Premium Essay

Us Subprime Crisis

In: Other Topics

Submitted By anujap
Words 13678
Pages 55
A PROJECT REPORT ON

US SUBPRIME CRISIS REFERRING TO IT’S ORIGINS

SUBMITTED
TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
AS A PARTIAL REQUIREMENT FOR COMPLETING THE DEGREE OF
M.COM (BANKING AND FINANCE) SEMESTER I
SUBJECT: FINANCIAL SERVICES & MANAGEMENT
SUBMITTED BY:
PILLAI ANUJA SURESH
ROLL NO.: 42

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
Ms.BHAVIKA DAVE

SIES COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND ECONOMICS,
PLOT NO. 71/72, SION MATUNGA ESTATE
T.V. CHIDAMBARAM MARG,
SION (EAST), MUMBAI – 400022. | |
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that ___________________________________
__________________________________________________________
of M.Com (Banking and Finance) Semester I (academic year
2013-2014) has successfully completed the project on ______________________________________________________under the
Guidance of Ms. __________________________________________.

_________________ ___________________ (Project Guide) (Course Co-ordinator)

___________________ ___________________ (External Examiner) (Principal)

Place: _____________ Date: ___________

DECLARATION

I, __________________________________________________
Student M.Com (Banking and Finance) Semester I (academic year 2013-2014) hereby declare that, I have completed the project on ______________________________________________________________. The information presented in this project is true and original to the best of my knowledge. ___________________ PILLAI ANUJA SURESH Roll No.: 42 |

Place: _____________ Date:_____________

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank the University of Mumbai, for introducing M.Com( Banking and Finance) course, thereby giving its...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Subprime Mortgage Term Outline

...focusing on subprime mortgages and the housing market bubble. The paper will also analyze Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and how they are linked to the subprime mortgage crisis, including potential solutions to the crisis. References have been added to each section to show which references are being used in which section. References will be added as needed. 1) Abstract a. 120 word overview of paper 2) Introduction a. Introduction to the topic of subprime mortgages and the housing market bubble. b. Timeline of the crisis and housing market bubble burst 3) Discussion Content a. Definitions and background information on the following topics: i. Mortgages ii. Housing Market iii. Subprime Mortgages 1. Demyanyk, Y., & Van Hemert, O. (2011). Understanding the Subprime Mortgage Crisis. Review of Financial Studies, 24(6), 1848-1880. 2. Karikari, J., Voicu, I., & Fang, I. (2011). FHA vs. Subprime Mortgage Originations: Is FHA the Answer to Subprime Lending?. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 43(4), 441-458. doi.10.1007/s11146-009-9218-7. iv. Housing Market Bubble Burst b. Overview and causes of the subprime mortgage crisis i. Fixed mortgage versus floating 1. Demyanyk, Y., & Van Hemert, O. (2011). Understanding the Subprime Mortgage Crisis. Review of Financial Studies, 24(6), 1848-1880. ii. High risk mortgage loans and lending/borrowing practices 1. Peterson, C.L. (2009). Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the Home Mortgage Foreclosure Crisis. Loyola......

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Subprime Mortgage Crisis and What to Do About It

...The Subprime Mortgage Crisis and What to Do about It A Review of the Literature The fuse for the subprime financial shock was set early in this decade, following the tech-stock bust, September 11th, and the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. The subprime mortgage crisis is a historic turning point in our economy and our culture. The disruption in our credit markets is already of historic proportions and will have important economic impacts. More importantly, this crisis has set in motion fundamental societal changes – changes that affect our consumer habits, our values, our confidence to the future, and our psychological status. After this financial crisis, our economic went downturns and worsen now. When we talk about or hear about the subprime mortgage crisis, to fully understand the crisis help us to avoid the crisis happening again in the future. This literature review considers different opinions of the subprime mortgage crisis by responding to the following questions: 1. What are subprime mortgages? 2. How did the subprime mortgage crisis happen? 3. What are the causes of the subprime mortgage crisis? 4. Was the subprime mortgage crisis in the U.S. totally unexpected? 5. What to do to avoid it happening again in the future? By answering these questions, we can have understandings of the subprime mortgage crisis and find out the solutions to the crisis. When Americans taking advantage of the easy credit conditions, we take for granted the problems behind the......

