Free Essay

Urban Renewal

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mbaliz
Words 2982
Pages 12
In South Africa the URP was part of a National Urban Renewal Strategy announced by the former President Thabo Mbeki in his State of the Nation Address in February 2001. Urban Renewal is not unequally South Africa’s but is worldwide and takes many forms and economic activity process. These may include the upgrade of informal settlements and township development. In South Africa the NURS is co-ordinated and monitored by the National Departments of both the Provincial and Local Government. It focuses on deprived areas and involves the investments in economic and social infrastructure, human resource development, enterprise development, enhancements of neighbourhoods and service delivery, poverty alleviation and the strengthening of the criminal justice system.
Like any other implemented programmes, the URP had its own intended outcomes especially that will benefit the community at large. The Urban Renewal Programme proposes outcomes in five areas: * Infrastructure (effective service Delivery) Development * Social Development * Economic Development * Environmental Development * Safety and Security * Effective Governance
My report below will be about identifying urban problems of Rosettenville, Johannesburg a very old Johannesburg suburb which I have chosen as my study area. I will be basically focusing on urban renewal dimensions of Rosettenville and pinpointing at least 10 urban problems associated with urban renewal aspects which will fall under physical, social, economical and environment components and the different plans of addressing the urban problems. I will be providing a short profile of your selected area, Rosettenville in terms of demographic, social, economic, municipal / planning, functional details. Secondly the report will be identifying and describing the urban problems of Rosettenville which are symptomatic of Urban Renewal Programme. In the report I will also be outlining in details about the problems and also giving own point of view. The report will also be providing with the detailed situational analysis of Rosettenville in terms of the urban problems and also the involvements necessary to tackle these problems with the projects that are put in place.

Rosettenville is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. It lies to the south of the city centre. Rosettenville is named after Leo (or Levin) Rosettenstein, who surveyed the land and sold stands before gold was discovered on the Witwatersrand. This area and has experienced decaying and underdevelopment. Rosettenville is an area defined by social and economic exclusion. There are a number of issues specific to the Rosettenville suburbs, which are: • A declining office environment in favour of the northern suburbs;
• Addressing dust and run-off pollution from mine dumps;
• Increasing safety and security; and
• The under-utilisation of precincts around the area.

.Thus I will present particulars on how the carrying out of the identified components and sub-components has impacted on Rosettenville livelihood through a rank quo analysis of the Rosettenville Urban Renewal Programme. Since I am only identifying 10 issues I will only dwell into to sub components for each component.


Rosettenville is a suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. It lies to the south of the city centre. It covers an area of 3.24 km² and has a population of approximately 11,044 (3,410.38 per km²) and recorded households of about 3,951 (1,220.07 per km²). Rosettenville is located in close proximity to the CBD and its adjacent places include Kenilworth and old Oakdene, the suburb also includes the landmark Wemmer Pan recreational area. It’s filled with dilapidated buildings accommodating the unemployed, squatters and whole lot of social and economic problems. The table hereunder shows the population distribution of various ethnic groups, gender distribution and lastly the first language within Rosettenville; Population group | People | Percentage | Black African | 5,068 | 45.89% | White | 4,463 | 40.41% | Coloured | 1,110 | 10.05% | Indian or Asian | 404 | 3.66% |

Gender | People | Percentage | Female | 5,739 | 51.96% | Male | 5,306 | 48.04% |

First language | People | Percentage | English | 4,954 | 44.86% | isiZulu | 1,518 | 13.75% | Afrikaans | 1,333 | 12.07% | isiXhosa | 980 | 8.87% | Other | 776 | 7.03% | Sesotho | 433 | 3.92% | Sepedi | 293 | 2.65% | Xitsonga | 255 | 2.31% | Setswana | 252 | 2.28% | Tshivenda | 87 | 0.79% | isiNdebele | 86 | 0.78% | SiSwati | 75 | 0.68% |


Physical / Infrastructure development refer to the need for improved municipal infrastructure such as:

* Roads and Public Transportation * Water * Waste Management * Electricity * Rundown and Dilapidated Buildings * Sewer * Storm Water Drainage

These are going to be the sub components under the Physical/ Infrastructure component.

