Free Essay

Vinyl Records Give a Better Appreciation for Music

In: Other Topics

Submitted By dustisue
Words 1294
Pages 6
Dusti Billings
Ray Holmes
Eng 101
15 May 2014
Vinyl Records Give a Better Appreciation for Music Audiophiles, people who exhibit a great enthusiasm for high fidelity sound production, have been debating the quality distinction between vinyl and digital recording formats for more than three decades. The first forms of digital recordings, compact disks, were introduced to the general population during the early 1980's. The compact disk, or CD, has now been almost completely replaced by mp3 recording. Digital recordings may be a more convenient way to purchase and listen to music, but vinyl recordings provide a much greater appreciation for the musical experience. First of all, vinyl produces a far superior quality of sound than digital recordings. Secondly, vinyl provides the listener with a pure and organic listening experience by providing an unaltered reproduction of the original recording. Finally, vinyl records, whether purchased by the collector or handed down through generations, have the power to create a very nostalgic experience for an individual. Most audiophiles tend to agree that vinyl records are far superior to more modern mediums for truly enjoying music. Vinyl recordings sound superior to digital recording mediums simply by design. The website points out that “a vinyl record is an analog recording, and compact disks... are digital recordings.” The website also explains that Thomas Edison is responsible for creating the first device for recording and playing analog sound, the phonograph, in 1877. To record sound using Edison's phonograph, an individual spoke into a “speaking horn” that was directly attached to a diaphragm that directly controlled a recording needle. “As the diaphragm vibrated, so did the needle, and those vibrations impressed [the sound waves]...onto the tin [record]. To play the sound back, the needle moved over the grooves scratched during recording...The vibrations pressed into the tin caused the needle to vibrate, causing the diaphragm to vibrate and play the sound.” The modern record player works in the exact same way. During the recording process, vinyl records have grooves carved into them that will mirror the analog waveforms represented by vibrations made by the voice. The music is released from a record using a stylus, or needle, which is carefully placed into the grooves of the record. The website also explains that “the vibrations from the record's grooves travel up by the needle, through the cartridge and the arm to the amplifier, where they are magnified into sound waves.” The sound waves created provide a reproduction of the original performance that is given during the recording process. When music is recorded in a digital format, much of the original sound waves are lost. Audiophiles who prefer vinyl records to modern mediums are often said to have “old souls” or a traditional taste in music. Some of the best music to listen to on vinyl was released between 1930 and 1970, before pitch correction and digital recording processes were developed. Steve Guttenberg, a high-end audio salesman, states “every sound you hear in real life that doesn't come out of a speaker is analog. Analog audio is, simply put, an analogous record of sound, and [a vinyl records] groove is a literal imprint of the music's sound waves. Digital audio recording converts the original sound into a sequence of numbers.” Those numbers convert the analog signal to a digital representation of the sound, during this process much of the recording can be lost. Guttenberg also states that even though he prefers listening to vinyl records on a good turntable because the music sounds more like real than digital recordings, “digital audio has never sounded better than it does now.” This could be due to the development of pitch correction. Author Craig Anderton explains that pitch correction is a very common feature in the digital recording process. It is used to correct “out of tune vocals... and is commonly used to add harmony to certain words or phrases without recording” the performance. Basically, pitch correction can be used by recording engineers to create a perfectly in-tune performance from a vocalist that is otherwise not talented enough to provide one. Musician Graham Cochrane explains that “pitch correction...has enabled some vocalists who would be potentially struggle in having consistently in tune performances to hang with those more talented than themselves. [Pitch correction] removes the need for a lot of makes [musicians] progressively more lazy.” This process was relatively uncommon before 1997. Most vinyl records do not use pitch correction, so the fan receives a more pure, or organic, depiction of the performance the artist can give live. For the music lover who grew up listening to vinyl, little is more enjoyable than nostalgic experience created by listening to one of those dusty old records. Internet columnist Red Timbre simply states:
“you can't 'hand down' a song file...vinyl records only exist in a single source and thus can only belong to one person at any given time. That is precisely why it has the capacity to retain sentimental value and resemble the flame of a torch being passed from father to son. Being such a nostalgic format, a tear just might swell in the old man's eye seeing his son take an interest in one of his childhood staples, even if it is a retro technology. That box of dusty vinyl finally being brought to light again is almost as cathartic in the act of revisiting old treasures as listening to the un-deteriorated sound quality. Should a crackle or two appear here and there, that's just the sound of manifested memories being triggered off.”