Words: 2816 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Ethical and Legal Issues Concerning Sub-Prime Mortgage Lenders

...sub-prime mortgage lenders Outline I. Introduction II. Subprime History III. What lead to subprime lenders making unethical and illegal decisions IV. What safe guards are in place V. Conclusions VI. Works cited page Introduction When most people hear the phrase “subprime lending”, the first thoughts that come to mind are the mortgage meltdown; predatory lenders, high interest mortgages for borrowers who have poor credit or low incomes. All of these thoughts may be true to a certain extent, but contrary to popular belief subprime mortgage lending has helped expand homeownership for all borrowers regardless of credit or income level in the US between 1995 and 2006 (Favro, 07). The problem is that this ethical and legal lending market took an unethical and illegal turn and has been cited as one of the contributing factors that aided in many Americans defaulting on their home loans that resulted in sending this country and many others into one of the biggest recessions since the Great Depression. It has been almost six years since the subprime meltdown and this country, the housing markets, and the economy have yet to fully recovered. In this research paper I will cover the history and original purpose of subprime lending, what lured the subprime lending market to take an unethical and illegal turn, and what safeguards have been put in place to lessen the likely hood of subprime mortgage lenders making unethical and illegal decisions in the......

Words: 2430 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Wrong Assumptions in the Financial Crisis

...htm CPOIB 5,1/2 Wrong assumptions in the financial crisis Manuel B. Aalbers Amsterdam Institute for Metropolitan and International Development Studies, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how some of the assumptions about the current financial crisis are wrong because they misunderstand what takes place in the mortgage market. Design/methodology/approach – The paper discusses four wrong assumptions: one related to regulation, one to leveraging, one to subprime lending and one to predatory lending. It briefly discusses some policy implications. Findings – The role of the state in the mortgage market is more complex than suggested by those who blame the state for not doing anything. The concept of leveraging can explain, at least in part, why the losses in financial markets are bigger than the losses in the housing market. Many subprime loans were sold to prime borrowers. Subprime lending was not designed to increase homeownership rates, but to fuel profits by exploiting vulnerable borrowers. Practical implications – It is too easy to argue that everyone made mistakes; most borrowers cannot be blamed for being sold risky, overpriced loans. A rescue plan is needed for defaulting borrowers and those already in foreclosure. Originality/value – The paper does not present new research, but brings together research that demonstrates that the roots of the crisis in the mortgage market are in many ways......

Words: 2271 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Financial Crisis

...of the financial crisis of 2007, there has been a great deal of debate regarding the key underlying causes. For example, when people discuss the collapse of the financial markets, the most frequently mentioned word is subprime mortgagewhich is considered as the culprit of the crisis. Yet, is subprime mortgage the root of the crisis? If it was, then the question would be how this type of financial product, which is only marginal part of the financial market, could cause such a catastrophic crisis. Specifically, systemic risk was developed. Essentially, subprime mortgage is a mere part of superficial reasons of the crisis and was induced by other underlying factors which will be discussed in the essay. Due to the current situation, it is necessary to correct such misunderstandings. According to the statistics issued by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, GDP growth rate of China has dropped from nearly 12 per cent three years ago to a more subdued 7.5 per cent in the second quarter. Despite a year and a half of recession, Euro zone’s GDP rose at an annualised rate of 1.1 per cent in the second quarter, this pickup still leaves GDP across the Euro area 0.7 per cent lower than a year ago (The Economist, 2013). This essay will argue that in order to resolve the current economic problems it is crucial to identify the underlying causes rather than accepting superficial reasons. It will also be argued that there are three key reasons for the crisis: monetary policy......

