Free Essay


In: Science

Submitted By mccaldt
Words 680
Pages 3
Venus was formed 4.6 billion years ago along with the Sun and the solar system. Large amounts of dust and gases accumulated over many years to form the planet. Venus is thought to be the result of a large collision. This is due to the fact that Venus rotates differently than the other planets in our solar system. Venus is commonly referred to as Earth's "sister planet" because of their similarity in size as well as a similar gravitational force. Although Venus and Earth share some similarities, it has shown to be very different from Earth in many other aspects. It has the most dense atmosphere out of the four terrestrial planets. Venus consists of more than 96% carbon dioxide.
Geography: The surface shows evidence of extreme volcanism, and the sulfur in the atmosphere may mean that there have been some recent eruptions. Venus is covered by a thick atmosphere, creating a blazing environment with temperatures reaching high enough to melt lead.
Geology: Much of Venus's surface appears to have been shaped by volcanic activity. Venus is home to about 167 large volcanoes. Some stretching over 100 km long. Venusian surface is estimated to be 300–600 million years old. Almost 2x longer than Earth's.

Internal Structure The similarity in size and density between Venus and Earth may mean that they share a similar internal structure: a core, mantle, and crust. Like Earth, the Venus's core is at least partially liquid because the two planets have been cooling at about the same rate. The slightly smaller size of Venus may mean that its interior pressure is less than Earth's.
Structure: Venus has an extremely dense atmosphere, which is mostly made up of CO2 and a small amount of nitrogen. This makes the Venus's surface much hotter than Mercury's, which has a minimum surface temperature of −220 °C and maximum surface temperature of 420 °C. Venus is nearly twice the distance from the sun than Mercury, as a result receiving only 25% of Mercury's solar radiance. The surface of Venus is often described as volcanic. This temperature is higher than temperatures used to achieve sterilization.
Features: The weak magnetosphere around Venus means the solar wind is interacting directly with the outer atmosphere of the planet. Solar wind supplies energy that gives ions enough velocity to escape the planet's Venus's gravitional field. These processes result in a consistent loss of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions. While molecules such as CO2 are more likely to be retained.

Orbit and Rotation
Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 67,000,000 miles per hour, and completes an orbit every 224.65 days. Although every other planet orbits elliptically, Venus's orbit is more of a circular movement. The rotation period of Venus may represent an equilibrium state between tidal locking to the Sun's gravitation and an atmospheric tide created by solar heating of the thick Venusian atmosphere.

The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began on February 12th, 1961, with the launch of the Venera 1 probe. Venera 1 was launched on a direct path to Venus but contact was lost a week into the mission. It was estimated to have traveled 100,000 km of Venus by mid-May.

Venus is always brighter than any star (apart from the Sun). With an apparent magnitude of −4.9, Venus is clearly visible from earth, Venus fades to about an apparent magnitude of −3 when it is back lit by the Sun; which is still very bright when viewing from Earth. The planet is bright enough to be seen in a mid-day with clear skies, and the planet can be easy to see when the Sun is low on the horizon.

The astronomical symbol for Venus is the same symbol that used in biology for the female sex: a circle with a small cross beneath. The Venus symbol also represents femininity. The symbol for Venus has sometimes been understood to stand for the mirror of the goddess.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Venus of Willendorf have held a certain level of importance to those of that time. A common statuette, said to be created around 25,000-20,000 B.C.E., is the Venus of Willendorf. One key feature of The Venus of Willendorf is it bulky size. Presenting the idea of an overweight woman she is thought to represent to natives of that time, who were believe to be overweight due to the harsh cold weather of that environment. Another key characteristic of The Venus of Willendorf was her exaggerated sexual private parts. The statue exemplifies her breasts, buttocks and stomach which insinuates thoughts of a pregnant women. Archaeologists and other specialist in this field can only speculate what the cause of this statue and many other artifacts of the ancient world were created to signify. But through research of this particular time in history, many believe the ancient cultures new way of life through farming and the production of food caused them to have a deep respect for life-giving powers. The Venus of Willendorf and other statuettes are thought to have been created to celebrate fertility. Fertility was essential to their culture. Fertility was not only important in the production of food needed to survive but also, and in a larger measure, to the production of children needed to keep their culture and enlarge communities. Citations: undefined. "Venus of Willendorf: Exaggerated Beauty." How art made the World. 22 June 2006. PBS. 9 July...