These all amount to service delivery and the basic needs of a functional area. As we have seen these past years residents from various places across the country protesting for the above. The lack of infrastructure is a problem in Rosettenville and other urban areas. Rosettenville has experienced an overall decline of these infrastructures due to the lack of urban management, of which it has resulted to the general degradation of Rosettenville urban environment and making it a place of poverty and decaying buildings.

The overall objective of this component in the Urban Renewal Programme is to provide reduced transport costs and times for commuters along with greater access to regional opportunities. The reduced physical segregation / isolation from adjacent city/town Increased access to facilities, goods and services in the township Enhanced intra township mobility and accessibility and improved use of existing capital/ infrastructure assets.

Infrastructure can deliver major benefit to creation of a secure and safe urban environment. There are a couple of backlogs in this area and in this report as I have mentioned above, The First section will be mainly about identifying 10 different issues that fall under the components which are physical, social, economical, financial, and environment. Later then in the second section of the paper I will be explaining and focusing on the Rosettenville Urban Renewal Plan and how it objects to tackle the problems and issues.

My scrutiny of Rosettenville in terms of Physical/ Infrastructure lead to the following findings:

Roads and Public Transportation
There is a need to modify and upgrade the road system to improve movement, connectivity, traffic flow, parking facilities and address traffic congestion. Although Rosettenville is Johannesburg’s oldest working-class lower density suburb, there are many light industries in surrounding areas and it thus houses a significant labour force. The area has a well developed road network but situated next to very busy Highways which become very congested during peak hours of traffic flow. Since it’s in the south as well it experiences sever pressure because of home-to-work northwards movement. While still on roads there are major unsafe pedestrian routes and damaged paving with potholes which clearly show no maintenance enforcement.

Rundown and Dilapidated Buildings
Rosettenville is distinguishing by a lot of dilapidated and run owed buildings. This is due to little or no investments being made in maintaining the building. Some of these buildings include old heritage buildings, and some end up acting as a house for criminal activities, making the area not being the safe place for the community. There are a lot of things that lead to a rundown building and sum of theses are: * The owner has abandoned the building or the building has been hijacked, and so there are no clear landlord/ caretaker structures or arrangements in place; * Residents are not paying rents and so owners do not have the means to pay for building upkeep; * Residents are paying, but the payments are not being utilized by the owner or manager to maintain the building or pay Council rates and service charges, often leading to restriction / disconnections of services, with a resultant compounding of the problem.

These buildings also results in lot of slum lording in the area which contributes mostly to the housing problem of the area.


Social Development refers to the basic social needs which in the end uplift the social beings of the people in the community. This component refers to the enhancing of access to a range of regional social opportunities Elimination or co-option of gangsterism and the other exploitative structures Increased number, range, capacity and connectivity of local community institutions. Reduced outmigration of human capacity and role models along with greater capacity of adults and those in positions of authority to act effectively against risky and anti social behaviour. There are also Sub Components of the Social Development Component which need to be tackled one-by-one in order to ensure a coherent social life, and these include:

* Poverty and unemployment. * Public Safety and Security * Social Facilities.

These are going to be the sub components under the Physical/ Infrastructure component.

In the case of Rosettenville social development is very poor in the area and it has experienced social exclusion. Rosettenville is known by issues such as poverty, unemployment, poor living conditions and inadequate social services which contribute mostly on the lack of social development strategies of the area. Social development is one of the major problems of Rosettenville because it does not look as a viable, safe community, mutually supportive community and a participatory and productive society.

Poverty and Unemployment.

Rosettenville is currently suffering from high levels of social exclusion and social underdevelopment, which results in the area not being mutually supportive and productive society. Social development is a result from issues such as poverty, unemployment, inadequate social services, poor living conditions, etc. The following can be defined as being the sub – components under the social development problems of Rosettenville.

Social Facilities.

Rosettenville has few social facilities to cater for the growing community some of the missing social facilities includes surgeries, skills development centers, recreational centers, clinic and youth development centers. There has been the idea that in developing countries such as South Africa, deficiency of resources favours felony. Unemployment is also related to poverty and both these sub components have a negative impact on the local economic development of an area.


