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Virtual Classroom

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By chits
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1.1 Abstract 1.2 Problem Definition 1.3 Scope of Project










1.1 Abstract

Virtual Classroom represents an innovative shift in the field of learning, providing rapid access to specific knowledge and information. It represents an interface between the students and a professor and provides personalized learning materials to the users. It offers a possibility to the attendees to share different resources at once and work with them as if they were at the same place where (real) resources are.

In the system design, we use agents as entities that work on different tasks in the system. A set of agents of the same type is responsible for handling different users and their requests. The cooperation among agents is established through the act of exchanging messages. A wide variety of classroom techniques are being advocated to increase learning: active learning, collaboration, integration of assessment and feedback.

1.2 Problem Definition

Education will change tremendously within the next few years. The significance of life-long learning and life accompanying education raises the need for new teaching and learning technologies.
Developing a virtual classroom system to promote a greater count of students to splurge into the field of education. It integrates the benefits of a physical classroom with the convenience of a ‘no-physical-bar’ virtual learning environment, minus the commuting hazards and expenses. It will usher in the immense flexibility and sophistication in the existing learning platform structures, with the perfect blend of synchronous and asynchronous interaction. It provides a means of collaborative learning for the students.

1.3 Scope of project

The main objective of the project ‘Virtual Classroom System’ is to provide online lectures, examination, study material, etc. This system provides various scopes to its users as listed below:
i. Students can choose courses, attend lectures, take exams, etc as per their convenience. ii. Registration for multiple courses. iii. Attend lectures either at the scheduled time or on request view lecture at a later time. iv. Faculties can take lectures, announcements and also can upload lectures and other discussions in various formats as in videos, shared and interactive whiteboards etc.
v. Asynchronous communication in the form of Emails, discussion boards that enable communication to occur at "convenient-times" that suit student schedules and are not accessed at simultaneous or prearranged times. vi. There can be forums to discuss various queries and to put up suggestions posted both by students and teachers. vii. Users must have valid User ID and password to login thus creating their individual profiles. viii. Discussion between students and professor through video conferencing and chat room.

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Advances in technologies such as streaming video, virtual learning environments and teleported experiments are entering the Web-based learning arena. Along with the development of a second-generation online education infrastructure, it will be necessary to consider changing the interface of web-based education such as reinventing pedagogy for the new interface, including multimedia and hypermedia enhancements as well as creating the educational standards necessary for generalized deployment.

Imagine a teacher at one university campus delivering a lecture while students in a classroom two cities away from the same lecture in real time. In a city 10000 kilometres away, a student is using the on-demand lectures to take part in the same course delivered completely online.

Virtual classroom is a virtual learning environment created with computer network, Communication and multimedia technologies. It allows teachers and students to aware each other in different location and to undertake many of the teaching learning activities of physical class environment through real-time communication.

A Virtual Classroom is private online space in Blackboard that teachers can use to support student learning. It is accessible via the Internet, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Just like your face-to-face classroom, a Virtual Classroom is a busy place. Students attend a virtual classroom by connecting to the Internet rather than traveling to a physical classroom. Virtual classrooms offer classes where time, distance or both separate students from their instructors. Major corporations, higher learning facilities and training schools use virtual classrooms to teach and train their employees and students.

The key features found in a virtual classroom are support, assessment and communication-participation. Support in a virtual classroom includes tools such as online calendars, search engines and online help guides. Assessment consists of standard tools such as online grading books, exams and quizzes. The communication-participation tools used in a virtual classroom include emails, instant messaging, chat rooms, and discussion boards and file transfers. Virtual classrooms feature cooperative and independent learning styles. Cooperative learning is best suited for the nature of a virtual classroom because the student, instructor and fellow students are a part of the learning process. A virtual classroom needs this type of learning style to overcome the absence of in-person communication. With the independent learning style, the student only interacts with the instructor.

Tertiary institutions in many countries operate on an underlying basis of learner-centred, outcomes-based education (OBE) principles in accordance with the national education policy. Certain honours level (fourth year) courses in the Departments of Computer Science and Information Systems at many universities are delivered to students at both institutions simultaneously. Classes average 15 students, some of whom are located in the same venue as the lecturer whilst others attend remotely by the use of videoconferencing, thus enabling interaction with the course lecturers in real time. Lecturers noted that videoconferencing presented problems, such as a lack of clarity of digital learning materials and remote student disengagement. An investigation of alternative solutions revealed that synchronous e-learning offered a number of advantages over asynchronous e-learning. It facilitates team-teaching and interactive group learning, provides necessary information on a Justin- time basis which minimises participants frustration , assists in the creation of genuine relationships , increases motivation levels and reduces feelings of isolation. Synchronous e-learning was thus the preferred mode of instruction. This paper presents an investigation into Live Virtual Classrooms (LVCs) as a synchronous tool to replace video-conferencing, to address the associated problems, and to provide an engaging and collaborative learning environment.