Words: 272 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Venus of Willendorf

...Venus of Willendorf There have been many theories of the significance of one of the oldest and most famous prehistoric figures, Venus of Willendorf. Archeologists have suggested many different ways of understanding its significance for the society which made it. The first suggestion is that it was a "Venus figure" or "Goddess," used as a symbol of fertility. Apart from being female with an enlarged stomach and breasts, the red ochre pigment covering its pubic area has been thought to symbolize or serve as menstrual blood seen as a life giving agent. The second suggestion is that the figurine may have served as a good luck charm. Its extremely small size led archaeologists to assume that it may have been carried by the men during their hunting missions in which it served not only as a reminder of their mate back at home but also as a charm to bring them success in their hunting. Archaeologists suggest that the facelessness of the figure gives it a mysterious feel and believe that it may have been of more important as an object rather than as a person. Also suggested, the fact that the figure’s hair is braided in seven symbolic circles, seven in later times being regarded as a magic number used to bring about good luck. A third possible significance put forth by archaeologists is that of the figure serving as a mother goddess (earth mother or female deity). They believe that this comes from a suggestion that the statue was a woman whose specialness was indicated in...

Words: 307 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Venus de Milo

...Venus de Milo The Venus de Milo is a Greek sculpture discovered in 1820 on the Island of Milos. The name Venus de Milo comes from the sculptures perfection and discovery. Venus, which is the name Romans use for Aphrodite, and Milo, for the Greek Island of Milos where the sculpture was discovered. The Venus de Milo is famous for many reasons, but mostly for her symbolism of female beauty. When the statue was found it had no arms and was broken in half during excavation. The halves were joined and yet, even flawed, the statue is still seen as the highest beauty. Venus de Milo has a perfectly proportioned face and a waist to hip ratio of .7. This ratio is coveted by women everywhere. It is said that both Marilyn Monroe and Kate Moss were lucky enough to have the sought after figure. When the statue arrived in France in 1821 its age was argued between the classical period, or much later. Evidence proves that the statue was of much later because of its inscription of the name Alexandros. The inscriptions states that he came from a city that was not in existence until long after the end of the classical era. That city was Antioch and was founded in 270 BC. However, the base with this inscription disappeared and was never seen again. The Venus de Milo is a sculpture that is very interesting because the modern world we live in is so obsessed with a perfect form of beauty, but this depiction of Aphrodite is flawed. In this modern world women are criticized for every minute little...

Words: 324 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Integrated Marketing Communications campaign (IMC) for the Procter & Gamble subsidiary Gillette, specifically for the most recent and advanced female razor: the Venus Embrace. The 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver‐Whistler offer a unique opportunity to promote the Gillette Venus Embrace razor by capitalizing on the Olympic passion and enthusiasm. The female razor industry in Canada is valued at approximately $150,000,000 CDN, with the Venus brand currently controlling 28% of this market. The IMC plan is designed to increase the Venus brand market share by 3.13% to 31.13%. The target audience of the campaign is generation Y females; those aged 16 to 29 years old. There are approximately 2,881,457 Canadian females with our target audience. The IMC is specifically designed to target those with a high propensity for fashion and superior personal hygiene care. The report identifies key stakeholders, analyzes the Gillette company strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, and breaks down strategic decisions which lead to the communication and marketing objectives of the IMC plan. Additionally, a competitive analysis of the industry has been included. The Venus Embrace is positioned as a super premium razor, with five blades delivering the closest, smoothest shave a woman can get. The current Venus Goddess campaign is in its ninth year, and is in need of a revival, with specific consideration paid to the Olympic opportunity in Canada. The......

