Vocabulary Development

In: English and Literature

Submitted By reema85
Words 321
Pages 2
New words enter the Passive Vocabulary of students. Students may understand meaning, especially in the specific context where they see a new word used but as yet cannot use the word independently themselves. To ensure words enter the students' Active Vocabulary, regular revision in meaningful situations is essential. It is estimated that a student needs to encounter a word 10-12 times before it fully enters their Active Vocabulary. Vocabulary, in the same way as Grammar, is learned through use. It is therefore very important to give students opportunities within the classroom to use the new vocabulary themselves. Students remembrance of words is relative to the degree which they have used the word, thus the more we get students to use words in a task of some sort - finding opposites, transformation etc - the better they will remember them. Similarly, if we involve students in presenting new words the better they will remember them. Hence, acting out definitions in a dramatic way - trip, stagger etc - should lead to deeper learning of the words. Sense memory becomes involved, taste, smell, touch etc, which further enhances recall. Discovery techniques where students have to find out the meanings of words themselves will be more effective than standard teacher presentation of new vocabulary.
There may be many words that students will not need to use actively themselves at a particular stage in their learning career and therefore they can remain in the students' Passive Vocabulary. For example, at Beginner level it is enough to know 'big' and 'small'. At Intermediate levels, you might begin to use 'huge' 'massive' 'tiny' 'minute' etc. At Advanced levels, you might use words like 'vast' or 'minuscule' to give a different shade of meaning or to adopt a more formal or academic tone. The point is that at Beginner level it is clearly not practical or useful spending time…...

Similar Documents

Vocabulary Strategies

...Vocabulary Strategies Strategy | Description | Informal Assessment | Differentiation/ Extension | Provide examples and non-examples | Use the word in an example relevant to students. Providing non-examples requires students to evaluate a word's attributes. | Students provide their own examples and explain why something is not an example. | This can be done orally or in writing, so to differentiate, some students may do the opposite of what the task requires if it helps them. | Writing in context | 1. Students construct sentences of their own making, confirming their understanding of a new word. | Students write their own sentences on the board in a relay fashion after consulting in small groups. | Students may use more than one new word in each sentence to show connections between words. | Word Sorting | Students use a list of words from in class reading and sort them into categories such as parts of speech, titles, or animals. | The teacher can ask students to orally list all the words within one or more of the categories. | Students draw a picture to represent each category of words. | List- Group- Label | Students list all the words related to a specific concept. Then the words are grouped by commonalities. Then each group is labeled. | Students share their lists with the class and add unfamiliar words from other groups. | Create a visual Semantic Map of the words on butcher paper and post on the wall for reference. | Analogies | Students identify...

Words: 408 - Pages: 2

Vocabulary Development in Efl Learners

...Annotated Bibliography on Vocabulary Development in EFL Learners Supatranut Singhanuwananon 5506040111 Vocabulary Development in EFL Learners: Optimizing Lexical Competence Vocabulary teaching and learning in English language teaching (ELT) had been long considered unimportant until the light started to gleam gradually on the field in the 1980s to the 1990s (Nation, 2011; Henriksen, 1999). It has become widely known that slow vocabulary development blocks learners’ ability to comprehend L2 content through reading and listening (August, Carlo, Dressler, and Snow, 2005). Studies also show that because EFL learners have very much fewer productive vocabulary than receptive vocabulary, they often encounter difficulties in language production (Zhong, 2011). As an EFL learner myself, I have experienced such problems as well. Oftentimes, my vocabulary limitations interfere with my communication in L2. Therefore, it kindles my personal interest in studies of L2 vocabulary development. Because vocabulary has become one of the key elements in ELT and ELL, through decades, many research have been conducted to identify how vocabulary is learned and developed, and what factors that impede or boost learners’ lexical competence. Hence, this study attempts to respond to the research questions as follow: 1. What are existing vocabulary learning strategies that EFL learners use? 2. What are factors that affect vocabulary development in EFL learners? 3. What are effective vocabulary...

