Free Essay

Urban Farming

In: Other Topics

Submitted By marvz06estre
Words 1169
Pages 5
Open main menu

Search Wikipedia
Edit
Watch this page
Urban agriculture

An urban farm in Chicago
Urban agriculture, urban farming or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.[1] Urban agriculture can also involve animal husbandry, aquaculture, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, and horticulture. These activities occur in peri-urban areas as well, and peri-urban agriculture may have different characteristics.[2]

Urban agriculture can reflect varying levels of economic and social development. In the global north, it often takes the form of a social movement for sustainable communities, where organic growers, ‘foodies,’ and ‘locavores’ form social networks founded on a shared ethos of nature and community holism. These networks can evolve when receiving formal institutional support, becoming integrated into local town planning as a ‘transition town’ movement for sustainable urban development. In the developing south, food security, nutrition, and income generation are key motivations for the practice. In either case, more direct access to fresh vegetables, fruits, and meat products through urban agriculture can improve food security and food safety.

History Edit

Huerto (vegetable garden or orchard) Romita, organization dedicated to urban agriculture located in the La Romita section of Colonia Roma, Mexico City
Community wastes were used in ancient Egypt to feed urban farming.[3] In Machu Picchu, water was conserved and reused as part of the stepped architecture of the city, and vegetable beds were designed to gather sun in order to prolong the growing season.[3] Allotment gardens came up in Germany in the early 19th century as a response to poverty and food insecurity.[4] Victory gardens sprouted during WWI and WWII and were fruit, vegetable, and herb gardens in US, Canada, and UK. This effort was undertaken by citizens to reduce pressure on food production that was to support the war effort. Community gardening in most communities are open to the public and provide space for citizens to cultivate plants for food or recreation. A community gardening program that is well-established is Seattle's P-Patch. The grass roots permaculture movement has been hugely influential in the renaissance of urban agriculture throughout the world. The Severn Project in Bristol was started in 2010 for £2500 and provides 34 tons of produce per year, employing people from disadvantaged backgrounds

The idea of supplemental food production beyond rural farming operations and distant imports is not new and has been used during war times and the Great Depression when food shortage issues arose. As early as 1893, citizens of a depression-struck Detroit were asked to use any vacant lots to grow vegetables. They were nicknamed Pingree's Potato Patches after the mayor, Hazen S. Pingree, who came up with the idea. He intended for these gardens to produce income, food supply, and even boost independence during times of hardship.[5]

During the first World War, president Woodrow Wilson called upon all American citizens to utilize any available open space for food growth, seeing this as a way to pull them out of a potentially damaging situation. Because most of Europe was consumed with war, they were unable to produce sufficient food supplies to be shipped to the U.S., and a new plan was implemented with the intent to feed the U.S. and even supply a surplus to other countries in need. By the year 1919, over 5 million plots were growing food and over 500 million pounds of produce was harvested. A very similar practice came into use during the Great Depression that provided a purpose, a job, and food to those who would otherwise be without anything during such harsh times. In this case, these efforts helped to raise spirits socially as well as to boost economic growth. Over 2.8 million dollars worth of food was produced from the subsistence gardens during the Depression. By the time of the Second World War, the War/Food Administration set up a National Victory Garden Program that set out to systematically establish functioning agriculture within cities. With this new plan in action, as many as 5.5 million Americans took part in the victory garden movement and over 9 million pounds of fruit and vegetables were grown a year, accounting for 44% of U.S.-grown produce throughout that time.[citation needed]

In 2010, New York City saw the building and opening of the world's largest privately owned and operated rooftop farm, followed by an even larger location in 2012.[6] Both were a result of municipal programs such as The Green Roof Tax Abatement Program.[7] and Green Infrastructure Grant Program[8]

With its past success in mind and with modern technology, urban agriculture today can be something to help both developed and developing nations.