Listening to the warm tones created by the record itself and hearing the pops and cracks of the record, created by years of being careless with those fragile things, cause feelings of great nostalgia for the listener. Red Timbre also explains that “there's nothing that comes close to the joy felt when you slip a record out of its inner sleeve, place it on a turntable, and drop a needle on its outermost ring.”

We live in a world that is becoming increasingly more digital. We have digital cameras and digital televisions. Digital music is a much more convenient and portable way to listen to our favorite bands. We can take music with us everywhere we go, from the car to the pool to the gym. Downloading an mp3 is much faster, and less costly, than purchasing a CD or record. However, when we do not take the time to experience the music we love so much, we lose much of the appreciation for the art that goes into the process of making the music. The music greats of the 1940’s, 1950’s, and 1960’s, Billie Holiday, Frank Sinatra, or Elvis, did not have mixing boards, digital processing, or pitch correction. What they did possess was raw talent. The quality of sound that was produced on those original records may not have been perfect, but it was true to the performance they gave and the talent they possessed. The music legends created true art. There is no better experience than rediscovering that art by truly experiencing music through vinyl records.

Anderton, Craig. “In Search of the Perfect Pitch; the Fix Ins.” EQ. 2006-07-01. Pg 46.
Bower, Meredith."How Record Players Work." December 2009.web.1 May 2014.
Brain, Marshall."How Analog and Digital Recording Works" 01 April 2000web.1 May 2014
Cochrane, Graham. “Is Pitch Correction Cheating?”The Recording Revolution. 21 April 2014.web. "Is the sound on vinyl records better than on CD’s or DVD s?"11 October 2000. April 2014
Timbre, Red. “Top Ten Reasons Vinyl is Better Than Digital”01 May 2011. April 2014

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Its All There

...(Beatles song) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Something" Picture sleeve for 1982 reissue of the single Single by The Beatles from the album Abbey Road A-side "Come Together" Released 6 October 1969 (US) 31 October 1969 (UK) Format 7" Recorded 2 May, 5 May, 16 July, 15 August 1969 EMI Studios, London; Olympic Sound Studios, London Genre Rock pop[1] Length 2:59 Label Apple Writer(s) George Harrison Producer(s) George Martin Certification 2x Platinum (RIAA)[2] The Beatles singles chronology "The Ballad of John and Yoko" (1969) "Something" / "Come Together" (1969) "Let It Be" (1970) Music sample "Something" 0:00 Abbey Road track listing 17 tracks Side one "Come Together" "Something" "Maxwell's Silver Hammer" "Oh! Darling" "Octopus's Garden" "I Want You (She's So Heavy)" Side two "Here Comes the Sun" "Because" "You Never Give Me Your Money" "Sun King" "Mean Mr. Mustard" "Polythene Pam" "She Came In Through the Bathroom Window" "Golden Slumbers" "Carry That Weight" "The End" "Her Majesty" "Something" is a song by the Beatles, written by George Harrison and released on the band's 1969 album Abbey Road. It was also issued on a double A-sided single with another track from the album, "Come Together". "Something" was the first Harrison composition to appear as a Beatles A-side, and the only song written by him to top the US charts before the band's break-up in April 1970. The single was also one of the first Beatles......

Words: 10060 - Pages: 41

Free Essay

Marketing and Innovation

...consumers know better what is needed and are less constrained by firm conventions and guidelines which in the end also lead to better solutions. However, there are risks of inviting customers to involve in the new product development. Co-creation implies giving up the control for an organisation. Besides, it may occur that the organisations cannot live up to the expectations of the consumers. Lastly, organising for example a competition implies that that there are winners and losers among the customers. This report was written in order to explore the concept of ‘co-creation’ into further depth. This was done by analysing the data with the help of the stage-gate framework of Cooper (1983). Additionally, the advantages and disadvantages of co-creation will be discussed. In this report, not only the company’s perspective of the concept co-creation will be described, but also the perspective of a consumer which was involved in new product development. Therefore, a comparison between the company and the consumer on the concept co-creation will be made. 2. Description of the Cases 2.1 ‘Mensen Zeggen Dingen’ (MZD) MZD is a start-up event platform that hosts several cultural events all over the Netherlands, focusing mainly on spoken word art. This research is focused on the spoken word aspect of MZD, but may include other aspects of the start-up to strengthen certain arguments. MZD hosts spoken word events, which includes storytelling, poetry, rap music (with or without music)......

