inputs and additional benefits to the farmers. This is important since, over the years, the gains and benefits for farming have reduced. That is because, of among other things, bad weather, and scares of public health. Therefore, promoting a method that will directly benefits the farmer and the environment......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Vertical Farming

...Retrieved from: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22129524.100-vertical-farms-sprouting-all-over-the-world.html#.UvFKZ9wwrIU Summary: In authors opinion urban warehouse, derelict buildings and high-rises are the last places we would expect to find the seeds of a green revolution. Vertical farms are promising a new, environmentally friendly way to feed the rapidly increasing populations of cities worldwide. Green Spirit Farms (GFS) of New Buffalo, Michigan is the world’s largest vertical farm is ready to open up shop in Scranton. It is a single storey covering 3.25 hectares, but with racks stacked six high it will house 17 million plants. And it is just one of a growing number. A vertical farm enables to grow food year round in high rise urban buildings, reducing the need for the carbon emitting transport of fruit and vegetables. Vertical farming will reduce water consumption; plants in vertical farming can be fed by soil-free hydroponic systems and lit by LEDs that mimic sunlight. We can control supply of nutrients like light and water by using control software. By using this software a farmer can monitor the whole apparatus from a smart phone. This will increase the number of crops per year. United Nations predicts that 86% of developed world’s people will live in urban areas by 2050. vertical farming can make food supplies more secure because it can continue producing even during extreme weather conditions. And they don’t need to use insecticides as long......

Words: 492 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Farming

...and drained with nutrient-laden fish tank water are called reciprocating biofilters. • Benefits of integrating aquaculture and vegetable production are: 1. conservation of water resources and plant nutrients 2. intensive production of fish protein 3. reduced operating costs relative to either system in isolation. • Water consumption in an integrated aqua-vegeculture system amounts to 1 percent of that required in pond culture to produce equivalent tilapia yields. • Such low-water-use symbiotic systems are applicable to the needs of arid or semi-arid regions where fish and fresh vegetables are in high demand. • Organic vine-ripened, pesticide-free produce and “fresh-daily” fish can bring premium prices, particularly during winter months in urban areas. • Biofilters (sand beds with vegetables) that are alternately flooded and drained with nutrient-laden fish tank water are called reciprocating biofilters. • Reciprocating biofilters provide uniform distribution of nutrientladen water within the filtration medium during the flood cycle, and improved aeration from atmospheric exchange during each dewatering with benefits to both nitrifying bacteria and plant roots. • Dissolved and suspended organic materials accumulate rapidly in aquaculture systems and must be removed for efficient fish production. • Previous integrated fish-vegetable systems removed suspended solids from the water by sedimentation in clarifiers prior to plant application. Removal of the solid wastes resulted in......

Words: 12936 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Farming

...While Farming has been Around for Centuries Anita M. Ebbinghausen DeVry University Introduction While farming has been around for centuries, the way farmers, farm has been up for debate for many decades. There have been several studies on the Industrial agricultural and equal studies about organic agriculture. According to Best, (2007) “the question as to why humans behave toward the environment is an environmentally friendly or degrading manner has been discussed in the sociological literature for more than 30 years.” (p. 451). Farmers are unable to produce their product and their land has been standing uncultivated in order to reduce the surplus of production. The long-standing concern about the social and environmental sustainability of industrial agriculture has been added to the rising question from dependency on cheap energy derived from fossil fuel. The United States is currently dependent on Industrial Agriculture, switching to Organic Agriculture will benefit the economy and help the environment. Industrial Agriculture Although the United States is currently dependent on industrial agriculture it was somewhat prosperous in accomplishing the goals of maximizing market based production and furnishing brief economic returns, it overlooked many of the unintended negative consequences. The most important recant consequence was the soil and water degradation and the loss of the farmer and the robust rural communities (Kirschenmann, 2009). It......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Farming

...beginning of the year 2000 when carcasses of goats and large animals were airlifted. The meat was processed under a special arrangement between the exporters and the Metropolitan Corporation of Lahore, which runs four abattoirs in the city. The exports of livestock such as cow, buffalo, sheep and goat are finding their way to the Gulf States, Iran and Afghanistan where there is a shortage of good quality meat, hence fetches a high price. Meat Markets Currently, meat sector in Pakistan is working on an informal basis from animal rising to meat selling. Animal traders purchase animals from the rural areas and sell them to the animal markets in the urban areas. Butchers purchase these animals from animal markets and slaughter them in the slaughterhouses. Butchers act as meat traders and dominate the meat market both in rural and urban areas. The animals sold in these markets are generally diseased and culled animals. Butchers/traders prefer to buy these cheap animals. Pakistan is one of the cheapest beef producers in the world as the live weight value per kilogram is lowest in the world because of the cheap raw materials available. Per Capita Availability of Meat Per capita availability of meat is 12 kg, most of which is from buffalo and cattle. It may, however, be mentioned that population statistics and statistics on the availability of products from various sources differ drastically. To meet the domestic demand of meat, the rate of growth must be at least 5-7......