Economic Development refers with citizens functioning jointly to attain sustainable economic development with the intention of economic benefits and an improvement in the quality of life for one and all in the particular population. Producing civilized jobs and sustainable financial actions. Improved competitive position of workers and work seekers in regional labour markets. Better performance and competitiveness of township businesses. Optimal performance of township residential property markets. Improved performance of retail and services market to benefit residents. There are a few sub components that fall under Economic development and I will only look deeply into two out of the following:

* Lack of skilled and trained people * High unemployment rates * Economic Exclusion

Rosettenville appears to contain a smaller amount to present economic development wise. These might be a product of a numerous problems such as the physical decay of the area which will make investors not to be interested in investing in the area, people with no decent jobs and unsustainable economic activities. Rosettenville is also characterized with lack of skills and poor management and maintenances of the existing businesses which might also be the result of the Rosettenville economy not to be sustainable.

High unemployment rates

Creation of employment opportunities and decent jobs contributes in the economic growth of an area as it was mentioned early in this report. In the case of Rosettenville, employment opportunities and creation of decent jobs is very slow in the area and the unemployment rate is very high. Since the area is next to a predominantly industrial region, most people here work in and around the south.

Lack of skilled and trained people

Rosettenville had been an area that suffered very low skills level base. Due to its informal setting, there was a serious lack of educational facilities. Those that were available were either hardly accessible or did not have the necessary resources that encouraged the community residents to attend. This eventually had damaging effects on the capability of the facilities to be sustained as they were white elephants. It also led to improved illiteracy rates that caused the neighbourhood be deficient in the ability to produce or attract skilled people that would contribute to its economic growth and sustainability. Individuals living in a certain area need to be well equipped with skills and be well educated as these will result in effective social and economic development. Rosettenville also have lot of people who are not well equipped with skills and education and the chances are that the people are not well employed and this is affecting the local economic development and as well as the social development of Rosettenville.


This refers to the urban agricultural land and accommodation which will in hand in hand with conserving the environment and these may also include those of attracting tourists. It suggests projects and programmes that can be developed to meet the projected needs and stimulate economic activity. It provides social, economic and biophysical objectives, indicators and strategies. Many developed open spaces in Rosettenville are not being used to their full potential due to a lack of maintenance of facilities. In terms of the Rosettenville being in the south and surrounded by both light and heavy industries the Economical Development is also there to address the environmental impact of the dust and run-off pollution from mine dumps. Coupled with reassessing the impact of development on environmentally sensitive areas. In making sure that the open spaces and areas of environmental conservations are protected and enhanced this component is therefore divided into sub components which are:

* Creating networks of Open Spaces * Supporting Storm Water Catchment Practises * Protecting Important Environmental Areas * Promote the Prevention and Reduction of Pollution

Protecting Important Environmental Areas

Rosettenville has the famous recreational Wemmer Pan, and like other recreational facilities in Rosettenville which face pressure from degradation caused by neglect, uncoordinated development and mismanagement. You also find heritage resources like old prestigious churches in Rosettenville which could be better utilised in enhancing the attraction of the area as a local and regional tourism destination.


The Interventions and approaches to address the above Components

Physical / Infrastructure Development

Initiating of the following projects can be used as strategies in addressing the physical / infrastructure development problems of Rosettenville. Improving mobility and accessibility in the area implement a public transport system linking the area to other areas Provision of affordable housing opportunities by upgrading the existing housing environment and also developing the old renowned buildings in the area. Initiating an affordable housing programme that will respond to the current overcrowding housing environment. The overall problems with regards to physical development can be simply addressed by means of establishing a good urban management strategy of the area that will be focusing more on the infrastructure. The strategies for physical and infrastructure development will have to be implemented within the whole full five years of the project, because some of the projects under these will be also addressing all the other problems mentioned. The strategies for physical and infrastructure development are as follows: Improving mobility and accessibility in the area Implement a public transport system linking the area to other areas Provision of affordable housing opportunities by upgrading the existing housing environment and also developing the old renowned buildings in the area. Initiating an affordable housing programme that will respond to the current overcrowding housing environment. The overall problems with regards to physical development can be simply addressed by means of establishing a good urban management strategy of the area that will be focusing more on the infrastructure of the area which includes your solid waste management, electricity, water supply, and also emphasising more on the municipal By Laws.astructure of the area which includes your solid waste management, electricity, water supply.