Words: 8461 - Pages: 34

Free Essay

Ideavirus! The #1 question people ask me after reading Permission Marketing: “So, how do we get attention to ask for permission in the first place?” This manifesto is the answer to that question. Unleashing the Ideavirus 4 Foreword The notion that an idea can become contagious, in precisely the same way that a virus does, is at once common-sensical and deeply counter-intuitive. It is common-sensical because all of us have seen it happen: all of us have had a hit song lodged in our heads, or run out to buy a book, or become infected with a particular idea without really knowing why. It is counterintuitive, though, because it doesn’t fit with the marketer’s traditional vision of the world. Advertisers spent the better part of the 20th century trying to control and measure and manipulate the spread of information—to count the number of eyes and ears that they could reach with a single message. But this notion says that the most successful ideas are those that spread and grow because of the customer’s relationship to other customers—not the marketer’s to the customer. For years, this contradiction lay unresolved at the heart of American marketing. No longer. Seth Godin has set out to apply our intuitive understanding of the contagious power of information—of what he so aptly calls the ideavirus—to the art of successful communication. “Unleashing the Ideavirus” is a book of powerful and practical advice for businesses. But more than that, it is a......

Words: 52238 - Pages: 209

Free Essay

Rethinking the Networked Economy: the True Forces Driving the Digital Marketplace

...carry lofty stock valuations. Why the Internet stocks were not able to do so, and which market models can still work on the Internet are, in my opinion, not much better understood now than they were at the height of the frenzy. This book still, therefore, has an important role to play. I was able to change the tense from future to past without much difficulty. But it was far more difficult to keep up with the rapidity of market changes related to Internet commerce. The lengthy chapter on the sale of music online and the impacts of copying on sites such as Napster, for example, has been revised every few weeks since I first wrote it, and I am sure events will have made much of what is currently there passé by the time this book is published. Nevertheless, the concepts propounded in that material will remain unaltered. I want to extend my appreciation to the folks at Amacom Press who let me pass the deadlines with nary a complaint. I need to thank my frequent coauthor, Steve Margolis, for much of the material in chapters two and three. He was kind enough not only to let me rework in this book material that was as much his as mine, but instead of criticizing me for this rather selfish act, he actually agreed to read through it. Of course, although he has coauthored many articles with me over the last decade, he is much better classified as a friend than a mere coauthor. I also would like to thank my daughters, Tania and Lauren, who have heard about this book for several years......

Words: 71038 - Pages: 285

Free Essay

Pop Culture

...”—Provided by publisher. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 0-520-23374-3 (cloth : alk. paper).—isbn 0-520-24144-4 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. African Americans on television. 2. African Americans—Songs and music—History and criticism. I. Title. II. Series. pn1992.8.a34g68 2005 791.45′652996073—dc22 2004022297 Manufactured in the United States of America 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed on Ecobook 50 containing a minimum 50% post-consumer waste, processed chlorine free. The balance contains virgin pulp, including 25% Forest Stewardship Council Certified for no old growth tree cutting, processed either tcf or ecf. The sheet is acid-free and meets the minimum requirements of ansi/niso z39.48-1992 (r 1997) (Permanence of Paper). Contents Acknowledgments Introduction: Strategies, Tactics, Moves vii 1 part i . Strategies 1. The New Conditions of Black Cultural Production 2. Jazz Tradition, Institutional Formation, and Cultural Practice 3. The Jazz Left 13 32 52 part ii . Tactics 4. Where Have All the Black Shows Gone? 5. Television and the Politics of Difference 6. Different Dreams, Dreams of Difference 7. Cultural Politics as Outrage(ous) 77 89 114 120 part iii . Moves 8. Is (Cyber) Space the Place? 9. Music, Identity, and New Technology Conclusion: Cultural Moves Notes Bibliography Index 133 148 185 195 225 241 Acknowledgments Work on this book was supported through the generosity of the Rockefeller......