Virtual classroom also needs equivalent equipment and tools in the form of network-based software application to allow a group of instructors and students to carry out the learning process. The sophistication of such software structures vary widely, from simple electronic mail systems to systems that have been specially enhanced to support classroom – like experiences, such as virtual auditoriums. Some of them are well established on the Internet and new ones are still emerging. No physical boundary is required for getting access to virtual learning; entire universe is the classroom. But unlike the formal school learning, virtual learning is a collaborative process and emphasizes on cooperative effort and interactions. The medium of instruction in virtual learning in India is broadly restricted to English and Hindi languages, and occasionally some regional programmers are being telecasted. It would take some time to develop the software for teaching-learning in vernacular languages. The output of virtual teaching-learning process depends upon the factors like students’ motivation for self-learning, subject expertise and communication skills of the teacher, on-line problem-solving facility, connectivity to e-library, and use of technology based lightly interactive multimedia, etc.

Basically, there are four principles to be kept in mind for successful teaching in the virtual classroom such as dealing with i) media richness, ii) timely responsiveness, iii) organization and iv) interaction.
In the traditional classroom, a pleasing voice, occasional jokes, dramatic gestures, eye contact with the teacher and the classroom interaction can help to enliven a long lecture. But in virtual classrooms, there is only the computer screen and the printed pages.


3.1 Different Modules:

Live Video Conferencing:
Here first professor starts his/her application. Students connect to professor. Professor and student starts capturing video then both starts sending data and listens to data send by each other. Now both professors and student’s video will appear on each other’s screen and audio can be listen simultaneously.

Here first professor starts his/her application. Students connect to professor. Professor can draw different shapes like squares, rectangle, oval, circle and lines. Student can see figures drawn by professor and also can save that drawings images. Professor can clear the whiteboard screen.

Chat room:
Both student and professor joins chat room and can start discussing with each others. Student can ask doubts regarding to course with professor and other students. Professor can share ideas with all the students who has joined the chat room.

Online tests, Student registration, administrator registration, addition & removal of courses:
This can be done by giving particular authority level to any user.

3.2 Software/Hardware requirements:
i. C# ii.ASP.NET iii.ADO.NET iv. Microsoft Visual Studio
v. Microsoft SQL server vi.VB.NET vii..NET technologies viii. Web Camera

ix. Internet or LAN connection.

3.3 Feasibility Study

Many feasibility studies are disillusioning for both users and analysts. First, the study often presupposes that when the feasibility document is being prepared, the analyst is in a position to evaluate solutions.

Key considerations are involved in the feasibility analysis: * Economic * Technical * Behavioral * Legal

* Economic feasibility

Economic analysis is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a candidate system. More commonly known as COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS, the procedure is to determine the benefits and the savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs .If the benefits outweigh costs, and then the decision is made to design and implement the system.

* Technical feasibility

Technical feasibility centers on the existing computer system (hardware, software etc) and to what extent it can support the proposed addition.

* Behavioral feasibility

People are inherently resistant to change and computers have been known to facilitate change .An estimate should be made up of how strong a reaction the user staff is likely to have towards the development of a computerized system .It is common knowledge that the computer installation s have something to do with turnover, transfers, training and changes in employee job status. Therefore it is under stable that the introduction candidate system requires special effort to educate, sell and train the staff on new ways of conducting business.

* Legal feasibility

Project proposed should be legally accepted.
3.4 Lifecycle Model



Here we will be using the Iterative Waterfall model; this is the most effective type of model which is most widely used. In this model once the requirement analysis phase is done and the designing phase is under process, the development process takes place. Once the prototype is created it will enter coding phase.

Diagrammatic representation of Iterative Waterfall Model.

The incremental model is an intuitive approach to the waterfall model. Multiple development cycles take place here, making the life cycle a “multi-waterfall” cycle. Cycles are divided up into smaller, more easily managed iterations. Each iteration passes through the requirements, design, implementation and testing phases.
A working version of software is produced during the first iteration, so you have working software early on during the software life cycle. Subsequent iterations build on the initial software produced during the first iteration.
* Generates working software quickly and early during the software life cycle. * More flexible – less costly to change scope and requirements. * Easier to test and debug during a smaller iteration. * Easier to manage risk because risky pieces are identified and handled during its iteration. * Each iteration is an easily managed milestone.

3.5 Language Description:

3.5.1 .NET
.NET is essentially a system application that runs on Windows. The heart of .NET is the .NET Framework. The Microsoft .NET Framework is a software framework that can be installed on computers running Microsoft Windows operating systems. It includes a large library of coded solutions to common programming problems and a virtual machine that manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework. The .NET Framework is a Microsoft offering and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform.