Social Development

The Social Development of an area is not a problem that needs to be implemented within timeframes but it must be an on-going process, but for the purpose of ensuring that the strategies for Social Development proceed as planned, they must be implemented within the five year duration of the whole project. The strategies for the Social Development problem of
Rosettenville are as follows:
Upgrading and redeveloping of the poorly managed flats and run downed buildings to provide a range of affordable housing and appropriate housing solutions to meet the current housing demand.
Initiating of skills development opportunities workshops, such as youth programmes, ABET and skills training centres which will assist in addressing the lack of skills currently being faced by Rosettenville.
Rezoning some of the run downed buildings and developing them into doctors surgeries, disable centres, multipurpose centres, etc. These will address the issues of lack of access to social facilities.
During the implementation of these projects, high levels of community participation and promotion of a civic pride needs to be taken into consideration. Economic Development.

The Economic Development problem of Rosettenville has been indentified and described to be having sub components including economic exclusion, unmaintained businesses and high levels of unemployment. Promoting only neighbourhood orientated retail and commercial development, which will have an impact on the local economy while also addressing the issues of unemployment in the area. Restoring the face of the fewer light industries in Rosettenville, this can also help in restoring the investment opportunities in the area and impact on the economic exclusion. Initiating a neighbourhood regeneration programme that will stimulate economic development and employment opportunities by providing training, supporting the establishment of new businesses and maintaining existing businesses. Renovating and rezoning all of the abounded buildings into affordable accommodation and business offices and any other uses that will promote economic development in the area. To address the high levels of unemployment in the area, focus need to be made in equipping the local residence with skills and better education, so that it can as it mostly in the employment market, which will further have a positive impact in the local economic growth. The main Economic Development of Rosettenville is to revitalise the Rosettenville retail area by improving urban design and management to encourage redevelopment and investment in the area.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Urban Renewal

...Urban Renewal Policy Robert Burgess POL201: American national Government Instructor: Nicole Jones April 8, 2013 During most of our nations history, there has been little interaction between the federal government and local government concerning fiscal issues. The federal government had limited responsibility and most functions were left to the states. This would all change with the enactment of the Housing Act of 1949. The federal government began a host of housing, urban renewal and community development efforts. By using the vast resources of the federal government it began to micromanage the life of cities and neighborhoods. This study will show that these efforts where a large failure illustrated by many public housing projects that became marred by disorder and crime. The Constitution gave the federal government a sum of modest powers but much responsibility was left to the states. In the 19 30's the “New Deal” started to change this and the federal government's micromanagement of local government soared in the 1960's with President Lyndon Johnson's “Great Society” the birth of the Department of housing and Urban Development in 1965. But as history has shown, corruption and abuse has caused these programs to prove a failure. In 2009 HUD's Inspector General reported that in two and a half years it had found and “indicted 159 individuals, caused administrative actions against 143 individuals, had 5 civil actions, 39......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Urban Dynamics

...Geography- Urban Dynamics- Sydney Discuss and analyse the impacts of TWO urban dynamics operating in the city of Sydney Introduction The following report will discuss and analyse the impacts of urban dynamics operating in the city of Sydney. Urban Dynamics Urban dynamics are the processes responsible for any changes taking place in the spatial organisation of large cities. These urban dynamics shape the morphology of a city and create a unique history and character of this city. Some urban dynamics at work in cities include suburbanisation, exurbanisation, counter urbanisation, urban consolidation and urban decay and renewal. Throughout the history of a large city it is highly likely that many of these processes have occurred. The large city of Sydney in NSW, Australia has experienced many processes associated with urban dynamics. Some of these include suburbanisation, urban consolidation and urban decay and renewal. These have caused both positive and negative effects on the city. They have changed the technological, economic, social and cultural characteristics of Sydney. Sydney Sydney is defined as a large city in the developed world. Located at 33°52'S and 151°0'E, Sydney is one of the largest cities in the world in terms of geographical area at 499km2. Suburban Sydney radiates out from Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) and accommodates a population of 4 284 379. Approximately 1/5 of Australia’s population lives in Sydney’s Metropolitan area. Established as a......