Words: 98852 - Pages: 396

Free Essay


...reviewing your application file, for many MBA Programs, and certainly the world’s most selective business schools, your GMAT results are a key element in reviewing your application file. The other key factors in making admissions decision are the quality of your work experience, academic record, recommendation letters and essays, as well as your interpersonal qualities, in particular your demonstrated leadership skills. You should also know that a strong score on the GMAT can make a big difference, not only in whether or not you are admitted to a top-tier MBA Program, but that, if admitted, it can greatly enhance the probability that you will receive a scholarship. Essentially, a strong GMAT score, in combination with progressive work experience, solid undergraduate grades, and a positive interview can be the difference between admission to none of your desired MBA programs, and the chance to choose between several attractive MBA Program options. McGraw-Hill’s GMAT will provide you with a template to help you best prepare to take this challenging test. I urge you to make this investment in yourself—to pursue an MBA—and the first step along this path is to prepare wisely to take the GMAT. This book will give you the tools, techniques and insight into the design of the GMAT so that you can adequately prepare for the test. I have known Jim Hasik for many years and he is a bright and engaging GMAT preparatory teacher. However, what I have always admired most about Jim is that he......

Words: 234594 - Pages: 939

Free Essay

Excellent Manager Manifesto

...Hooters Manager position. Many duties are for the position of General Manager. However, any "assistant" manager performing these duties well will progress and perform much better than one just merely going through the motions. This set of philosophies and operating policies was derived from the CMC-HOOTERS GENERAL MANAGER MANIFESTO. OVERVIEW There are many responsibilities that will be defined in terms of mechanical responsibilities.... But more important than that, and therefore things that I will list first, are philosophical and attitudinal responsibilities. Most managers can run a typical restaurant. But Hooters is not a typical concept or restaurant operation. It takes a special person to manage a Hooters and an even more special person to be a excellent manager of a Hooters Restaurant. You have to run the restaurant like it's yours and the GM's to own and run, working as a team, and make yourself only settle for being the BEST in town. Nothing second rate. You must know that settling for mediocrity means death to the restaurant, any potential bonuses, and death to job security and career growth. That means always concerning yourself with the guest's perception of what's going on...what kind of service are they getting? Is it the best they've ever had and the best we know we can give? If you cannot honestly answer yes to both of those questions and you are not immediately hustling to achieve those goals, then you are not living up to what a Hooters......

Words: 21957 - Pages: 88

Free Essay

Art and Story Proceedings 2004

...physical process of making this picture. The muscular efforts of fishermen and shrimp-collecting women are echoed in the transpositional labour of Elstir’s brush, which moves land-features seawards and sea-features landwards . . .. He too thinks of Proust’s description as matching a real object, but in an instructive way that focuses attention on its verbal nature. Another literary critic writes: We speak easily of Proust’s characters, but perhaps too easily. Character implies fixity, a seizable identity or essence. But the destabilizing movements of Proustian metaphor, crossing boundaries, redistributing predicates, imply the exact opposite. That is exactly right. Instead of thinking of Carquethuit Harbour as an imaginary image we cannot see, better to consider it as a character in Proust’s novel. Like Elstir and Albertine, Carquethuit Harbour functions to advance the narrative. No description of a mere object could be as suggestive as this account of a fictional picture, which is suggestive, elusive and evocative in part because it is hard or impossible to envisage. Taken out of context, Proust’s ekphrasis might be found in art historical writing. If you didn’t know that Carquethuit Harbour was imaginary, no amount of scrutiny of Proust’s words would reveal that fact. That a word painting is detailed, imaginative and revealing does not also tell whether the object it describes exists. When Proust describes the masts, the women gathering shrimp, the sailors headed out to sea......