Words: 2228 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Subprime Mortgage Crisis- a Study on Citigroup

...Subprime mortgage crisis is defined as a nationwide banking emergency that coincided with the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009. This incident had been analyzed from various aspects as it redefined the world economy and the largest banking and financial institutions of the world. A major American financial services company Citigroup suffered the crisis caused by manifold contributing reasons that could be triggered and prevented prior to the crisis, is analyzed here. Secondary data had been used here to formulate the thorough study from sources like Reuters, Sonntag, Barnett-Hart. Excessive issuance of CDOs by Citigroup to reallocate risk, regulate capital relief and earn greater profit was the substantial reason of its distress. Besides insufficient risk management resulting from risk managers’ cronyism and retransfer of huge amount of troubled assets back into its balance sheet to avoid the forego of its institutional clients due to shadow banking added to the situation. The crisis resulted in a numerical loss of $18.72 billion and around 100000 job cuts during 2008 period. Government aid like bail-out and internal restructure was implemented by this giant institution to overcome the distress. An analysis, backed by the study of the overall mishap suggests that, providing Citigroup with independent risk management, credit rating of its internal departments with stricter regulations, audits and checking rather than profit oriented private rating agencies and deeper...

Words: 2059 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Economic Effects of Sub-Prime Lending

...Economic effects of subprime lending A subprime lending is an option for individuals that have difficulty meeting mortgage payment schedules or for individuals who have low credit scores and considered risky borrowers. For example, an applicant with a low credit score of 500 will have a very difficult time locating a loan. Subprime lending comes with a high cost to borrowers. Lenders see bad credit applicants as riskier than applicants with better credit scores. Borrowers in turn pay for this risk by accepting loans with a higher interest rate. Subprime lenders offered the realization of the American dream of home ownership to borrowers who would otherwise be denied credit. Interest only loan options were offered, and combined with the mortgage-backed securities (MBS) added so much liquidity that in turn created a housing boom. Over time borrowers end up paying higher interest rates with zero payment application against their loan amount. Unemployment setbacks that ultimately resulted in defaults, added to the economic crisis. Consequently, more homes were placed in a market that is already saturated with newly constructed homes. This created less demand resulting to more houses that builders were unable to sell. Controls of banking rules and regulations during the 1980’s were relaxed, and monitoring policies for these were not the highest priority. Jimmy Carter’s “Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980” was a window for financial......

Words: 1551 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

2007 Crisis

...After the 2007-2008 crisis there appeared to be many discussions on what were the reasons behind the sudden collapse in financial system.In this work Nicholas Barberis discusses some ways of analyzing the crisis with the help of ideas from psychology.He focuses on three aspects of the crisis: estate plunge,high accumulation of subprime-linked securities and the decline the value of risky assets. The first one is the surge house prices in the years up to 2006.The author questions whether there was a real estate bubble and suggests to study the bubbles and their origin deeper.He also claims that currently there are too many theories behind the formation of bubbles,however,very little are tested and refined.There are many theories which try to explain the reason behind the formation of bubbles.Professor Barberis draws our attention to 5 possible theories behind the formation of bubbles of which he prefers the over-extrapolation theory.Although the author likes the over-extrapolation theory,he argues that this idea itself is not enough to generate a real estate bubble.The reason which lies behind is that houses are bought using outside financing. However,the author still claims that there is a common factor in many previous crisis:a tendency on the part of some market participants to extrapolate past prices increases too far into the future. Author asked why did the banks accumulate so many subprime-linked holdings which carried some significant risks.And provides 3......