Words: 2079 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Urban Growth and Decline

...individuals, groups and governments regarding urban growth and decline, are ways in which each are involved in addressing the issue. Urban growth and decline are the geographical processes that are constantly shaping Australian cities. Managing these issues within a city is a key role of geographers as they work to make cities desirable, efficient and sustainable areas to live. This response will examine range of decisions made by governments, groups and individuals. Therefore this response will explain how decision making by individuals, groups and governments, is involved in addressing urban growth and decline. The various Governments have been involved in the decision making process, in order to address urban growth and decline. There are many government decisions and responses. These include the City-West Redevelopment Program, the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority and the Honeysuckle Development Corporation. The City-West Redevelopment Program was when the government constructed new urban infrastructure in the city of Pyrmont such as roads, lighting, communication, water, sewerage and telecommunication. This government response is highly effective because it brought 22,000 residents as it was an affordable housing program, which built houses which had water views and it also brought a working population of 26,000 people. Another government response is The Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. This administered the urban renewal of Ultimo-Pyrmont. This is a very......

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Islam: Reformation and Renewal

...Islam has always had a tradition of reformation and renewal. Each successive generation was quick to find degradation with faith or practice and has been quick to rectify anything to compromise the Islamic faith or community, because no matter where they lived or what language they spoke, Muslims have always put Islam before anything else. There are two components of the Islamic worldview that help keep the faith true: Tajdid and Islah. Tajdid is the concept of renewal, and is based on the belief that the Prophet will send someone to review and correct the Islamic community and bring it back to the straight path at the beginning of each century. This "mujaddid's" job was to interpret the sources of Islam, remove foreign and un-Islamic innovations that have corrupted the community, and critique the established institutions' interpretation of Islam. The object of many mujaddids at the time was not necessarily to return the umma back to the early iterations of the Islamic community, but apply the Quran and Sunna to modern conditions. They tended to be militaristic and revolutionary. Their goal was to purify the Islamic community as opposed to improve or strengthen their respective nations as a whole. Islah is the concept of reform, but for turning the community and the individual back to God's path and live within the norms of sharia. As the Middle East further interacted with the west, many innovations and customs bled into Islamic society. This concerned the proponents...

Words: 518 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...Renewal The concept of renewal often brings to mind thoughts of occasional life-changing events that must bear some great significance to the renewed individual. Renewal, however, can be found present within even the most small and ordinary aspects of life that occur frequently. The internal cycle of hunger, for example, is a continuous cycle of renewal. Hunger is the brain’s perception of an empty stomach that leads to the physiological desire to consume food to satisfy the body’s nutritional needs. The feeling of hunger can produce mood swings and an overall unpleasant sensation until the body consumes food. This painful experience of emptiness and relative unhappiness vanishes when the body ingests food, renewing the body’s store of energy and the removal of any unhappy emotions. Hunger, which the brain perceives to be a very tangible feeling, is only the variation of two hormones in the body. In simple terms, hunger is the absence of the hormone leptin. With the aid of food, the levels of leptin in the body are restored and a sense of filling is achieved. The simple fluctuation of one substance has amazing implications on the human life. Avoiding hunger is one of the most important goal of all humanity. Food, the aid that renews us both physically and mentally, is therefore essential to every human being because only food can satisfy the craving of fulfillment that the body requires. When food enters the body, leptin levels increase which rids the physical......