Words: 117240 - Pages: 469

Premium Essay

Buisness Ideas

...Catering 39 Visiting Chef 40 Specialty Cake Baker 41 Prepared Custom-Meal Service 42 Freelance Bartender 43 Entertainer 44 Holiday Decoration Service Personal Services 45 Personal Shopper 46 Personalized Gift Basket Maker 47 Travel Planner 48 Historical Tours 49 Personal Fitness Trainer 50 Sports Trainer Chapter 8 119 Chapter 9 149 Chapter 10 Children, Family, and Pet Services 51 Babysitting 52 Babysitting Agency 165 CONTENTS vii 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Children’s Night Out Vacation Child Care Dog Walking and Vacation Pet Visits Pet Sitter and Doggie Day Care Elder Companion Elder Care Consultant Genealogical Research Family Biographer 195 Chapter 11 Educational Services 61 Tutoring 62 Language Instructor 63 Music Teacher 64 Computer Instructor 65 SAT or ACT College Test Preparation 66 College Selection Advisor 67 College Application Consultant 68 Instructor at Community School Chapter 12 Arts, Crafts, Jewelry, Clothing, and Musical Instruments 69 Alterations 70 Custom Tailoring 71 Custom Knitting, Sweater, and Afghan Design 72 Custom Quiltmaker 73 Jewelry Making 74 Portraiture from Photographs 75 Custom-Built Dollhouses 76 Musical Instrument Tuning and Repair Chapter 13 Transportation, Delivery, and Auto Services 77 Car Service 78 Independent Delivery Contractor 79 Auto Detailing Chapter 14 Computers, Graphics, and Photography 80 Computer Buying Consultant 81 Computer Repair and Upgrade 82 Web Design and Maintenance 83 Graphic Designer 84......

Words: 90587 - Pages: 363

Premium Essay

Case Analysis

...achievement of strategic objectives while others illustrate failure. We learn as much from failure as we do success. While case studies that reflect the current business environment frequently provide the best illustration, cases on most topics presented in this or any other course have not been published within the past year or so. As a result, the best and most recent cases available have been selected to maximize the learning outcomes of each case-focused session. Copyright laws often prohibit the sharing of exhibits utilized during case discussions. When this is not the case, I will make the material available by request. In preparing for cases prior to class, I recommend reading a case more than once. The first reading should give you a sense of the case topic and the type of data contained therein. In subsequent readings, I recommend that you underline or otherwise mark up each case to identify key points relating to the business and situation. You should devote equal attention to case exhibits, which contain information useful for the development of a well-supported analysis. Facts and research results must be analyzed, noted and subsequently followed by the application of sound logic and reasoning to fully evaluate how the information provided affects the case and influences your conclusions. You are encouraged to reach beyond the data in the case to bring the case to life in a current day context to formulate recommendations that, with the benefit of......

Words: 43234 - Pages: 173

Premium Essay


...teachers since the earth’s crust cooled have been pushing this advice, and for good reason. It’s not because teachers are egoists competing for the dubious honor of having the most time-consuming course; it is because few writers, even experienced ones, can do a good job when rushed. You need time to mull over ideas, organize your thoughts, revise and polish your prose. Rule of thumb: always give yourself twice as much time as you think you’ll need to avoid the 2:00 -A.M.-why-did-I-come-to-college panic. Find your best space. Develop some successful writing habits by thinking about your very own writing process. When and where do you usually do your best composing? Some people write best early in the morning; others think better later in the day. What time of day seems to produce your best efforts? Where are you working? At a desk? In your room or in a library? Do you start drafting ideas on a computer or do you begin with paper or a yellow pad? With a certain pen or sharpened pencil? Most writers avoid noise and interruptions ( TV, telephone, friends, etc.), although some swear by music in the background. If you can identify a previously successful writing experience, try duplicating its location, time, and tools to help you calmly address your new writing task. Or consider trying new combinations of time and place if your previous choices weren’t as productive as you would have liked. Recognition and repeated use of your most comfortable writing “spot” may shorten your......

Words: 234754 - Pages: 940

Premium Essay

Management Information Systems

...Application: Real Cases 66 67 67 68 69 69 70 Chapter 3 Business Functions and Supply Chains Gardeners+: Continued Growth and Specialization Effectiveness and Efficiency 75 76 77 vi TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Accounting Why You Should Know About Business Functions and Supply Chains 80 81 Finance Cash Management 81 Investment Analysis and Service 82 81 Engineering Supply Chain Management Material Requirements Planning and Purchasing 86 Manufacturing Resource Planning 87 Monitoring and Control 87 Shipping 88 RFID in SCM 90 83 85 Customer Relationship Management Market Research 92 Targeted Marketing 92 Customer Service 95 Salesforce Automation 95 91 Human Resource Management Employee Record Management 96 Promotion and Recruitment 96 Training 98 Evaluation 98 Compensation and Benefits Management 99 Ethical & Societal Issues: Consumer Privacy 96 100 Supply Chain Management Systems The Importance of Trust 102 The Musical Chairs of Inventory 103 Collaborative Logistics 104 101 Enterprise Resource Planning Challenges and Disadvantages of ERP Systems 105 Providing the Missing Reengineering 106 104 Summary Gardeners+ Revisited 107 108 Key Terms Review Questions Discussion Questions Applying Concepts Hands-On Activity Team Activities From Ideas to Application: Real Cases 108 109 109 110 110 111 112 PART TWO Chapter 4 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Case II: QuickBiz......