Words: 452 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Venus “Women are from Venus and men are from Mars”, an old saying indicating the different gender roles assigned to each sex. Advertisements can greatly influence people’s perception of these gender roles by either promoting them or altering them. Regardless, many advertisements today tend to keep women confined to their gender roles, which “tells women that their role in life is to be sexually attractive to men” (Maasik and Solomon 562). In Venus’ advertisement for its new product, the “Embrace,” women are encouraged to accept the gender code and exert it as a form of empowerment. In the advertisement for Venus’ new shaving razor, the “Embrace”, a young white couple is shown being intimate with each other at a beach. The female is blonde, slender, and physically very attractive and is sporting a provocative blue two piece bikini. She is being carried by the man who is lean, has short dark hair and wearing tan khaki shorts with his face away from the camera. Her arms are positioned around his neck and her legs tightly latched on around his waist. They are gazing directly into each other’s eyes and in the moment, very happy. To the right of this image is a picture of the product itself and the words “Goddess of Never Letting Go” and the Venus trademark with the words “Reveal the Goddess in You” below it. At first glance, the woman in the ad seems to fit the description of the “Man’s Woman” (Craig 206) perfectly in that she is “physically attractive, slim, young and white...

Words: 1102 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Earth’s mass, and the sun is 6.3 times brighter. Mercury was named by the Greeks, after the messenger of their g-d. Mariner 10 visited mercury, it mapped 45% of it, and it was the only one which visited more than one planet during its mission. It went up from Cape Canaveral, Florida on November, 1973 and went to Venus in February of 1974. Never attempt to observe Mercury or anything close to the sun with a naked eye because it can cause permanent damage. And with binoculars or telescope it is even more dangerous. VENUS Venus is the second planet from the sun it is called the evening star because it can be seen by sunset and also by sunrise. Venus is made up of molten metal core, mantle, and crust of various rocks and 98% of carbon dioxide with traces of nitrogen and other gases. It is the only planet that the day is longer then it’s year, it’s year is 225 earth days, and its day is 243 earth days. Venus is known as earth’s twin because of the similarity, it’s 82% of earth’s mass, and 91% of earth’s gravity. Venus is on a 178% tilt and it shines like a star at night because of the thick atmosphere that reflects the sun nicely. Venus is the hottest planet it is about 878°F it has the green house effect. Some scientists believe that there was water and it evaporated because of the heat and others think that...

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The English Five

...Imagine this scenario set in the future. We know that a decently large rogue planet will be crashing into Earth in a certain number of years and we cannot do anything to stop this from happening. However, we do have the ability to terraform a planet. If we could also move humanity to either Mars or Venus, which one should we go for and why? Hi Jessica! Interesting question. To start off, I will define what terraforming is for those who do not know what it means. Terraforming refers to the hypothetical process of modifying a planet or other heavenly body in order to make it habitable by humans. This outcome can be achieved by changing the atmosphere’s competition, the body’s temperature, the surface topography or the planet’s ecology. In order for terraforming to be successful and the planet to be able to sustain life, NASA has defined that such a body must have extended regions of liquid water, favourable living conditions and enough energy sources to sustain metabolism (). Mars is generally understood to be the planet that is closest to fulfilling these criteria because in many respects it is the most Earth-like planet in the Solar System(). It is generally accepted by scientists that Mars once had an Earth-like characteristic including a thicker atmosphere and abundant sources of water. These characteristics have diminished over the course of hundreds of millions of years due to carbon dioxide/carbonates reactions, a lack of magnetosphere and numerous asteroid impacts.......

Words: 1019 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Living on Another Planet

...Running Head: LIVING ON ANOTHER PLANET Living On Another Planet: Venus and the Aerial City of Euphuria Tommy Patterson GS1140 Living On Another Planet: Venus The population of earth is growing increasing over populated and the need to search and find a new planet to colonize and settle on has become a dire issue. The planet Venus is a perfect choice because of its similarities to Earth’s atmospheric and gravitational characteristics. Listed are some of the main characteristics positive and negative: Positive * Has gravity roughly similar to Earth and a think atmosphere that would protect you from radiation * The atmospheric pressure is the same as earth’s at an altitude of 50 – 60 kilometers from the surface * Possible to float in the skies in a balloon of breathable air because the breathable air on the planet is like a lifting gas * Take advantage of sunlight in regular gravity because of similarities Negative * Surface temperature – 462 degree oven like temperature * Surface pressure – 92 times that of earth * Atmosphere is entirely carbon dioxide with clouds of sulphuric acid * You would die faster on the surface of Venus than almost anywhere in the solar system The planet Venus is approximately 26,000,000 miles away from earth and would take 153 days of travel time to get there by normal means of space travel. So to remedy this issue the means of transportation will be by space vehicles equipped with warp drives which...