Words: 416 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Soe Renewal Form

...Fix ina Your Photo in this Place ‫اﻟﺼﻖ ﺻﻮرﺗﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ ھﺬا اﻟﻤﻜﺎن‬ Membership Renewal Form Name Membership No. Company Name Designation P.O. Box – City Phone Fax Mobile E-mail Required Documents: 1. Old Membership Card (Original) 2. Passport & Residence Visa (Clear Copy) 3. 1 Photograph 4. Renewal Form ( - Form should be typed written (computer / type writer) ‫إﺳﺘﻤﺎرة ﺗﺠﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﻢ‬ ‫رﻗﻢ اﻟﻌﻀﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﯿﻔﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻛﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻷﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ RAHIM EBRAHIM HAJI 30627 EXCEL ELECTRICAL APPARATUS INSTALLATION L.L.C. GENERAL ELECTRICAL ENGINEER 3696, RAS AL KHAIMAH 07-2237143 07-2237153 +97155 5294915 : ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺪات اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ . ( ‫1- ﺑﻄﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﻌﻀﻮﯾﺔ اﻟﻘﺪﯾﻤﺔ ) اﻷﺻﻠﯿﺔ‬ . ‫2- ﺻﻮرة ﻣﻦ ﺟﻮاز اﻟﺴﻔﺮ واﻹﻗﺎﻣﺔ واﺿﺤﺔ‬ . ‫3- ﺻﻮرة ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮاﻓﯿﺔ‬ ‫4- ﺗﻌﺒﺌﺔ إﺳﺘﻤﺎرة ﺗﺠﺪﯾﺪ اﻟﻌﻀﻮﯾﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ -: ‫اﻹﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‬ - Form should be signed by the applicant only - Complete information ‫اﻹﺳﺘﻤﺎرة‬ . ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻤﺒﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬ . ‫اﻹﺳﺘﻤﺎرة ﺗﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﻌﻀﻮ‬ . ‫ﻣﻠﺤﻖ ﻣﻊ اﻹﺳﺘﻤﺎرة اﻟﻄﻠﺒﺎت اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ 5. Annual Renewal Fee (see below table) ( ‫4- رﺳﻮم ﺗﺠﺪﯾﺪ اﻟﻌﻀﻮﯾﺔ ﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ ) ﻣﺮﻓﻖ اﻟﺠﺪول ادﻧﺎه‬ ‫ﻓﻨـــﻲ - ﻣﺴﺠﻞ‬ Registered (Technician) 100 ‫ﻧـــــﻮع‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀـــﻮﯾﺔ‬ Membership Kind Annual Renewal Fee (Dhs.) ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬ Active 200 ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺴﺐ‬ Affiliated 200 ‫طﺎﻟﺐ‬ Student 50 I hereby certify that all above information is correct ‫أﻧﺎ اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ أدﻧﺎه أﺷﮭﺪ...

Words: 691 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

A Solution to the Urban Chaos of Cairo

...A Solution: Urban Chaos in Cairo What is known today as the Greater Cairo Region is in fact a combination of a number of neighbouring cities and governorates (including Cairo, Giza, Helwan, Qalyubia and 6th of October. Since the first establishment in the region, Al- Fustat in 641 AD, Cairo was in continuous growth. The numerous and different reigns over Egypt since the establishment of Cairo, different Islamic periods, Ottoman, French, English until the revolution in 1952, have led to the inconsistency in development and urban planning which gave rise to cumulative problems. During the course of the last fifty years, the population of Cairo has increased dramatically as a result of high birth rates and large rural-urban migration from other parts of the country (Yousry and Aboul Atta). Currently Cairo is considered one of the biggest cities in the world with a population averaging at 14-15 million (Sims, 2003). The fast and continued increase in the population has been a major urban challenge that the city encountered. Today, the urban landscape of the Greater Cairo Region (GCR) is somewhat unclear: main built up, dense areas are surrounded by a number of satellite settlements at the periphery, but most importantly occupied by infinite unplanned and random constructions in the core and surroundings of the city. Informal settlements, that are named after their informal legal condition, gradually, but rapidly, took over a large area of Cairo’s landscape and crawled over......

Words: 4177 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Urban Development

...CARITAS UNIVERSITY AMORJI-NIKE, ENUGU NAME: JOSEPH FLORENCE REG NO: URP/2012/064 COURSE: URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANNING CODE: URP 212 LECTURER: PROF. ARTHUR DATE: FEBRUARY, 2015 URBAN PROBLEMS IN NIGERIA URBANIZATION IN NIGERIA Spurred by the oil boom prosperity of the 1970s and the massive improvements in roads and the availability of vehicles, Nigeria since independence has become an increasingly urbanized and urban oriented society. In 1970s, Nigeria had possibly the fastest urbanization growth rate in the world as a result of great influx of people into urban areas, in 1986; the growth rate was estimated to be close to 6% per year more than twice that of the rural population. Between 1970 and 1980, the population of Nigerians living in Urban areas was estimated to have grown from 16 to more than 20% and by 2010, urban population was expected to be more than 40% at the nation’s total population. Although Nigeria did not have the highest population or urban population in sub-Saharan Africa. It had larger cities and the highest total urban population at any sub-Saharan African country. Available data reveal that the population of Nigeria has been increasing at an alarming rate. Our towns and cities are growing rapidly. In 1921, the population of Nigeria was only 18.72 million. In 1952, it rose to 30.4 million and in 1963 to 55.67 million. The preliminary census data for 1991 (although the 1991 census......