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Why Did Cambridge Hospital Undertake the Abc Study

...The Role of Accounting in the Financial Crisis: Lessons for the Future S.P. Kothari kothari@mit.edu 617-253-0994 and Rebecca Lester rlester@mit.edu MIT Sloan School of Management E60-382, 30 Memorial Drive Cambridge, MA 02421 December 14, 2011 ABSTRACT: The advent of the Great Recession in 2008 was the culmination of a perfect storm of lax regulation, a growing housing bubble, rising popularity of derivatives instruments, and questionable banking practices. In addition to these causes, management incentives, as well as certain US accounting standards, contributed to the financial crisis. We outline the significant effects of these incentive structures, and the role of fair value accounting standards during the crisis, and discuss implications and relevance of these rules to practitioners, standard-setters, and academics. This article is based on a presentation by Deputy Dean and Professor SP Kothari of the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at Baruch College on October 25, 2010. 1    Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1972354 The Role of Accounting in the Financial Crisis: Lessons for the Future I. Introduction The Great Recession that started in 2008 has had significant effects on the US and global economy; estimates of the amount of US wealth lost are approximately $14 trillion (Luhby 2009). Various causes of the financial crisis have been cited, including lax regulation over mortgage lending,...

Words: 9946 - Pages: 40

Premium Essay

Subprime Mortagage Crisis

...Subprime Mortgage Crisis 1. What is Subprime Mortgage? A type of mortgage that is normally made out to borrowers with lower credit ratings. As a result of the borrower's lowered credit rating, a conventional mortgage is not offered because the lender views the borrower as having a larger-than-average risk of defaulting on the loan. Lending institutions often charge interest on subprime mortgages at a rate that is higher than a conventional mortgage in order to compensate themselves for carrying more risk. There are several different kinds of subprime mortgage structures available. The most common is the adjustable rate mortgage (ARM), which initially charges a fixed interest rate, and then converts to a floating rate based on an index such as LIBOR, plus a margin. The better known types of ARMs include3/27 and2/28 ARMs. ARMs are somewhat misleading to subprime borrowers in that the borrowers initially pay a lower interest rate. When their mortgages reset to the higher, variable rate, mortgage payments increase significantly. This is one of the factors that lead to the sharp increase in the number of subprime mortgage foreclosures in August of 2006, and the subprime mortgage meltdown that ensued. Many lenders were more liberal in granting these loans from 2004 to 2006 as a result of lower interest rates and high capital liquidity. Lenders sought additional profits through these higher risk loans, and they charged interest rates above prime in order to......

Words: 7925 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Inside Job

...the Inside Job video, the term Global Economic Crisis of 2008 or Global financial Crisis that I understood is where a period of time, there was a great depression on workers, consumers, producers and the peoples due to major losses that happened globally between investment banks, insurance company, Audit firms, financial services firms and other multinational corporations. What are the causes that these entire gigantic firms led to major losses? This economic crisis had cost ten millions of people lost their savings, their jobs and their homes. The first part of the video was about Iceland country. Iceland is such a beautiful country with fresh air, foods, efficient operations of geothermal and hydroelectric and where the economic was stable in marketing before the crisis happen. Iceland is one of the high standard living countries. In 2008, the population is very high about 320,000 and the GDP of the country was $13billion, the bank had major losses about 100billions. During the year of 2008, Iceland banks collapses due to borrowers unable to settle their debts from lenders. Unemployment triples in 6 months. The three banks in Iceland which are Iceland’s banking, Kaupping and GLINTR had borrowed money which is three times the economics of Iceland. Government had financial deregulation. The government could not able to protect the citizen during this crisis. Collapses of major bank in US and Iceland are main causes to this crisis The major Investment banks which are......