* Language Independence
The .NET Framework introduces a Common Type System, or CTS. The CTS specification defines all possible data types and programming constructs supported by the CLR and how they may or may not interact with each other. Because of this feature, the .NET Framework supports the exchange of instances of types between programs written in any of the .NET languages.

* Common Runtime Engine
The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of the .NET Framework. All .NET programs execute under the supervision of the CLR, guaranteeing certain properties and behaviors in the areas of memory management, security, and exception handling.

* Base Class Library
The .NET Framework class library is a collection of reusable types that tightly integrate with the common language runtime. The class library is object oriented, providing types from which your own managed code can derive functionality. This not only makes the .NET Framework types easy to use, but also reduces the time associated with learning new features of the .NET Framework. In addition, third-party components can integrate seamlessly with classes in the .NET Framework.

Fig 2.2.1 .NET Framework Overview

* Common Language Specification To fully interact with other objects regardless of the language they were implemented in, objects must expose to callers only those features that are common to all the languages they must interoperate with. The CLS rules define a subset of the common type system; that is, all the rules that apply to the common type system apply to the CLS. The CLS helps enhance and ensure language interoperability by defining a set of features that developer can rely on to be available in a wide variety of languages.

3.5.2 C#

C# ("C Sharp") is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing imperative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines. It was developed by Microsoft within the .NET initiative. C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language. It has an object-oriented syntax based on C++. The most recent version of the language is 3.0 which was released in conjunction with the .NET Framework 3.5 in 2007. By design, C# is the programming language that most directly reflects the underlying Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). Most of its intrinsic types correspond to value-types implemented by the CLI framework. However, the language specification does not state the code generation requirements of the compiler: that is, it does not state that a C# compiler must target a Common Language Runtime, or generate Common Intermediate Language (CIL), or generate any other specific format.
Some notable distinguishing features of C# are: * There are no global variables or functions. All methods and members must be declared within classes. Static members of public classes can substitute for global variables and functions. * In C#, memory address pointers can only be used within blocks specifically marked as unsafe, and programs with unsafe code need appropriate permissions to run. Most object access is done through safe object references, which always either point to a "live" object or have the well-defined null value; it is impossible to obtain a reference to a "dead" object (one which has been garbage collected), or to a random block of memory. * Managed memory cannot be explicitly freed; instead, it is automatically garbage collected. Garbage collection addresses memory leaks by freeing the programmer of responsibility for releasing memory which is no longer needed. * C# is more type safe than C++. The only implicit conversions by default are those which are considered safe, such as widening of integers and conversion from a derived type to a base type. This is enforced at compile-time, during JIT, and, in some cases, at runtime. * Enumeration members are placed in their own scope. * Boxing is the operation of converting a value of a value type into a value of a corresponding reference type. Boxing in C# is implicit. Unboxing is the operation of converting a value of a reference type (previously boxed) into a value of a value type. Unboxing in C# requires an explicit type cast. * C#'s documentation system is similar to Java's Javadoc, but based on XML. Two methods of documentation are currently supported by the C# compiler.

3.5.3 ASP.NET ASP.NET is a web application framework developed and marketed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It was first released in January 2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), allowing programmers to write ASP.NET code using any supported .NET language. ASP.NET is not just a simple upgrade or the latest version of ASP. ASP.NET combines unprecedented developer productivity with performance, reliability, and deployment. ASP.NET redesigns the whole process. It's still easy to grasp for new comers but it provides many new ways of managing projects. Below are the features of ASP.NET.

Fig 2.4.1 ASP.NET Architecture
ASP.NET features are: * Easy Programming Model
ASP.NET makes building real world Web applications dramatically easier. ASP.NET server controls enable an HTML-like style of declarative programming that let you build great pages with far less code than with classic ASP. Displaying data, validating user input, and uploading files are all amazingly easy. Best of all, ASP.NET pages work in all browsers including Netscape, Opera, AOL, and Internet Explorer. * Flexible Language Options
ASP.NET lets you leverage your current programming language skills. Unlike classic ASP, which supports only interpreted VBScript and JScript, ASP.NET now supports more than 25 .NET languages (built-in support for VB.NET, C#, and JScript.NET), giving you unprecedented flexibility in your choice of language. * Great Tool Support
Visual Studio .NET adds the productivity of Visual Basic-style development to the Web. Now you can visually design ASP.NET Web Forms using familiar drag-drop-double click techniques, and enjoy full-fledged code support including statement completion and color-coding. VS.NET also provides integrated support for debugging and deploying ASP.NET Web applications. The Enterprise versions of Visual Studio .NET deliver life-cycle features to help organizations plan, analyze, design, build, test, and coordinate teams that develop ASP.NET Web applications. * Compiled execution
ASP.NET is much faster than classic ASP, while preserving the "just hit save" update model of ASP. However, no explicit compile step is required. ASP.NET will automatically detect any changes, dynamically compile the files if needed, and store the compiled results to reuse for subsequent requests. Dynamic compilation ensures that your application is always up to date, and compiled execution makes it fast. * XML Web Services
XML Web services allow applications to communicate and share data over the Internet, regardless of operating system or programming language. ASP.NET makes exposing and calling XML Web Services simple. Any class can be converted into an XML Web Service with just a few lines of code, and can be called by any SOAP client. Likewise, ASP.NET makes it incredibly easy to call XML Web Services from your application. No knowledge of networking, XML
, or SOAP is required.