A tidy front yard flower and vegetable garden in Aretxabaleta, Spain
Perspectives Edit

A vegetable garden in the square in front of the train station in Ezhou, China
Resource and economic Edit
The Urban Agriculture Network has defined urban agriculture as:[9]

[A]n industry that produces, processes, and markets food, fuel, and other outputs, largely in response to the daily demand of consumers within a town, city, or metropolis, on many types of privately and publicly held land and water bodies found throughout intra-urban and peri-urban areas. Typically urban agriculture applies intensive production methods, frequently using and reusing natural resources and urban wastes, to yield a diverse array of land-, water-, and air-based fauna and flora, contributing to the food security, health, livelihood, and environment of the individual, household, and community.

Environmental Edit
The Council on Agriculture, Science and Technology (CAST) defines urban agriculture to include aspects of environmental health, remediation, and recreation:[10]

Urban agriculture is a complex system encompassing a spectrum of interests, from a traditional core of activities associated with the production, processing, marketing, distribution, and consumption, to a multiplicity of other benefits and services that are less widely acknowledged and documented. These include recreation and leisure; economic vitality and business entrepreneurship, individual health and well-being; community health and well being; landscape beautification; and environmental restoration and remediation.

Modern planning and design initiatives are often more responsive to this model of urban agriculture because it fits within the current scope of sustainable design. The definition allows for a multitude of interpretations across cultures and time. Frequently it is tied to policy decisions to build sustainable cities.[11]

Food security Edit
Main article: food security
Access to nutritious food, both economically and geographically, is another perspective in the effort to locate food and livestock production in cities. With the tremendous influx of world population to urban areas, the need for fresh and safe food is increased. The Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC) defines food security as:

All persons in a community having access to culturally acceptable, nutritionally adequate food through local, non-emergency sources at all times.

Areas faced with food security issues have limited choices, often relying on highly processed fast food or convenience store foods that are high in calories

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Urban Farming in Detroit

...Urban farming in Detroit Turning the Motor City into Farm City Urban farming in Detroit Turning the Motor City into Farm City Subject: Intercultural Communication Studies 2nd Term Date of release: 16.02.2011 Table of Contents 1 2 3 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 3 Characteristics ..................................................................................................................... 4 Urban farming in Detroit .................................................................................................... 5 3.1 3.2 SWOT analysis ............................................................................................................ 5 Urban farming projects in Detroit ............................................................................... 8 4 5 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 11 Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 12 2 1 Introduction The term urban farming or agriculture recently pops up in the media. It is mainly applied regarding city development in third world countries, but as well it becomes more often a phenomena taking place in cities of industrial countries. After examining the general characteristics of urban......

Words: 3660 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Urban Farming In Detroit Case Study

...What do we want to know? How much vacant land is required to make a profit for farm owners in the city of Detroit? Why is urban farming beneficial to the City of Detroit.? With seven billion mouths to feed, human agriculture exerts a tremendous toll on the planet, from water draws to pollution, and from energy use to habitat loss. There is also a growing set of solutions, from organic agriculture to integrated pest management. More people around the world are looking at urban farming, which offers to make our food as "local" as possible. By growing what we need near where we live, we decrease the "food miles" associated with long-distance transportation. We also get the freshest produce money can buy, and we are encouraged to eat in season....

Words: 279 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Industry for Future

...city’s future agricultural success. Before the zombie apocalypse, Houston stood as the fourth most populous city in the country. At its prime the city boasted well over two and a half million people, and had one of the largest oil and gas industries in the country. Now, the city stands barely even a shadow of what it used to be. The two million citizens that once thrived here now have dwindled to less than 800,000. The city’s government must decide how it will tackle the substantial job of feeding its surviving populous in this post-apocalyptic world. The officials have two options of agricultural style, either urban or industrial. Both of these come with their own pros and cons, but industrial agriculture is better suited for an area like Houston. The industrial model as a whole stands in contrast to the urban commutative farming model. Comparatively industrial farming stands as the only practical way of producing enough food to sustain a society like Houston’s. Houston’s post-apocalyptic community requires the need for a secure method of producing...