Words: 5394 - Pages: 22

Free Essay

Organic Farming

...Organic Farming Project 1 1 Introduction PT. Rumah Perubahan (RP) and PT. Kampung Kearifan Indonesia (Javara) has agreed and signed an MOU on the 11th July 2014. The first step was for Javara to create a business plan. We have gathered expertize from our Marketing, Business Development and Urban Farming departments to create a business plan that will be marketable and produce optimized profits The purpose of this document is to give the first step of planning of plants that will be developed for produced to be sold for processing to artisanal products. 2 Potential Products 1. Organic Tomato Sauce 2. Organic Chili Sauce 3. Organic Vegetable Soup Stock 4. Basil Pesto 3 Calculation of Needs 3.1 Tomato Sauce TOMATO tumpang sari Spring Onion | | | INCOME | | | | | m2 lahan | 1000 | m2 lahan | | lahan efektif | 600 | m2 lahan efektif | | bedeng | 60 | bedeng | | tanaman/bedeng | 40 | tanaman/bedeng | | kg output/tanaman | 2 | kg/output tanaman | | kg output/siklus 6 bulan | 4800 | kg output | | siklus per tahun | 3 | siklus/th | | kg output/tahun | 14,400 | kg output/tahun | | Harga/kg | 6,000 | /kg | | | 86,400,000 | income/tahun | EXPENSES | | 13 | bulan orang kerja @ Rp 1.5juta | 19,500,000 | | 2400 | Lanjaran | 1,200,000 | | 3 | botol pestisida nabati | 150,000 | | 720 | sack pupuk @ 10ribu | 7,200,000 | | 3 | botol pupuk......

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Urban Farming in Detroit

...Urban farming in Detroit Turning the Motor City into Farm City Urban farming in Detroit Turning the Motor City into Farm City Subject: Intercultural Communication Studies 2nd Term Date of release: 16.02.2011 Table of Contents 1 2 3 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3 Characteristics ..................................................................................................................... 4 Urban farming in Detroit .................................................................................................... 5 3.1 3.2 SWOT analysis ............................................................................................................ 5 Urban farming projects in Detroit ............................................................................... 8 4 5 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 11 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 12 2 1 Introduction The term urban farming or agriculture recently pops up in the media. It is mainly applied regarding city development in third world countries, but as well it becomes more often a phenomena taking place in cities of industrial countries. After examining the general characteristics of urban......

Words: 3660 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Farming

...Organic Farm Business Plan Freedom Farm Submitted for Commerce 492.3, University of Saskatchewan 2001 Rosalind Ball Heather Hack Murray Nelson Myles Thorpe Executive summary Introduction Organic farming in Canada, and Saskatchewan in particular, has steadily increased especially in recent years. Reasons for the increase in organic food production are: market premiums of 2 to 2.5 times the conventional market price; an expansion in the consumer sector willing to pay the higher prices demanded by organic food; an expansion of markets in the developed world where Saskatchewan farm exports traditionally are targeted; and lower input prices due to organic production. This document is a proposed business plan, with a financial model, for setting up and operating an organic grain farm in Saskatchewan. The business is new, and is named Freedom Farm. Financial performance is projected for a ten-year period from 2002 to 2012. To sell organic produce at premium, Freedom Farm will obtain organic creditation from the Organic Crop Improvement Association (OCIA). The mission statement of Freedom farm is: To provide quality organic produce to suit customer demand while maintaining soil fertility and crop productivity. Operations Plan The proposal is for the establishment of a new organic grain production business in Kipling, South East Saskatchewan. The proposed business is a sole......

Words: 1414 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Farming

...producing an economic benefit or only a cost. The costs for monitoring soil and regularly changing plants are to be considered, but are not the most expensive costs to take into account. The biggest financial challenge for organic farming is education (Juneghani et al.). It is difficult to educate farmers to be aware of the techniques needed and to educate them as to the reasons that it is better to experiment with new methods rather than continue to practice their craft in the same way that their families have done for generations. This is especially true in developing countries where the majority of people are illiterate and elderly (Juneghani et al.). For example, a study on apple farmers in a province in Iran showed that around seventy percent of the people surveyed were illiterate and that the majority of these farmers were between the ages of forty-one and fifty (Juneghani et al.). The researchers found a reluctance to new methods to be especially high amongst elders and uneducated people, who often are negatively disposed to new ideas and modern ideas of farming (Juneghani et al.). This study concluded that it would be a long, slow and resource-consuming process to educate people to use different farming methods when they are barely making a profit (Juneghani et al.). Further, the cost of paying for repeated testing of soils every few years is significant for small farmers. The tests to determine whether a crop is best suited for......