Words: 1090 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Urban Legends

...Urban Legends: How do they work? Urban legends are told every day of the week and for different reasons. Some of the legends tell a story while others are telling the reader about behaviors that might have serious consequences. Some are based on truth, while others are based on fiction. According to author Tom Harris, the definition of an urban legend is “A modern, fictional story, told as truth, which reaches a wide audience by being passed from person to person”. Urban legends come from different sources like the internet, passed from friend to friend or reading it in a book or newspaper. When reading or listening to an urban legend tale, one has to ask 1. Is the source objective or biased 2. Is the source reputable and 3. Is the source sufficiently detailed? The tales over the years have become more elaborate and some parts of the story maybe true but as time goes on, another part of the story gets added making the story more unbelievable. According to author, James M. Henslin states that “urban legends are stories with an ironic twist that sounds realistic but are false”. Urban legends are told to people because of a lesson that needs to be learned or behaviors that need to be corrected. The person who is telling the story might think that by sharing this story, it would help that person because it’s similar in nature; therefore the person speaking is trying to help. In conclusion, urban legends are told for a different reasons and it’s up to the......

Words: 294 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Urban Regeneration

...With reference to examples, evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline. (40 marks) Urban decline can be defined as the drastic decline of a city into infirmity and disrepair. It is usually characterised by increased unemployment, depopulation, deindustrialization, increased crime and political disenfranchisement. Not only does it cause these problems but also it can make the area look unattractive – consequently less people being enticed to the area. This can then lead to a vicious cycle. The causes of these factors, which ultimately cause urban decline, can be: educated workers keep moving to the suburbs to avoid crime, poor schools, taxes and racial tensions. These businesses also find that building new facilities in the suburbs is much cheaper than refurbishing old buildings for their needs. There are many reasons to move out of the city but only a few reasons to stay. When a city or an urban area sinks into decline, the council has the choice to regenerate the area to entice people back into the area. When regeneration is considered in the context of ‘urban,’ it involves the rebirth or renewal of urban areas and settlements. Urban regeneration is primarily concerned with regenerating cities and early/inner ring suburbs facing periods of decline. The term urban regeneration covers everything from creating desirable homes in city centers to finding new uses for our formal industrial heartlands...

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Urban Renewal in New Haven, Ct

...Urban Renewal in New Haven, CT Education is a number one factor when it comes to planning for the future. Whether you’re a parent, teacher, grandparent, or a high school senior rummaging through college trip packages looking for the median between your perspective lifestyle and your SAT scores. There is an unidentified common ground that is correlated between education and where the education being received is located. A parent may want to send their child to a specific school because of a good district, good reviews, or even because the housing in the area is affordable for them. Another reason would be that the location is the best place their children can get an education for what was bargained in terms of schooling fees. A prospective college student may choose a school based on the programs offered that would aid towards their career path, the student may want to study abroad, they may want to be outside of the normal environmental climate, or simply just because they want to establish life in a specific area. But who is to say that the community in which the education is received in is also a big part of the student’s life. The interaction between the student and the surrounding neighborhood can be very crucial to an extent. Whatever the case may be location is a key aspect when choosing an education system for your needs. However there have been instances where this correlation may not have turned out to be the best for some families. To be precise in the last......