Words: 1590 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Organic Farming

...Why the government should Subsidize Organic Farming Organic farming is a farming method focused on advancing environmental and ecosystem benefits, as opposed to the external output in farming. It promotes the health of the ecosystem, biodiversity, and the soil biological activity. Government subsidies farmer receive are aimed at promoting healthy and beneficial and responsible farming. To understand why it is crucial for the government to subsidize organic farming, it is good to evaluate the benefits that accrue from organic farming. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the gains achievable if the government was to subsidize organic farming. One of the focuses of most governments is the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG). A UN framework for climate change is now a key focus for most governments. One way of achieving this is the subsidizing farmers to do organic farming. The aim of doing that is that, by the use of organic farming methods, the increase in greenhouse gases reduces. The essence of this is to reduce the number of energy intensive farming that have a negative impact on farming. In addition, using less energy intensive methods means more saving on the inputs and additional benefits to the farmers. This is important since, over the years, the gains and benefits for farming have reduced. That is because, of among other things, bad weather, and scares of public health. Therefore, promoting a method that will directly benefits the farmer and the environment......

Words: 928 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Vertical Farming

...Retrieved from: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22129524.100-vertical-farms-sprouting-all-over-the-world.html#.UvFKZ9wwrIU Summary: In authors opinion urban warehouse, derelict buildings and high-rises are the last places we would expect to find the seeds of a green revolution. Vertical farms are promising a new, environmentally friendly way to feed the rapidly increasing populations of cities worldwide. Green Spirit Farms (GFS) of New Buffalo, Michigan is the world’s largest vertical farm is ready to open up shop in Scranton. It is a single storey covering 3.25 hectares, but with racks stacked six high it will house 17 million plants. And it is just one of a growing number. A vertical farm enables to grow food year round in high rise urban buildings, reducing the need for the carbon emitting transport of fruit and vegetables. Vertical farming will reduce water consumption; plants in vertical farming can be fed by soil-free hydroponic systems and lit by LEDs that mimic sunlight. We can control supply of nutrients like light and water by using control software. By using this software a farmer can monitor the whole apparatus from a smart phone. This will increase the number of crops per year. United Nations predicts that 86% of developed world’s people will live in urban areas by 2050. vertical farming can make food supplies more secure because it can continue producing even during extreme weather conditions. And they don’t need...

Words: 492 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Increasing Popularity of Organic Food

...earth is still healthy. Organic food is one important element in our planning. Thus, the popularity of organic food grows by leaps and bounds. Healthy is one of the reason why people want organic food. The genetically modified food (GM food) has aroused much tension over the world. Started at the beginning, we changed the genes of food to acquire more output and solve the food crisis. Out of the expected, health problems emerged. Although there is no research to prove the relationship between cancer and GM food, most people believed GM food is one of the main cause of diseases now we are suffering. Seeking for healthy life without cancer, people abandon GM food and choose organic food in return. Besides, through the process of farming, a lot of pesticides has been used. Unfortunately, beneficial insects are being killed, too. Also, using too many chemicals will lead to pesticide residue. Those vegetables are equal to toxin. The overuse of pesticides, antibiotics and other chemical fertilizers in food leads to more sickness. As people concern more about organic food, people are becoming healthier. They keen on the nutrition included in the food and care about where the food comes from. Thus, a good habit of eating has been formed as people would like to adopt a more healthy diet. Besides, vegetarianism has been promoted as both of them are methods of healthy diet. Wholesome food is being considered. The protection of the environment is...

Words: 697 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Organic Garden

...1. Which legal form will you use for your business? Provide specific support for this decision. Organic Garden will be founded as for profit organization and will be a partnership of two or more people. The partnership form of ownership will be limited liability partnership to provide flexibility for the partners and limit the liability to the partners. Section 306(c) of the Revised Uniform Partnership Act (1997)(RUPA) (a standard statute adopted by a majority of the states) grants LLPs a form of limited liability similar to that of a corporation: An obligation of a partnership incurred while the partnership is a limited liability partnership, whether arising in contract, tort, or otherwise, is solely the obligation of the partnership. A partner is not personally liable, directly or indirectly, by way of contribution or otherwise, for such an obligation solely by reason of being or so acting as a partner. This form of business allows the partners to have flexibility in the affairs of the firm and the corporate structure allows the firm to be flexible in the affairs of the firm. Also the company structure allows the firm to hire and attract competent professional for the company. The partners will also be acting as the controlling members of the company and will provide flexibility to any partner to exit or join the business without affecting the functionality of the company. 2. What are the costs involved? Advantages? Disadvantages? Advantages: The main advantage to...