Words: 947 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Reflective Paper

...Perception, Attribution, and Learning Chapter 4 Concrete Experience In 2007, the US economy entered a mortgage crisis that resulted in panic and financial turmoil around the world. Many homeowners lost their home and investments. amiliarity ARMs (Pritchard) let’s review the Perception, Attribution, and Learning (Schermerhorn, 2012 p. 77) as it pertains to the Home Mortgage Crisis: When the Housing Crisis began, many people opined as to what caused the calamity; whom is to blamed? What reinforcements sustained this behavior (95)? How to discourage this behavior in the future? Individuals with good credit and current mortgages “Perceivers” (77) , blamed the crisis on individuals “Perceived”(77) to be lacking the financial fortitude to keep their mortgage current. The Perceivers believed that they were financially astute and possessed the character traits required to manage their personal finances. They were not empathetic to the plight of millions of homeowners, who have lost, or were losing their primary dwelling through foreclosure. Their prevailing, stereotypic perception of the borrowers, were that their character was flawed, and unethical behavior should not positively reinforced. The Lending Institutions’ predatory practices continue today, without ramification for their unprincipled behavior. . Reflective Observation The Fundamental attributes (87) contributing to the housing crisis had little to do with the content of a loan application. The bubble......

Words: 633 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Federal Housing

...direct support programs that would assist in providing low-priced apartments and even rental vouchers to the deprived families, managed through quasi-public, local public and the private intermediaries (McCarty & Et. Al., “Overview of Federal Housing Assistance Programs and Policy”). The main objective of the paper is to analyze the housing policies adopted by the federal government related to the mortgage and funding system. With this concern, the discussion of the paper will intend to identify the strategies implemented by the federal government persuade lenders and low-income borrowers in dealing with highly risky loans and mortgages. Furthermore, the paper will analyze the role of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in the recent sub-prime crisis of 2008. The condition of extreme and mispriced mortgage liability is the main reason behind the current boom in the housing markets. It is not possible to understand the unusual character of this particular cycle without recognizing the parts that...

Words: 1725 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Financial Crisis 2008

...Banking Academy | City University of Seattle | CORPORATE FINANCE THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS 2008 Group’s member:Nguyễn Như Nam (C)Phan Thu AnNguyễn Thùy DungHoàng Bá SơnNgô Thị Ánh TuyếtDate: 28/11/2014 | AbstractIn 2008 the world was fell into the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of 1929-1933. Although this crisis has gone, however, its consequences for the economy of many countries is very serious, even now many nations are still struggling to escape difficulty. Just in a short period, the crisis originating from America has spread to all continents. It led to a series of serious consequences such as the falling in stock markets, increasing in unemployment rates, large financial institutions had been collapsed or bought out, and governments in many strong countries had to come up with rescue packages to bail out their financial systems. So why does it have tremendous destructive power? What are its causes and its development? What are the consequence it bring to the world? And what are the lessons drawn from this terrible event? Derived from these questions above, this paper will generalize about the global financial crisis 2008. | Table of Contents Abstract i 1. Background 1 2. Reasons 2 2.1 The housing bubble 2 2.2 Fed had lower interest rates for a long time. 2 2.3 The subprime boom 3 2.4 Securitization (MBS, CDO) and Credit default swaps (CDSs) 3 2.5 The credit rating companies. 5 2.6 Structured investment......

Words: 5972 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Economic Crisis of 2008

...Causes of Economic Crisis of 2008 and its resulting Recession Student’s Name Institution Introduction The economic crisis of 2008 which began in the United States had great impact in the global economy. The economic crisis began slowly and grew into global economic crisis. It has affected the stock markets to the extent of stopping operations. In the US it is an issue which has been used as a campaign tool for presidential candidates to request for votes during their campaigns. Due to the crisis many US citizens have felt its impact and even lost their jobs. The crisis began with the United States housing market and gradually resulted into liquidity crisis (Steil, 2009). It is in this regard that this paper looks into the causes of the economic crisis of 2008 and its resulting recession. Causes of the 2008 crisis and its resulting recession Actually, the United States experienced many serious problems that included frozen money markets, plummeting dollar, banks on the threshold of bankruptcy, declining stock market, high levels of public debt and the impending threat of recession. According to some economists, the economic crisis was mainly affected by the world imbalances, perceptions of interest rates, risks and the regulations of the financial system. The following are the main causes of the economic crisis of 2008: Housing Crash The United States housing market is one of the main......

Words: 1317 - Pages: 6