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Vicente Fox

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Nombre: Luis Eduardo Pinto Ramírez Materia: Finanzas internacionales Ensayo: La fabulosa historia del dólar Fecha: 30/ Agosto/ 2013

La fabulosa historia del dólar El dólar americano es la moneda oficial de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, en la actualidad el dólar americano es la divisa con la cual se realizan las principales transacciones comerciales del mundo. Cuando se habla de la economía o de Estados Unidos lo primero que se nos viene a la mente es el dólar, ya que este se reconoce en cualquier parte del mundo. Es una (marca global) Que muestra el poder económico de Estados unidos. La fortaleza de la economía de un país se muestra con la fortaleza de su moneda, y ya que el dólar es la moneda referente de cambio en todo el mundo, cuando los valores del dólar suben o bajan esto trae repercusiones en todo el mundo.
Normalmente en la creación de un país también se piensa en la creación de la moneda, pero para estados unidos esto fue diferente porque le dieron mucho más valor al dinero de papel.
Tras la firma de la declaración de independencia. Estados unidos necesitaba dinero para poder declarar la guerra con Gran Bretaña. Por tal motivo crearon el dinero de papel o papel moneda. Al ganar la guerra con Gran Bretaña los americanos empezaron a crear instituciones políticas y administrativas del país.
Alexander Hamilton fue el primer secretario del tesoro, él quería crear un banco central que fuera el único capaz de emitir moneda. El principal detractor fue Thomas Jefferson quien creía en un país descentralizado.
En 1791 nace el primer banco central general de estados unidos. Pero fue cerrado por opositores 20 años después. En los años siguientes el estado aprobó a los bancos emitir monedas, lo cual origino que cada banco americano creara un tipo de moneda diferente.
En 1860 existían muchos billetes lo cual ayudo a los falsificadores, los cuales crearon sus propios bancos ficticios y crearon dinero falso, no tenían que hacer una copia exacta de un billete.
En 1863 Abraham Lincoln reorganizo el sistema, estandarizo la moneda de la mano de un gobierno central y un banco central, creando una moneda creíble para el pueblo americano, emitieron un billete el cual recibió el nombre de Greenback por que en la parte de atrás estaba impreso de color verde.
Ya en 1866 existen pocos billetes y no muchos como en años anteriores y desde ese momento se conoce a Abraham Lincoln como el padre del dólar.
Los dólares del siglo 19 siempre tenían en referencia el oro, lo que se denominó patrón oro, lo que quiere decir que el banco central cambiaría el billete por su equivalente en oro, lo cual se hizo con el fin de que el país no entrara en la ambición de crear muchos más dólares de lo necesario si no que se crearían de acuerdo a las reservas de oro del banco.
A finales del siglo 19 estados unidos se estaba convirtiendo en una de las economías más fuertes de todo el mundo. Pero aún no se conocía el dólar en otras partes del mundo.
En 1944 se estableció que la moneda de referencia en el sistema financiero global seria el dólar, esto debido a que muchos países le debían a estados unidos que era el que estaba financiando la reconstrucción de Europa. Al convertirse en el referente de cambio en el mundo el dólar recibe el nombre de moneda de monedas. Critica al FMI El FMI es algo así como la ‘mano armada’ de los grandes poderes financieros. El ejecutor de las políticas que más daño ha hecho a los pueblos, que más atraso, muertes y empobrecimiento han provocado en los últimos treinta años solo para enriquecer a las grandes empresas y grupos económicos. Y es 'mano armada' porque no lo hace precisamente por el peso de sus argumentos, no hay posiblemente otro organismo internacional que se equivoque más y tan gravemente en sus análisis y predicciones. Desde este punto de vista es un club de analistas cegados por la ideología y borrachos de poder.

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