Words: 1313 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Factory Farming

...December 2015 Should Factory Farming Be Acceptable in Our Society? Since the past fifty years, farming operations in the United States have developed from individualized production to mass production, which is known today as factory farming. Factory farming is a method of food and fiber production which exploits animals in a confined environment (Marcus). As the demand for meat continues to increase, the modern agricultural practice of factory farming also continues to increase to meet the food consumption of humans. Factory farms consist of a large number of animals confined in small spaces to minimize operation costs; this mass production has decreased the price of meat as the factories produce an excess amount of meat to satisfy the demand. However, although Americans are fulfilled with the abundant amount of cheap meat, the practice of factory farming causes serious consequences for animals, humans, and the environment. This unhealthy practice has led to problems such as pollution, inhuman animal treatment, and human illness. Therefore, for all these reasons, many people have stated that factory farming is morally and ethically wrong. Since factory farms wield tremendous power in our society, they have become a controversial topic, with many people questioning whether they are detrimental or beneficial to our society. While opponents believe that the costs of factory farming outweigh the benefits, supporters rather believe that factory farming is needed in our current......

Words: 3860 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Student

...soils in sand in few years. Bio Fertilizer .Com is one organic center with information about natural products and eco friendly energies. Information Center about how to use Solar, Wind , BioDigestors and other sources of cheap energy for houses and business. Bio Pesticides are natural products that helps in the maintenance of gardens and organic food production. Read the Biology of Microorganisms to learn more about the scientific basis. Introducing the basics of the science of Biology of Microorganisms and its applications, as fertilizers or composting for example. Organic Farming State The World of Organic Agriculture: More Than 31 Million Hectares Worldwide The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), the Swiss Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), and the Foundation Ecology & Farming (SOEL), Germany, presented the latest global data on organic farming at the BioFach fair 2006 in Nuremberg, the world leading fair for organic food. According to the survey, currently more than 31 million hectares of farmland are under organic management worldwide, a gain of around five million hectares in a single year. A major increase of organic land has taken place in China, where nearly three million hectares of pastoral land were recently certified. HUNGER: DO YOU KNOW THE FACTS? It is estimated that one billion people in the world suffer from hunger and...

Words: 7882 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

She Was There

...Issues Facing Canadian Farmers Today Canadian farmers face many problems such as dealing with the effects of international subsidies. One of the problems that farmers face is the loss of farmland. Due to urban sprawl and rural non-farm development Canada is losing thousands acres of farmland annually. We need to protect our farmland because it’s the base for our agricultural economy. On top of that, our farmlands provide a healthy environment to our wildlife. The American farmland Trust, a nation-wide, not-for-profit agency is working on the preservation of farmland for many years now. They believe that there are four fundamentals to creating growth strategies that benefit farmers, urban dwellers and suburban residents. One, being communities must plan out a good framework that balances out all interest such as work and transportation. Two, being subsidies which support sprawl over top quality farmland must be eliminated. Three, being the support of private landowners must be enlisted to help create land conservation and smart growth strategies. All levels of government must support and commit themselves to the protection of preservation of farmland and open spaces. Canada has good farmland and to pave over it for communities is not right. To make an inch of good topsoil takes millions of years, so there is no way of getting our farmland once it’s lost to the urbanization sprawl. Another problem farmers face are the decline of the family farm and the growth of......

Words: 1354 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Land Use Policy In The Philippines

...haphazard land conversions that move farming communities...

Words: 753 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Status and Prospects of Horticulture in East Sikkim: a Case Study on Vegetable(by Khus Nasib)

...Horticulture includes cultivation of flower, fruits, and vegetables for sale in the market, etc. The word horticulture is derived from the latin hortus, “garden”, and colere, “to cultivate.” A person who performs the activities of fruits and vegetables growing are known as horticulturist. Vegetables growing is an important part of horticulture. Presently our county is next to China in area and production of fruits and vegetable crops and has been contributing 10% of fruits and 14% of vegetable of the total world production. Horticulture has become a key driver for economic development of the Sikkim. The government has decided to adopt the policy of growth with sustainability, making horticulture a priority sector for higher income generation to farming community. 1.2 Background of the study The main purpose of this research process was to see the present status and prospectus of horticulture crops (vegetables) in East Sikkim. This topic is very important because horticulture is one of the major economic activities of the people of Sikkim. The department of horticulture is deeply involved in motivating and providing technical guidance to local farmers. The important of horticulture in improving land use, generating employment and providing national security to people has increased many folds and realization of the same by cross section of the people has further increased its importance. Therefore, the horticulture has become an important sector in Sikkim. For this reason......