3.5.4 ADO.NET
Most applications need data access at one point of time making it a crucial component when working with applications. Data access is making the application interact with a database, where all the data is stored. Different applications have different requirements for database access. ASP.NET uses ADO.NET (Active X Data Object) as it's data access and manipulation protocol which also enables us to work with data on the Internet.
ADO.NET Data Architecture: Data Access in ADO.NET relies on two components: Data Set and Data Provider. * Data Provider
The Data Provider is responsible for providing and maintaining the connection to the database. A Data Provider is a set of related components that work together to provide data in an efficient and performance driven manner. The .NET Framework currently comes with two Data Providers : the SQL Data Provider which is designed only to work with Microsoft's SQL Server7.0 or later and the OleDb Data Provider which allows us to connect to other types of databases like Access and Oracle. Each Data Provider consists of the following component classes: The Connection object which provides a connection to the database. The Command object which is used to execute a command. The Data Reader object which provides a forward-only, read only, connected record set. The Data Adapter object which populates a disconnected Data Set with data and performs update.

* Data Set
Data Set can be considered as a local copy of the relevant portions of the database. The Data Set is persisted in memory and the data in it can be manipulated and updated independent of the database. When the use of this DataSet is finished, changes can be made back to the central database for updating. The data in Data Set can be loaded from any valid data source like Microsoft SQL server database, an Oracle Database or from a Microsoft Access database.

3.5.5 MS-SQL Server 2005 It included native support for managing XML data, in addition to relational data. For this purpose, it defined an xml data type that could be used either as a data type in database columns or as literals in queries. XML columns can be associated with XSD schemas; XML data being stored is verified against the schema. SQL Server 2005 has also been enhanced with new indexing algorithms and better error recovery systems. Data pages are checksummed for better error resiliency, and optimistic concurrency support has been added for better performance. Permissions and access control have been made more granular and the query processor handles concurrent execution of queries in a more efficient way. * SQL Server Management Studio

SQL Server Management Studio is a GUI tool included with SQL Server 2005 and later for configuring, managing, and administering all components within Microsoft SQL Server. The tool includes both script editors and graphical tools that work with objects and features of the server. A central feature of SQL Server Management Studio is the Object Explorer, which allows the user to browse, select, and act upon any of the objects within the server.

* Business Intelligence Development Studio

Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS) is the IDE from Microsoft used for developing data analysis and Business Intelligence solutions utilizing the Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services, Reporting Services and Integration Services. It is based on the Microsoft Visual Studio development environment but customizes with the SQL Server services-specific extensions and project types, including tools, controls and projects for reports (using Reporting Services), Cubes and data mining structures (using Analysis Services).

* Notification Services Originally introduced as a post-release add-on for SQL Server 2000[, Notification Services was bundled as part of the Microsoft SQL Server platform for the first and only time with SQL Server 2005. with Sql Server 2005, SQL Server Notification Services is a mechanism for generating data-driven notifications, which are sent to Notification Services subscribers. A subscriber registers for a specific event or transaction when the event occurs, Notification Services can use one of three methods to send a message to the subscriber informing about the occurrence of the event.

* Integration Services SQL Server Integration Services is used to integrate data from different data sources. It is used for the ETL capabilities for SQL Server for data warehousing needs. Integration Services includes GUI tools to build data extraction workflows integration various functionality such as extracting data from various sources, querying data, transforming data including aggregating, duplication and merging data, and then loading the transformed data onto other sources, or sending e-mails detailing the status of the operation as defined by the user.


Advances in technologies such as streaming video, virtual learning environments and teleported experiments are entering the Web-based learning arena. Along with the development of a second-generation online education infrastructure, it will be necessary to consider changing the interface of web-based education such as reinventing pedagogy for the new interface, including multimedia and hypermedia enhancements as well as creating the educational standards necessary for generalized deployment.