Words: 474 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Course Project Proposal for Terraforming

...David Corvin 9/9/2012 Managerial Appls of Info Tech Prof. Tahereh Daneshi Course Project Proposal Terraforming Domes and the use of Planet Cracker Mining Vessels We live in a world where one of the main threats to our society is diminishing resources and the inevitability of over population. Humans and animals alike multiply at an alarming rate and with the arrivals of new people to this planet there is a need for aggressive expansion for houses, apartments and retail stores. With new expansion comes the need for new oil and gas refineries and nuclear power plant to support the land that will soon be developed. Human civilization has been consuming natural resources at an exponential rate and the threat that we will soon run out is on the back of our minds. With new developments will come new technology and the need to improve on what we currently have. Our planet can only offer us so much and there is still much to be discovered in outer space. There are hundreds of planets that have the ability to sustain life providing certain conditions are met. NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration have been in charge of the space program for many years. While they have released this power to the private sector and given those with the resources a chance to go where they have not offers a potential solution. Terraforming (literally, “Earth-shaping”) of a planet, moon, or other body is the process of deliberately modifying its atmosphere, temperature,......

Words: 580 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Asttronomy Lab Assignment

... 9. Apollo 14 on January 31, 1971 10. Apollo 15 on July 26, 1971 11. Apollo 16 on April 16, 1972 12. Apollo 17 on December 7, 1972 Apollo 2 and 3 (these were no craft named) Apollo 4 (Also called AS-501) on November 9, 1967. Apollo 5 (also called AS-204) on January 22, 1968. Apollo 6 (Also called AS-502) on April 4, 1968. There were 17 in total. II- How many of the missions orbited the Moon and how many landed? Which ones? * Apollo 8 and Apollo 10 orbited the Moon and returned. * Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and Apollo 17 landed on the Moon. A total of 6. III- Unfortunately, there was an accident early on. Which mission was it? The mission that suffered a tragic accident was Apollo 1. Part 2: Venus I- How many Venera Missions (Russian) were there? Over what time period did these missions occur? Did any of the crafts actually land on the surface? What happened? * Venera 1 in 1961 - Venera 8 in 1972 * Venera 2 and 3 in 1965 - Venera 9 and 10 in 1975 * Venera 4 in 1967 - Venera 11 and 12 in 1978 * Venera 5 and 6 in 1969 - Venera 13 and 14 in 1981 * Venera 7 in 1970 - Venera 15 and 16 in 1983 The missions that landed on the surface were: Venera 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and Venera 14. They were only able to send information for a short time because the extremely high temperature and pressure on the surface melted and crushed the landers. Mars I- What were some of the...

Words: 1570 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Science Extreme Weather Unit

...Extreme Weather Unit Abstract This unit will study extreme weather on Earth but more specifically Mars and Venus. In the first steps it outlines the summary of this unit. The steps that the students have to take in studying these planets are outlined in the objectives. There are three cognitive objectives, one psychomotor, and one affective objective. The students will take this new knowledge of these planets and have to compare and contrast it with each other as well as weather on Earth. They will then have to assemble their own measuring tool for Mars or Venus and then have to defend their tool as the last step in this unit. As the students go through this unit they will be going through the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. They will start in the knowledge category as they start off describing weather but will finish in the evaluating category with their final creation presenting and defending why their tool would work on Mars or Venus. By taking these steps, utilizing back ground knowledge, and being able to create and make a measuring tool this would be a great lesson to add to any weather unit that is hands-on and engaging. Extreme Weather Unit Studying extreme weather on other planets is a very engaging lesson to teach to grades 2-5. It gives the students’ knowledge on weather that we experience on Earth and makes them think beyond that to our whole solar system. They will also be challenged to create their own measuring tools to use on other planets in the......