Words: 7589 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Status and Prospects of Horticulture in East Sikkim: a Case Study on Vegetable (by Khus Nasib)

...Horticulture includes cultivation of flower, fruits, and vegetables for sale in the market, etc. The word horticulture is derived from the latin hortus, “garden”, and colere, “to cultivate.” A person who performs the activities of fruits and vegetables growing are known as horticulturist. Vegetables growing is an important part of horticulture. Presently our county is next to China in area and production of fruits and vegetable crops and has been contributing 10% of fruits and 14% of vegetable of the total world production. Horticulture has become a key driver for economic development of the Sikkim. The government has decided to adopt the policy of growth with sustainability, making horticulture a priority sector for higher income generation to farming community. 1.2 Background of the study The main purpose of this research process was to see the present status and prospectus of horticulture crops (vegetables) in East Sikkim. This topic is very important because horticulture is one of the major economic activities of the people of Sikkim. The department of horticulture is deeply involved in motivating and providing technical guidance to local farmers. The important of horticulture in improving land use, generating employment and providing national security to people has increased many folds and realization of the same by cross section of the people has further increased its importance. Therefore, the horticulture has become an important sector in Sikkim. For this reason......

Words: 7589 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Public Administration

...activities. This project aims to provide sufficient organic fertilizer (vermin-based) as well as to promote organic fertilizer application to local farmers. Vermicomposting was chosen because its successful use would contribute to the ultimate goal of a sustainable organic agricultural farming. The practice of vermicomposting supports Republic Act No. 10068 otherwise known as the Philippine Organic Agriculture Act of 2010, a landmark legislation to promote, propagate, develop further and implement the practice of organic agriculture in the Philippines that will cumulatively condition and enrich the fertility of the soil, increase farm productivity, reduce pollution and destruction of the environment, prevent the depletion of natural resources, further protect the health of farmers, consumers, and the general public, and save on imported farm inputs.1 It likewise supports the National Organic Agriculture Program (NOAP) of the government which envisions the organic agriculture sector contributing to the country s over-all agriculture growth and development, in terms of sustainability, competitiveness and food security, where at least five (5) percent of Philippine agricultural farm areas practice organic farming; and where consumers both national and international increasingly support Philippine organic food products by 2016. The NOAP aims to promote organic agriculture in the Philippines towards a competitive and sustainable organic industry that contributes to better farm......

Words: 2710 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Ngo Report on Agricultural Support Fund Fund (Asf) Pakistan

...Function/operational areas of ASF ASF in Pakistan specifically focuses on the following areas: * Horticulture i.e. fruits, vegetables, dry fruits, dates, spices. * Floriculture * Livestock (excluding poultry and fishery) & Dairy The function in the above areas because according to them these area are largely ignored even though they contribute significantly to Pakistan GDP. Horticulture Horticulture is considered to be the science, business and art of growing and marketing fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants. It is unique among plant sciences because it not only involves science and technology, but it also incorporates art and design principles.  The horticulture sector in Pakistan represents tremendous unrealized potential and what is needed is systematic and focused attention, for Pakistan to carve a niche for itself in this global market of $ 80 billion. Of Pakistan's 88.2 million hectares of land, approximately 20 million hectares are used for agricultural and horticultural purposes. Of that amount only 20 percent is considered to have the potential for intensive crop production. Presently Pakistan annually produces 13 million tons of fruit and vegetables valued at around $ 2 billion, and out of this only about half a million tons valued at $ 140 million, is exported. The factors inhibiting export growth include our inability to comply with quality and sanitary/phytosanitary standards and insufficient shelf life of our fresh fruits...

Words: 2471 - Pages: 10