Imagine a teacher at one university campus delivering a lecture while students in a classroom two cities away from the same lecture in real time. In a city 10000 kilometres away, a student is using the on-demand lectures to take part in the same course delivered completely online.

Virtual classroom is a virtual learning environment created with computer network,
Communication and multimedia technologies. It allows teachers and students to aware each other in different location and to undertake many of the teaching learning activities of physical class environment through real-time communication.

A Virtual Classroom is private online space in Blackboard that teachers can use to support student learning. It is accessible via the Internet, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Just like your face-to-face classroom, a Virtual Classroom is a busy place. Students attend a virtual classroom by connecting to the Internet rather than traveling to a physical classroom. Virtual classrooms offer classes where time, distance or both separate students from their instructors. Major corporations, higher learning facilities and training schools use virtual classrooms to teach and train their employees and students.

The key features found in a virtual classroom are support, assessment and communication-participation. Support in a virtual classroom includes tools such as online calendars, search engines and online help guides. Assessment consists of standard tools such as online grading books, exams and quizzes. The communication-participation tools used in a virtual classroom include emails, instant messaging, chat rooms, discussion boards and file transfers. Virtual classrooms feature cooperative and independent learning styles. Cooperative learning is best suited for the nature of a virtual classroom because the student, instructor and fellow students are a part of the learning process. A virtual classroom needs this type of learning style to overcome the absence of in-person communication. With the independent learning style, the student only interacts with the instructor.

Comparison of Physical and virtual classroom:
The main difference between the physical classroom and the virtual classroom is those of location, time and spaces required by students and teachers to access and partake in classroom activities. In the physical classroom a physical location must be visited at a fixed time in order to participate, while a virtual classroom is not physically accessed and has no real fixed time or location which is a great boon.

The manner in which a teacher delivers educational material remains an important factor in the success of both classrooms. Though both the classrooms employ similar learning theory, curriculum design and pedagogy, live face-to-face interaction is missing in the VCR method, which may have a negative influence.

May be the solution is the blended method where physical classroom training is combined with the virtual classroom training, thus accommodating a wider range of student needs.

As teaching in both the physical and virtual classroom is learner-centered, students learn by engaging in group work, projects, discussions, and other content relating to real-world contexts. The VCR is used to provide additional communication and material, along with the learning that occurs in the physical classroom.

The important communication/participation VCR tools are:


Blackboard Learning System

It is an online proprietary virtual learning environment system that is sold to colleges and other institutions and used in many campuses for e-learning. To their Web-CT courses, instructors can add such tools as discussion boards, mail systems and live chat, along with content including documents and web pages. The latest versions of this software are now called Web courses. Web-CT is significant in that it was the world's first widely successful course management system for higher education. At its height, it was in use by over 10 million students in 80 countries.

The Blackboard Learning System is an easy-to-use, intuitive application

that encourages students' involvement in communication, collaboration and interaction. Instructors will find they can easily evaluate performance with the user-friendly tools; students will truly enjoy learning. Institutions worldwide are using Blackboard with remarkable results.

Because Blackboard tailors instruction to specific learning needs, students can learn at their own pace on custom learning paths for individuals or groups. They will be able to access any resource at any time with the web-enhanced and hybrid educational programs powered by Blackboard technology.

Teachers can use any theory or model-based method, whether instructing high school, community college or an MBA program. Blackboard is highly flexible and focuses on student achievement. Students busy with family or jobs will be able to better attain their goals with the customizable content of Blackboard. Instructors can use the course management capabilities to focus on creation and setup of courses.

* Teacher-Centric
Blackboard is admittedly educator-centric. From a business standpoint, this makes perfect sense: professors and staff are the ones signing the checks. Any students that complain will merely be shuffled out in four (or five) years. Blackboard has student frustration threshold of four years. This is a problem.

* Different Versions, Different Skill Levels, Many Locations

One of the key problems with Blackboard is that there are many versions of Blackboard in the wild with each university having its own team dedicated to maintain each system. The same system is installed thousands of times around the country, making it prone to user error through configuration and corner case problems. A common response to features not working on a particular campus is that the on-campus team didn't install it correctly. This leads to a blame game where there is only one loser: the student. This is a problem. Software should be easy to install and maintain, and it doesn't need a team of 30 holding up a fragile system.