Words: 1224 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...of planets, moons, dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, and other bodies orbiting the Sun, as well as extrasolar planets. The solar system has been relatively well-studied, initially through telescopes and then later by spacecraft. This has provided a good overall understanding of the formation and evolution of this planetary system, although many new discoveries are still being made.[50] The black spot at the top is a dust devil climbing a crater wall on Mars. This moving, swirling column of Martian atmosphere (comparable to a terrestrial tornado) created the long, dark streak. NASA image. The solar system is subdivided into the inner planets, the asteroid belt, and the outer planets. The inner terrestrial planets consist of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The outer gas giant planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.[51] Beyond Neptune lies the Kuiper Belt, and finally the Oort Cloud, which may extend as far as a light-year. The planets were formed in the protoplanetary disk that surrounded the early Sun. Through a process that included gravitational attraction, collision, and accretion, the disk formed clumps of matter that, with time, became protoplanets. The radiation pressure of the solar wind then expelled most of the unaccreted matter, and only those planets with sufficient mass retained their gaseous atmosphere. The planets continued to sweep up, or eject, the remaining matter during a period of intense bombardment, evidenced by the many impact craters on......

Words: 414 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...would probably only hold a few people. And by the time we found out that Earth was doomed for imminent destruction, it would be too late to build the ships. Where would the ships be sent? Mars? Venus? Either destination would take several years of space flight to get there -- so the ships would have to hold enough food, water and air for years of travel for all of their crew. Mars has an atmosphere but it’s not breathable -- its surface air pressure is less than 1% of the Earth's surface pressure -- and Mars' atmosphere is composed of 95% carbon dioxide, 3% nitrogen, 1.6% argon, with traces of oxygen and water. So humans settling on Mars would have to supply their own air, wear spacesuits outside, and build air-tight shelters. Venus's atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide, with thick clouds of sulfuric acid completely covering the entire planet and preventing its surface from being seen in visible light. Its atmospheric pressure at the surface is 92 times that of Earth's -- a pressure equivalent to that at a depth of nearly 1 kilometer under Earth's oceans. The carbon dioxide-rich atmosphere, along with thick clouds of sulfur dioxide, generates the strongest greenhouse effect in the Solar System, creating surface temperatures of over 460 °C (860 °F). So Venus would be even less inhabitable than Mars. So -- is it possible to live on either planet? Not without years of construction and preparation, and even then, only a handful of people would be able......

Words: 312 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Birth of Venus

...The Birth of Venus Roaming through the many halls and floors of the metropolitan museum of art is an interesting and eye opening experience, especially for someone unexposed to the beauty of art. Although there were many beautiful paintings and sculptures waiting to be uncovered by wandering eyes, one painting in particular captured my attention like no other the instant I happened upon it. As if it were entrancing me and calling me towards it, the vibrant colors and elegant aura of Alexandre Cabanel’s “Birth of Venus” resonated with me, and that was the moment I knew which piece of art had chosen me. Leaving the tour group behind and unable to look away, I became enamored with this piece and urged myself to learn anything I could about the artist and his creation. According to a biography written by Jim Lane, Alexandre Cabanel was an extraordinary French painter born in the year 1823, who is known for his academic style of painting. At that time, academic art was defined as art and artists influenced under the Neoclassicism and Romanticism periods, drawing inspiration from the ancient artistic styles of Greece and Rome. The painting that strongly exemplified Cabanels Academic style most famously would be his “Birth of Venus” painting, conceived in 1863. The painting itself depicts a nude woman, a theme frequently visited in other paintings of the Romanticism movement, sprawled across a calm ocean underneath many angels, depicted as children. At the time of......

Words: 1373 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Global Warming

...Global Warming could cause the climate to change. Many people believe that it is just a myth or even a political scam, but it is real and the results are being seen today. The Greenhouse effect is the main cause of Global Warming. The Greenhouse effect is the warming process of Earth; it is what makes the planet livable. The Greenhouse is made up of gases in the atmosphere that help trap heat; some of these gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons. Over the last century, our activities have been changing the balance of these gases. Since the pre-industrial age carbon dioxide has gone up 35%, methane 155% and nitrous oxide 18%. Global Warming can cause some significant impacts to our planet. One effect is the rise in sea levels. Sea levels are rising due to ice sheets melting in Antarctica and Greenland. Another effect is more severe storms such as hurricanes and cyclones like Katrina and Sandy. Other effects are a danger to crops, wild live, and coral reefs, not to mention just the temperatures. These impacts will be worldwide. The argument surrounding Global Warming is that it cannot be proved, and data being analyzed differently. Some believe that carbon dioxide is not connected to Global Warming but is an effect of warmer temperatures and that we only produce 3% of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the rest is natural. Other Global Warming advocates think we will benefit from it. By the time people realize what is......

Words: 352 - Pages: 2