Words: 1487 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Dimension | Strengths | Weaknesses | Opportunities | Threats | Urban Physical | * Historic Character * Walkable distances * Hotspot for urban diversity * Appealing mix of traditional and modern architecture | * Vacant land * Degraded structures * Lack of pedestrian level streetscape design * Bad parking management * No drainage structures * Crowded housing * Poor legibility (the ease at which people can find their way around the district) * A lot of signage but less accurate * Fading identity | * Green areas * Redevelopment of structures and parking * Visually appealing street ways * Pedestrian safety * Need for health care services * Reduce reliance on personal transportation and greater emphasis on public transport | * Exploding land/accommodation prices * Area of deprivation * Difficulty connecting new and old structures OR unrepairable building structures/lack of materials to renew the facades. * Deterioration in parts of the urban fabric. | Socio-economic | * Community festivals * Small businesses * Being a rural district it has a lot of employment opportunities | * Homes with low income * Lack of security for the residents * Lack of municipal management * Lack of animal shelters * Improving but limited cultural activities and evening economy * Failure to attract new retail developments | * Potential economic value with leisure * Providing more safer living conditions *......

Words: 257 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Defining Urban Geography

...Urban Geography * Urban is a matter of scale * Large size * High density * Vertical geography * Social heterogeneity * What is the minimum population to be categorized as a city in the US? * 2,500 * Physical Definition of a City * Central City – delimited municipality within which local government has legal authority * Urbanized Area – central city plus surrounding built-up suburbs (DOES NOT correspond to government boundaries) * MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area) – functional area of a city- zone of influence * Central city * Urbanized area with at least 50,000 * County within which city is located * Adjacent counties with high pop. Density plus large % of people work in central city’s county (includes land area that is NOT urban) * Micropolitan Statistical Area – smaller urbanized areas between 10,000-50,000 plus the county in which it is located * Newberry is an example * Consolidated MSA – overlapping MSAs (conurbation) * Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, NY and to Boston (Megalopolis) * 1/4th of every American lives there * Megacity – city with more than 10 million inhabitants * About 30 of these exist * Urbanization – process by which the population is cities grow * 2008 – urban/rural = 51/49 * Larger % Urban = higher level of development in the country * Cities occupy < 1% of......

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Urban Renewal

...Urban Renewal Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration) is a function of urban planning that in the United States reached its peak from the late 1940s through to the early1970s (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). The most significant policy undertaken by a wide range of cities since World War II was that of urban renewal. Since 1954 urban renewal programs have changed the face of many downtown areas and displaced millions of low-income citizens. If there is anything to the "growth machine" hypothesis, the origins of this program at the national level, and the implementation of it in different cities, should reveal the guiding influence of the growth machine, for what these programs do is to clear downtown land of low-income housing and small buildings so that central business districts and such major institutions as universities and hospitals can be expanded and enhanced. Urban renewal has had a massive impact on the urban landscape and continues to the present day; urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on destruction and more on renovation and investment, and today is an integral part of many local governments, often combined with small and large business incentives. East Garfield area in Glendale, which is the third largest city and is located ten miles northeast of downtown Los Angeles, in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, is the region that is undergoing the revitalization. Glendale has a population of approximately 200,000 people in an......

Words: 1317 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Urban Legends

...Urban Legends Urban legend is any modern fictional story passed on from person to person told us truth. Urban legend as often false but sometimes they are inspired by an actual event but evolved into something different from person to person. Urban legends are characterized by combination of humor, horror, warning, morality or appeal to empathy. Urban legends are passed on from friend to a friend. It’s human nature to go to spread this feeling to others as people lore to till good story. In past 10 years there has been huge surge of urban legends on internet. The most common is forwarded e-mail. Here the story is not reinterpreted by each person who passes it on. Having the original story gives e-mail legends a felling of legitimacy. It will always be a human nature to tell bizarre stories and there will always be an audience waiting to believe them. No matter how much information technology we develop’ human being will be drawn in by unsubstantiated rumor. The urban legend is a part of our makeup. One urban legend was about Katie and Paul once paked at Ecliobay came access news about a rapist killer who escaped from prison. Instead of a right hand he had a hook. When Katie and Paul went home and opened door they saw a hook hanging on door handle. For decades “The Hook” story appeared as a genuine letter in “Dear Abby”, newspaper advice column and many students heard this story in grade school. Another urban legend is about “Kentucky Fried Rat”. It’s about a woman did......

Words: 573 - Pages: 3