* A Messy System

One of my peeves in analyzing Web apps is the structure of its URLs. While it may seem trivial (people stop caring once a URL is past a certain length), a URL can tell you plenty about the internal structure of the system.
For example, the URL for the homepage of my database systems class is: 5. PROPOSED SYSTEM

Whiteboard and Chat room:
The whiteboard we present is part of an Interactive Meeting System (which will embed sound and video capabilities).The whiteboard is a means of sharing notes, images, drawings and chat over the Internet as an effective support tool for distance learning and communication between science people.
Some characteristics of this application: * Pen and keyboard based
Two "tools" are at hand for data introduction. The mouse can be used for drawing objects on the whiteboard area or typing text in the chat area or whiteboard area using the keyboard. It would be better if you could connect a "pen" to your computer instead of the mouse. Using this so called pen you'll find it easier to draw objects. * Multiuser over the Internet
This application is designed to be used on the Internet. We can find a lot of multiuser applications on the Internet, one example could be the IRC (Internet Relay Chat) where a lot of users from every part of the Earth are connected to a server and they can communicate with each other. The White Board application is based on this multiuser concept. A server is running on a computer connected to the Internet, and users can connect to this server anytime they want and communicate with each other through the whiteboard area or the chat area of the client interface. * Is scalable
Scalability is related to the possibility to further extending the capabilities of the whiteboard as an auxiliary tool for a scientific data dynamic front-end.

If something is sent from Client 1 to the server, it will be sent back to all the clients connected at that moment. You can see on the graphical representation the way the server is connected to the clients and how it sends back the data received from one client.
The whole whiteboard application is based on this client-server architecture, both the whiteboard part and the chat part. The whiteboard sends objects to the server and the chat sends lines of text. To send objects through a stream one can use object serialization.

Serialization is a concept that enables you to store and retrieve objects, as well as to send objects to remote applications. Without serialization only simple types such as int and char would be allowed in parameter signatures, and complex objects would be limited in what they could do. When an object is serialized it is converted to a stream of characters. Those characters can be sent to an application situated in other location. Parameters passed in remote objects are automatically translated into serialized representation. Once an object is serialized, it can be safely sent via a communication method to a remote location.

Live Video Lecture:

Live video streaming requires more resources than streaming archived video files. That makes live video conferencing or broadcasting more expensive than other types of video streaming.
The main difference between live video streaming and Video On Demand is that a streaming server MUST be used for live broadcasts or conferences. VOD can sometimes be hosted on a regular HTTP server if the demand for the video is not too high, but the nature of live video streaming requires the use of a specialized streaming server.
It is true that JAVA applications hosted on HTTP servers can be used for live video, but the video stream is quite slow compared to using a dedicated streaming server. Think one frame per second for JAVA as opposed to 15 - 25 frames per second for live webcasting or conferencing.
Video streaming requires that the video material be encoded. Encoding compresses the original material and saves it in a particular streaming format. Encoding for VOD can be done on any desktop computer because it is a non real-time process. For live webcasts or web conferences, however, encoding must be done on the fly before the video signal can be sent out over the Internet. This requires the use of a dedicated computer that is connected directly to the video camera. Encoders can usually accept inputs from several video cameras at the same time.
Because the speed of data transmission is critical, especially for web conferencing, digital video cameras must be used. There can be no analog to digital conversion process which would delay the webcast signal.
VOD streaming is accomplished by setting up a communication channel between the server and the viewer's computer. This makes the streaming video accessible to anyone at any time.
Webcasts are different. They are also available to anyone with a computer, but only at one specified time. Since thousands of people could be watching a webcast, setting up individual data streams between each computer and the central server could overwhelm the server.

Multicasting can also be used for web conferencing when a large number of participants in various locations are involved. In this case, each participant is delivering a multicast data stream while receiving several multicast streams from the other participants. This is a cost effective method of allowing many people in widely separated locations to participate in a web conference.
Web video conferencing can present new challenges, however, depending on the complexity of the setup. If each participant is at an individual computer, a simple webcam and microphone is sufficient. However, sometimes web conferences will consist of several groups of participants, each gathered in a large conference room. This kind of setup requires more planning and there should be technicians on hand to deal with the details of setting up and maintaining data connections.

Point to Point Conferencing Set-up
Setting up the system for point to point conferencing is not difficult but you need to start with hooking up Video Conference Terminals (VCT). The VCT are the main bodies of the system and they will control the ingoing and outgoing streams. To use the VCT, a user needs to enter the IP address of the terminal that the wish to connect with. The request crosses through the web and makes the connection. Once the connection is established, participants can stream live video and audio.





