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Urban Geography

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The effects of unplanned urban development 1. Problem Identification
As suburban communities continue to expand, typically in a random pattern generated by the availability of cheap land that can accommodate large numbers of housing , lack of planning does not only require the concurrent expansion of community and commercial services , also scatters plague of urban extensions and environmental degradation . A lack of proper planning and urban development community also makes it harder to bring together members of the community, because the infrastructure is decentralized. * Deforestation
As communities continue to expand without a well- prepared for the integration of residential areas, agriculture and business, buying and selling property plan will most likely lead to deforestation of the surrounding environment. To cut trees to clear building lots, soil often erodes. If construction zones are located near sources of water, eroded soil dry these sources, causing pollution and eliminating aquatic life forms. Depending on the topography of the area, deforestation caused by urban sprawl can increase the likelihood of flash floods and landslides.

* Management of water resources
Human life and health of the planet depend on a clean and healthy channels. Urban development puts pressure on aquatic ecosystems, including water supplies, which may endanger the health of waterways.
Resource management is another problem for communities that do not properly plan their development and expansion. The resources and drinking water reservoirs have inherent limits on their ability to meet the needs of the community. If a community grows too, consider radical methods for preventing water waste, or build a second booking. In the short term, communities facing water shortages may need to buy water from neighboring reserves, adding costs to the financial burden of the city.
Urban development imposes a number of pressures on waterways. The development involves clearing and movement of the earth and soil, increasing erosion and leads to excessive sedimentation and turbidity of waterways. Impervious surfaces created by large expanses of pavement and concrete ship contaminated runoff into streams and rivers. Nutrients turf or agricultural treatments can be washed in watercourses and cause numerous problems. The sewage overflows send untreated human waste into rivers and streams.
Urban development can lead to numerous problems of water quality. Sedimentation increases costs for water treatment and can suffocate fish or cause other health problems for aquatic life. The road runoff carries pollutants such as salt, oil and other hazardous chemicals, sometimes throwing them directly into waterways. Untreated wastewater carry disease-causing bacteria and other microbes into streams and rivers.

Source: http://water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html * Urban Sprawl
Urban sprawl is another unintended effect of development on the periphery of established communities. A speculative development aimed at attracting people to cheaper housing opportunities not only promotes the expansion of impervious surfaces (roads and parking) in rural areas where rainfall could cover the water table, it also creates problems associated with urban sprawl. Suburban residents should benefit from police, fire and sanitation. These same residents must also drive longer distances to get to work and meet other community functions, generating higher fuel costs for individuals, and for road maintenance authorities.

* Infrastructure
Unplanned development often leads to congestion of the roads, as residents and travelers alike are forced to pass through areas that lack a central transport corridor. As a result, greenhouse gases are emitted into the atmosphere from cars and other vehicles that spend more time on the road. Additionally, the city government or the state responsible for the area where this development happens without planning, you should probably redesign and re-implement transport corridors through costly construction projects.

Source: www.cbc.ca 2. Alternative Solutions * Compact mixed-use development
Alternatives to urban sprawl are designed to consume less land and accommodate more primary projects considered expanding uses. As a result, alternative urban expansion generally take the form of mixed-use development that is designed to a very high population density. Unlike zoning regulations normally require expansion, compact development codes typically allow the buildings to be built without setbacks from the street, which reduces the amount of land that needs development. In addition, the mixed-use zoning allows commercial spaces and residential occupy the same place, a practice that is not allowed by traditional zoning.
Source: http://seattlecondosandlofts.com/

Source: http://webecoist.momtastic.com/2009/11/18/reburbia-designers-take-on-greening-the-american-suburb/

* Using a unique zoning
The land areas are grouped and separated according to whether the activity to be carried, either in commercial, residential or industrial. It is for this reason that to be able to move from one place to another, it is necessary to use such vehicles to access areas that are remote from each other. A solution to this problem is given by Transect, who designed a better zoning called "Smart Code", it gives us a solution to car dependence and land use. "The six Transect Zones instead provide the basis for real neighborhood structure, which requires walkable streets, mixed use, transportation options, and housing diversity." (Transect).

Source: http://www.transect.org/transect.html

* Urban growth boundaries
The urban growth boundaries are implemented at the state and local levels to reduce urban sprawl. Typically, urban growth boundaries are regional zoning laws that use population projections to determine the amount of land that a region will need to accommodate urban development. Based on this projection, local communities develop comprehensive growth management plans that identify where and how they will grow. The land is outside the urban growth boundary cannot be converted to urban uses until population projections and global plans indicate the need for more land. * Transit-oriented development
The transit-oriented development is a form of compact mixed-use development that exists as an alternative to urban sprawl. Not all alternatives to urban sprawl are transit-oriented, just as not all transit-oriented development is exclusively compact and mixed-use. The basic principle of DOT is obvious by the name: the development that is geared to accommodate and use the public transport infrastructure. DOT advocates believe this gives residents more options than are available in the extensive developments because the transit-oriented designs are less likely to require the use of a car to get around.

Source: http://www.edmonton.ca/

* Development filler
Infill development is sometimes proposed as an alternative to urban sprawl. The padding is not necessarily transit-oriented, although it is usually compact and mixed-use. Unlike most development projects in expansion, which tend to focus on the conversion of rural land to urban uses, the fill becomes vacant or underutilized urban land in higher density developments. The filling is a way to accommodate growth without increasing the geographic size of an urban area. Unlike the evolution of large rural parcels, the filling tends to be more expensive, because urban land is more expensive and the development of small plots lacks economies of scale equivalents.

Source: http://www.urbfill.com/

* Protection of water quality
To help minimize the impact on water quality, properly discarded chemicals used fertilizers and lawn chemicals sparingly, make a clean spills of lubricants and chemicals from vehicles and minimizes erosion soil on your property. Municipalities need to plan and manage the protection of water quality near growing cities

Source: http://www.ccme.ca/ 3. Recommendations
Having developed this research I consider prudent to get a better quality of life and the conservation of natural resources to perform the following actions: * Attempting to change the mentality of the people with campaigns and events that create
Awareness in society about the proper use and care of the environment and the effects of using them inappropriately. * Creating more and better public transportation systems to eradicate the use of separate cars in the population. * Using land in a better and more efficiently way to allow more people to life in the same area. * Enacting growth boundaries, parks and open space protections. * Preventing new development in disaster- prone areas. * Create development plans that allow a limited use of the land to create buildings depending on the demographic conditions of the city.

Works Cited

Day, Lorna. "Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Study" Toronto. Toronto City Hall. 11 March 2014 <http://www.toronto.ca/planning/midrisestudy.htm>.
Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. 1. New York: Anchor, 1992.
Newman, Peter, and Jeffrey R. Cities and Automobile Dependence: A Sourcebook. 1. Gower, England: Ashgate Pub Co, 1990.
Plater, Duany. "Sprawl Repair" Duany Plater - Zyberk and Co. DPZ . 11 March 2014 <http://www.dpz.com/Technique/SprawlRepair#>.
Tahchieva, Galina. "ReBurbia: Designers Take on Greening the American Suburb" webecoist. ReBurbia. 11 March 2014 <http://webecoist.momtastic.com/2009/11/18/reburbia-designers-take-on-greening-the-american-suburb/>.
"Water" Natural Resource Defense Council. Nrdc.org. 11 March 2014 <http://www.nrdc.org/water/default.asp>.
"CCME" Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Ccme.org. 11 March 2014

<http://www.ccme.ca/>.

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