Words: 223685 - Pages: 895

Premium Essay


...allowed without express authorization. Distributed by Grand Canyon University ConTEnTs xv Multimodal Composition 271 Slide Show and Videos 271 revolutionaries: Egypt’s Transformers. Photographs by Platon for Human rights Watch 271 Album Notes 272 grammy Award Winners 272 Further Exploration 272 Rhetorical Analysis 272 Genre Awareness 272 Writing Assignment 273 Reports 273 Multimodal Composition 273 Invention 274 Clarifying Your Purpose and Your readers’ need to Know 274 Background research: surveying the Information at Hand 275 Planning 276 organizing the Information 276 Drafting 276 Introducing the Topic 276 Peer Commentary 277 Revising 278 getting the right order 278 Writers’ Workshop 279 Vinyl Underground: Boston’s In Your Ear records Turns 30. Stacy Yi 279 stacy’s PowerPoint reflection 282 Reflecting on Your Writing 282 chaPter 9 Commentary 283 Writing from Experience 284 Readings 284 The Op-Ed Page: Contributors and Columnists 284 Op-Ed 284 remember When Public spaces Didn’t Carry Brand names? Eric Liu 284 Analysis: Anticipating Readers’ Thoughts 286 For Critical Inquiry 287 Op-Ed 287 9781285622552, The Call to Write, Sixth Edition, Trimbur - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. Distributed by Grand Canyon University xvi Contents How to Fight the new epidemics. Lundy Braun 287 Analysis: Explaining Causes and Effects 289 For Critical Inquiry 290 Column......

Words: 271772 - Pages: 1088

Free Essay


...on the subsequent purchaser Excerpt from GILGAMESH: A Verse Narrative by Herbert Mason. Copyright © 1970, and renewed 1998 by Herbert Mason. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Last Night When We Were Young Lyrics by E.Y “Yip” Harburg, Music by Harold Arlen Copyright © 1937 (Renewed) Glocca Morra Music and S.A. Music Co. All Rights for Glocca Morra Music Controlled and Administered by Next Decade Entertainment, Inc. All Rights for Canada Controlled by Bourne Co. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Reprinted by permission of Hal Leonard Corporation Something Wonderful Happens In Summer Words and Music by Joe Bushkin and John DeVries. Copyright © 1956 (Renewed) Barton Music Corp. All Rights Reserved. Used by Permission. Reprinted by permission of Hal Leonard Corporation Vintage Random House, 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SW1V 2SA Addresses for companies within The Random House Group Limited can be found at The Random House Group Limited Reg. No. 954009 A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 9780099549345 A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library The Random House Group Limited supports The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the leading international forest certification organization. All our titles that are printed on Greenpeace approved FSC certified paper carry the FSC logo.......

Words: 61312 - Pages: 246

Free Essay

Critical Reasoning for Gmat

...elected governor of a state. (C) Mr. Janeck believes that political leadership and business leadership are closely analogous. (D) A career spent in the pursuit of profit can be an impediment to one’s ability to run a state government fairly.(A) (E) Voters generally overestimate the value of political experience when selecting a candidate. 2. Which of the following best completes the passage below? One tax-reform proposal that has gained increasing support in recent years is the flat tax, which would impose a uniform tax rate on incomes at every level. Opponents of the flat tax say that a progressive tax system, which levies a higher rate of taxes on higher-income taxpayers, is fairer, placing the greater burden on those better able to bear it. However, the present crazy quilt of tax deductions, exemptions, credits, and loopholes benefits primarily the high-income taxpayer, who is consequently able to reduce his or her effective tax rate, often to a level below that paid by the lower-income taxpayer. Therefore, ______ (A) higher-income taxpayers are likely to lend their support to the flat-tax proposal now being considered by Congress (B) a flat-tax system that allowed no deductions or exemptions would substantially increase actual government revenues (C) the lower-income taxpayer might well be penalized by the institution of a flat-tax system in this country (D) the progressive nature of our present tax system is more illusory than real(D) ...

Words: 366341 - Pages: 1466