6.1 Use case:


6.3 Sequence and collaboration diagrams:

Sequence diagram for Login:

Collaboration diagram for Login:

Sequence Diagram for uploading material:

Collaboration diagram for uploading material:

Sequence diagram for live video conference:

Collaboration diagram for live video conference:

Sequence diagram for live whiteboard:

Collaboration diagram for live whiteboard:

6.4 Activity Diagram:

6.5 Class Diagram:

6.6 State Diagrams:

Instructor State Transition Diagram:

Student State Transition Diagram:

6.7 Component diagram:

6.8 Deployment diagram:


| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | ID | Task | Aug | Sept | Oct | Nov | Dec | Jan | Feb | March | April | 1 | Literature Collection | | | | | | | | | | 2 | Review of Current Systems | | | | | | | | | | 3 | Initial Phase | | | | | | | | | | 4 | SRS | | | | | | | | | | 5 | 1st Report Evaluation | | | | | | | | | | 6 | Planning of Website and chat room | | | | | | | | | | 7 | Design constraints | | | | | | | | | | 8 | Initial Prototype of model | | | | | | | | | | 9 | Addition of modules to system | | | | | | | | | | 10 | Report & Model Evaluation | | | | | | | | | | 11 | Video-Conferencing Module | | | | | | | | | | 12 | White Board Module | | | | | | | | | | 13 | Integration of Modules | | | | | | | | | | 14 | Testing | | | | | | | | | | 15 | Final Evaluation | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |


8.1 Introduction and Test Plan

Objectives: * To test the module for performance degradation and stress. * To uncover bugs in the system to set aright any flaws in logic that may be present. * To check logical flow from one module to another within system.
Approach taken:
The testing phase of any system development needs to have systematic and stepwise approach. Any product that is developed has to go through a testing phase in which it is subjected to different conditions that is likely to face in its actual use. This helps in overcoming the hidden side effects that would otherwise go unnoticed.

The purpose of testing is to discover errors. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product. It provides a way to check the functionality of components, sub assemblies, assemblies and/or a finished product It is the process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the Software system meets its requirements and user expectations and does not fail in an unacceptable manner. There are various types of test. Each test type addresses a specific testing requirement.

8.2 Types Of Tests

Unit testing
Unit testing involves the design of test cases that validate that the internal program logic is functioning properly, and that program input produce valid outputs.
All decision branches and internal code flow should be validated. It is the testing of individual software units of the application .it is done after the completion of an individual unit before integration. This is a structural testing, that relies on knowledge of its construction and is invasive. Unit tests perform basic tests at component level and test a specific business process, application, and/or system configuration. Unit tests ensure that each unique path of a business process performs accurately to the documented specifications and contains clearly defined inputs and expected results.

Integration testing
Integration tests are designed to test integrated software components to determine if they actually run as one program. Testing is event driven and is more concerned with the basic outcome of screens or fields. Integration tests demonstrate that although the components were individually satisfaction, as shown by successfully unit testing, the combination of components is correct and consistent. Integration testing is specifically aimed at exposing the problems that arise from the combination of components.

Functional test
Functional tests provide a systematic demonstrations that functions tested are available as specified by the business and technical requirements, system documentation , and user manuals.

Functional testing is centered on the following items:
Valid Input: identified classes of valid input must be accepted.
Invalid Input : identified classes of invalid input must be rejected.
Functions : identified functions must be exercised.
Output : identified classes of application outputs must be exercised.
Systems/Procedures: interfacing systems or procedures must be invoked.

Organization and preparation of functional tests is focused on requirements, key functions ,or special test cases. In addition, systematic coverage pertaining to identify Business process flows; data fields, predefined processes, and successive processes must be considered for testing. Before functional testing is complete, additional tests are identified and the effective value of current tests is determined.

System Testing
System testing ensures that the entire integrated software system meets requirements. It tests a configuration to ensure known and predictable results. An example of system testing is the configuration oriented system integration test.
System testing is based on process descriptions and flows, emphasizing pre-driven process links and integration points.

White Box Testing
White Box Testing is a testing in which in which the software tester has knowledge of the inner workings, structure and language of the software, or at least its purpose. It is purpose. It is used to test areas that cannot be reached from a black box level Black Box Testing
Black Box Testing is testing the software without any knowledge of the inner workings, structure or language of the module being tested . Black box tests, as most other kinds of tests, must be written from a definitive source document, such as specification or requirements document, such as specification or requirements document. It is a testing in which the software under test is treated, as a black box
.you cannot “see” into it. The test provides inputs and responds to outputs without considering how the software works.

Unit Testing
Unit testing is usually conducted as part of a combined code and unit test phase of the software lifecycle, although it is not uncommon for coding and unit testing to be conducted as two distinct phases.
Unit testing is the one, which is carried out for each and every module one by one.
This unit wise testing is carried out to rectify the errors easily for each unit quickly with perfect solution. Finally, these error-rectified units are integrated to form the application project.

Integration Testing
Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects.
The task of the integration test is to check that components or software applications, e.g. components in a software system or – one step up – software applications at the company level – interact without error.