Words: 1479 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Fish Farming

...Fish farming Fish farming or pisciculture is the principal form of aquaculture, while other methods may fall under mariculture. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Worldwide, the most important fish species used in fish farming are carp, salmon, tilapia and catfish.[1][2] There is an increasing demand for fish and fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries, China holding 62 percent of the world's fish farming practice.[3] Fish farming offers fish marketers another source. However, farming carnivorous fish, such as salmon, does not always reduce pressure on wild fisheries, since carnivorous farmed fish are usually fed fishmeal and fish oil extracted from wild forage fish. The global returns for fish farming recorded by the FAO in 2008 totalled 33.8 million tonnes worth about $US 60 billion.[4] In 2005, aquaculture represented 40% of the 157.5 million tons of seafood that was produced, meaning that it has become a critical part of our world's food source even though the industry is still technically in its 'infancy' and didn't really become well known until the 1970s. Because of this rise in aquaculture, there has been a rise in the per capita availability of seafood globally within the last few decades.[5] Major categories of...

Words: 4225 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Farming in Zambia

...Grade 10-12 Geography FARMING IN ZAMBIA AND THE SUB-REGION Grade 10-12 Geography Author: C.I. Chilukusha (Mrs) Summary: This lesson plan covers land tenure in Zambia, types of farming, the problems associated with subsistence farming, the pastoral system, commercial farming, impact on the environment, farming in other countries in the sub-region, and an outline of Government measures to develop agriculture in Zambia. ZAMBIA A. LAND TENURE This is the process of acquiring and possessing of land by individuals. There are four types of land tenure in Zambia namely: 1. TRADITIONAL LAND This is land controlled by traditional chiefs on behalf of the people. Individuals or families have the right to use the land but not to sell it. This land is inherited according to existing customary law. 2. FREE HOLD This is reserve land especially on the unproductive land. Mostly used as collateral before independence. 3. STATELAND This is the acquisition and control of land by the president in public interest. This is administered by the ministry of Lands which issues title deeds in collaboration with the council. 4. LEASEHOLD This is the statutory lease of land for a maximum period of 99 years. This also requires the consent of the president. Certificates of title are also issued. B. TYPES OF FARMING TRADITIONAL FARMING This is the farming or growing of crops basically for the family’s’ sustenance. Small portions of land are cleared and the crops are food...

Words: 4678 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Factory Farming

...December 2015 Should Factory Farming Be Acceptable in Our Society? Since the past fifty years, farming operations in the United States have developed from individualized production to mass production, which is known today as factory farming. Factory farming is a method of food and fiber production which exploits animals in a confined environment (Marcus). As the demand for meat continues to increase, the modern agricultural practice of factory farming also continues to increase to meet the food consumption of humans. Factory farms consist of a large number of animals confined in small spaces to minimize operation costs; this mass production has decreased the price of meat as the factories produce an excess amount of meat to satisfy the demand. However, although Americans are fulfilled with the abundant amount of cheap meat, the practice of factory farming causes serious consequences for animals, humans, and the environment. This unhealthy practice has led to problems such as pollution, inhuman animal treatment, and human illness. Therefore, for all these reasons, many people have stated that factory farming is morally and ethically wrong. Since factory farms wield tremendous power in our society, they have become a controversial topic, with many people questioning whether they are detrimental or beneficial to our society. While opponents believe that the costs of factory farming outweigh the benefits, supporters rather believe that factory farming is needed in our current......

Words: 3860 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Urban

...Dimension | Strengths | Weaknesses | Opportunities | Threats | Urban Physical | * Historic Character * Walkable distances * Hotspot for urban diversity * Appealing mix of traditional and modern architecture | * Vacant land * Degraded structures * Lack of pedestrian level streetscape design * Bad parking management * No drainage structures * Crowded housing * Poor legibility (the ease at which people can find their way around the district) * A lot of signage but less accurate * Fading identity | * Green areas * Redevelopment of structures and parking * Visually appealing street ways * Pedestrian safety * Need for health care services * Reduce reliance on personal transportation and greater emphasis on public transport | * Exploding land/accommodation prices * Area of deprivation * Difficulty connecting new and old structures OR unrepairable building structures/lack of materials to renew the facades. * Deterioration in parts of the urban fabric. | Socio-economic | * Community festivals * Small businesses * Being a rural district it has a lot of employment opportunities | * Homes with low income * Lack of security for the residents * Lack of municipal management * Lack of animal shelters * Improving but limited cultural activities and evening economy * Failure to attract new retail developments | * Potential economic value with leisure * Providing more safer living conditions *......

Words: 257 - Pages: 2