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Use of Computer Aided Instruction in Teaching and Learning of Mathematics

In: Computers and Technology

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The paper investigates the use of computer aided instruction (CAI) in teaching and learning mathematics. It also explores the use of Instructional Materials Aided Methods (IMAM) as a close substitute. From the study, it was clear that computer-aided instruction enhanced the students performance in mathematics The design of the study was experimental. The hypothesis were tested using T-ratio at 0.05 level of significance and a reliability index of 0.85 was calculated from the test items; while the data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation.

One of the problems of teaching and learning is the method of imparting knowledge to learners. According to stone (1991), the major difficulty in sciences is the method by which the subjects were customarily taught without regard to instructional materials. The pedagogical approach in imparting knowledge to learners has become inadequate to their needs.
Mathematics, like other science subjects, recorded poor students performance both in national and international examination (Ali, 1983). Many factors contributed to the performance of students in mathematics examination Akale, (1996), Okebukola and Jegede (1996), Ottiah (1997) and Ali (1998). The factors include:
a. Inability of the mathematics teachers to put across the mathematics concepts to the students.
b. Lack of skills and competence required for teaching mathematics.
c. Shortage of qualified mathematics teachers.
d. Lack of teaching materials and equipments.
The above problems confronting the teaching and learning of mathematics can be handled using Computer Aided Instruction (CAI). Computer Aided Instruction is a learning process in which students interacts with and is guided by a computer through the course of study aimed at achieving certain instructional goals (Eke 1988). The use of computer in teaching and learning has become widespread in educational institutions in recent years. Computer Aided Instruction can be used in aids education especially in tertiary institutions where the class size are becoming unbearable for the class teacher (Ezilora 1997).
The study was carried out to determine the effect of Computer Aided Instruction in teaching and learning mathematics and its implications on students’ performance. The traditional method of teaching and demonstrating with instructional materials acted as a close substitute for Computer Aided Instruction where computers cannot be afforded. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of Computer Aided Instruction and the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning mathematics in tertiary institutions.
1. There is no significant difference in the use of Computer-Aided Instruction and instructional materials in teaching and learning mathematics.
2. Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) had more significant effect on the performance of students in mathematics than teaching instructional materials.
The design adopted in this study was experimental design. The study used two groups of non-randomized pre-test and post test design. The normal lecture method was carried out among the two groups with instructional materials such as models, pictures and flow charts.
Sample and Population
The research was carried out with 150 students randomly sampled out of 250 students from the school of Science and Vocational Education of Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba. The students comprises of 60 students in mathematics computer science and 90 students of agricultural science department. The students were taught the same concept of mathematics using models and other instructional materials.
The instrument consists of 20 items. The test covered both lower and higher cognitive skills. The test items required true or false answer which the students answered before or after the experiment. The correct answer had five marks while the incorrect answer had no mark (o). the two groups were taught initially using instructional materials such as models, pictures and diagrams. The experimental group (mathematics/computer science) were exposed to mathematics lesson package in computer drill and practice software on mathematics for a period of 4 weeks while the control group (agricultural students) were taught with instructional materials. After the duration of 4 weeks of treatment for the experiment group, the post test, computer package mathematics lesson was administered to Mathematics/Computer Science group while the agricultural students did the same experiment in the usual paper-pencil method.
The Computer Aided Instruction (the mathematics packaged lesson) and the test items were pilot tested and found to satisfy face validity by two specialists teachers in computer science and mathematics departments. The level of significance was tested at 0.05 and a reliability index of 0.85 was calculated from the test items.
The mean and standard deviation of the scores of the different groups were computed and used interesting the hypothesis. All the hypotheses were tested using t-ratio at 0.05 level of significance.
Hypothesis 1
There is no significance difference in the use of computer aided instruction and instructional materials in teaching and learning mathematics.
Table 1: Mean and Standard Deviation and Calculated t-value for the students of SSE and SVE.
Number of group Mean S.D D.F Level of significance T-value F Significance
60 1.67 12.91 58
90 1.11 T.10;54 89 0.05 1.96 0.89 NS

With t =19.6 >0.89, it was clear that there was significant differences in the teaching and learning mathematics using computer aided instruction. The hypothesis is then not accepted.
Hypothesis II
Computer-Aided Instruction had more significant effect on the performance of students in mathematics than teaching instructional materials.
Table 2: Mean, Standard Deviation and calculated t-value for students SSE and SVE.

Group No Mean S.D D.F Level of significance t-value F
Experimental 60 1.25 9.68 58 0.05 1.96 0.36
Control 90 0.56 5.27 89

From the above result, t = 1.96 > 0.36, showed that the computer aided instructional teaching and learning mathematics in tertiary institution had more effect on the students performance than teaching with instructional material.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The study was carried out to investigate the cognitive gains of Computer Aided Instruction in teaching and learning mathematics in tertiary institution. From the result, t = 1.96 > 0.36, it was clear that Computer Aided Instruction enhanced the students performance much better than teaching with instructional materials.
The finding of this study showed that students performance in mathematics is enhanced when Computer Aided Instruction is effectively utilized. The study therefore recommended that:
1. More efforts should gear towards establishing a combination of sciences and computer science in all tertiary institutions.
2. Schools should be equipped with computers and necessary instructional packages for teaching and learning.
3. All Science teachers should learn how to prepare a Computer Aided Instruction.

Adewope, A. (1997), Computer Aided Instruction and Achievement in mathematics of the 40th annual conference of STAN.
Akale, MAG (1996), Assessment of Students Achievement in science. What implication for teacher training. Proceeding of the 27th Annual Conference of STAN.
Ali, A. (1993), The effect of laboratory classes on motivation and level of achievement in mathematics in Nigerian Schools. In Ezeliora B.(Ed) STAN 40th Annual Conference.
Eke, A.C. (1998), Computer Asssited Education, a would be relief to the over burden Nigerian teacher. In Onyejemezi D., Educational Technology in Nigeria Education. Onitsha, Summer Educational Publisher (Nig).
Ezeliora, B., (1998), Improvising Mathematics Teaching and Learning using Computer proceeding of 41st Annual Conference of STAN.
Jegede, O.J (1991), Computer and Learning of Biology concept, Attitude towards Computer and Achievement in Mathematics. Journal of Science Education, 25 (6) 701-708.

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