TestCaseId | Test case Name | Description | Steps Carried out | ExpectedResults | ActualResult | TC1 | Login form forStudent | Validation ofusername andpassword | 1)Enter correctusername and correctpassword & clicksubmit2) Enter correctusername and wrongpassword & clicksubmit.3) Enter wrongusername and correctpassword & clicksubmit.4) Enter wrongusername and wrongpassword & clicksubmit. | Studentmenu isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayed | Student menuis displayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayed | TC2 | Login form forteacher | Validation ofusername andpassword | 1)Enter correctusername and correctpassword & clicksubmit2) Enter correctusername and wrongpassword & clicksubmit.3) Enter wrongusername and correctpassword & clicksubmit.4) Enter wrongusername and wrongpassword & clicksubmit. | Teachermenu isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayed | Teacher menuis displayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isDisplayed | TC3 | Login form foradmin | Validation ofusername andpassword | 1)Enter correctusername and correctpassword & clicksubmit2) Enter correctusername and wrongpassword & clicksubmit.3) Enter wrongusername and correctpassword & clicksubmit.4) Enter wrongusername and wrongpassword & clicksubmit. | Adminmenu isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayed | Admin menu isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayedError isdisplayed | TC4 | RegisterationForm | Validation ofpasswordtextbox. | 1)Enter passwordless than 6characters.2) Enter passwordmore than 6characters. | Message:”password must containatleast 6characters”Passwordaccepted | Message-password must contain atleast 6 characters”Password accepted | TC5 | RegisterationForm | Validation ofemail id | 1)Enter mail idwithout ‘@’ and‘.’2) Enter mail idwithout ‘@’ and‘.’ | Message:”mail idmust contain‘. ‘and ‘@’”Mail id accepted | Message:”mail idmust contain‘. ‘and ‘@’”Mail id accepted | TC6 | Add QuestionForm | Validation ofall text feilds | 1)select propersubject2)Enter Question3)Enter all 4 options4)Enter level ofQuestion5) Enter right optionfor question | Message=”wantto enter more” | Message=”Noticeupdatedsuccessfully” | TC7 | GUI | 1)Allignment ofControls2)Color of allbuttons should beuniform.3)All textboxesshould be alignedin a straight line | | Textboxes shouldbe properlyalligned.Should beuniformShould bealligned | Textboxes arebe properlyalligned.Should be uniformShould be alligned | TC8 | Logout link | Functionality oflogout link. | Click on logoutlink. | Message=”Youhave successfullylogged out” | Message=”You have successfullylogged out” |

SYSTEM TESTING: TEST ID | PURPOSE | STEPS | EXPECTED RESULTS | 1 | Stress testing | Accessing the system for long duration of time | It should work efficiently. | 2. | Regression testing. | After each new addition of the module check the working of the system. | It should display the pages according to the modules. | 3. | Recovery testing | Disconnect the power of the server while working on the vb project. | It should get the records in the database to previous values that of working transaction. | 4. | Security testing | Add unregistered username and password for login | Unauthorized users should not be given access. | 5. | Operating system compatibility | Access the system from different operating system | From operating system, system should be accessed. |



There is no end to human creativity. Thus there is no end to improvement to an
Existing system. Any existing product can be improved and changed considering the users and market scenario.

The future scope for this project is as follows:

* The notification can be sent using email id and mobile phone through SMS.

* Chat-room and live video-lecture can be extended for multiple users.

* There can be forums to discuss various queries and to put up suggestions posted both by students and professors.

* Availability of voice mail box to allow faculties to get the descriptive messages left by the students.


This website will make education system much more convenient and simpler.

In this website administrator registers student and professor. Student can attend live lecture on a scheduled time or later on can view lecture video as per his/her convenience. Live lecture can be in form of shared whiteboard. Student can give examination and at end of examination scores will be displayed. Professor and students of a course can discuss various queries through video conferencing.

Project will be developed using ASP.NET, C# and MS-SQL SERVER 2005. .NET is most efficient technology to build Website. Microsoft Visual Studio has good compatibility with the Microsoft SQL SERVER.

The literature part of project was completed in a successful way.


* Technical papers:

[1] Goran Kimovski, Vladimir Trajkovic and Danco Davcev, Virtual Learning System.

[2] Paul S. Steif and Anna Dollár, Collaborative Learning Techniques and their Extensions to Virtual Classrooms.

* Books:

[1] Chris Ullman, John Kauffman, Chris Hart, David Sussman and Daniel Maharry, Beginning ASP.NET 1.1 with Visual C# .NET 2003, Wiley Publishing Inc., 2004.

[2] Burton Harvey, Simon Robinson, Julian Templeman and Karli Watson, C# Programming With the Public Beta, Wrox Press Ltd., 2000. * Websites:


[2] [3] [4]

[5] . [6] .

[7] wmf-stream.aspx .


[9] Tools/H323.

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