Words: 4301 - Pages: 18

Vocabulary

...A. VOCABULARY 1. Detrimental (adj.) - Something that causes damage, harm, or loss; injurious Now a day, eating in fast food restaurants is advantageous because of its easy access, but on the other hand it becomes more detrimental to our health. 2. Assasin (n.) - One who murders by surprise attack, especially one who carries out a plot to kill a prominent person Raizo is a disillusioned assassin looking for retribution against his former boss. 3. Vehement (adj.) - Characterized by forcefulness of expression or intensity of emotion or conviction She suddenly became very vehement and agitated, jumping around and shouting without any specific reason at all. 4. Maroon (v) - To abandon or isolate with little hope of ready rescue or escape Five couples were marooned in their caravans when the river Avon broke its banks. 5. Shoddy - Something done or made carelessly or badly; of poor quality or craft I’m normally quick to complain about shoddy service in restaurants or even in shopping malls. B. FIGURES OF SPEECH 1. Metonymy - The substitution of one word for another object or idea, which it suggests. Substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself. The mention of the word suggests the other. ✓ In falling in love, keep your feet on the ground. ✓ The pen is mightier than the sword. 2. Anthimeria - The substitution of one part of speech for another; for instance, an adverb for a noun or...

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Vocabulary Development

...New words enter the Passive Vocabulary of students. Students may understand meaning, especially in the specific context where they see a new word used but as yet cannot use the word independently themselves. To ensure words enter the students' Active Vocabulary, regular revision in meaningful situations is essential. It is estimated that a student needs to encounter a word 10-12 times before it fully enters their Active Vocabulary. Vocabulary, in the same way as Grammar, is learned through use. It is therefore very important to give students opportunities within the classroom to use the new vocabulary themselves. Students remembrance of words is relative to the degree which they have used the word, thus the more we get students to use words in a task of some sort - finding opposites, transformation etc - the better they will remember them. Similarly, if we involve students in presenting new words the better they will remember them. Hence, acting out definitions in a dramatic way - trip, stagger etc - should lead to deeper learning of the words. Sense memory becomes involved, taste, smell, touch etc, which further enhances recall. Discovery techniques where students have to find out the meanings of words themselves will be more effective than standard teacher presentation of new vocabulary. There may be many words that students will not need to use actively themselves at a particular stage in their learning career and therefore they can remain in the students' Passive......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Vocabulary Words

...VOCABULARY WORDS 1. Extemporaneous - composed, performed, or uttered on the spur of the moment; provided, made, or put to use as an expedient. 2. Camouflage - concealment by means of disguise. 3. Fidget - uneasiness or restlessness as shown by nervous movements. 4. Remorse - a gnawing distress arising from a sense of guilt for past wrongs. 5. Blunder - to make a mistake through stupidity, ignorance, or carelessness. 6. Demeanor - behavior toward others. 7. Visible - capable of being seen. 8. Preoccupied - already occupied. 9. Bewilder - to cause to lose one's bearings. 10. Oppressive - overwhelming or depressing to the spirit or senses. 11. Cowed - It means that you can see that this person is overloaded in some manner. 12. Mimicked – to copy or exaggerate in order to make fun of. 13. Stealthy - given to acting in secret and to concealing one's intentions. 14. Sentiment - a subjective response to a person, thing, or situation. 15. Stern - given to exacting standards of discipline and self-restraint. 16. Faith - belief and trust in and loyalty to God. 17. Clutter - an unorganized collection or mixture of various things. 18. Stake - a legal right to participation in the advantages...

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

Vocabulary

... Ufeathome 38-43 The English a lpha bet; Heig ht a nd weight ; Numbe rs; Some basic spelling rule s; British and American Eng lish Before school; After school; Adverbs a nd phrases of frequency; Jobs ar ou nd the house; Pets; Meals at school and at home self assessment and proqress check 88 7 _ School = :=... _ _ ....;;:;; -49 44 Answer key (Centro l pcll-cct section) A-H Main school subjects in UK schools; People; Exams; Non-lesson time; Afte r-schoof act ivities and dubs; School rooms a nd places 8 5pprl 50 - 55 Sport / AdMty; Penon; Spom ....,ts; Winning a nd losing Meeting people Translate the words and phrases. Saying hello and goodbye Informal Hi. Hello. Formal Good morning. Good afternoon . Good evening. Goodnight. Goodbye. Bye! See you. See you lofer. See you soon. See you tomorrow. A: How are you? B: Fine, thanks. / I'm OK, thanks. And you? A: Mm, not too good. / Mm, nof great B: Oh, I'm sorry to hear that. A: How are things? B: Fine, thanks. / Not bod, thanks. Introducing yourself and other people Informal My nome's (John). I'm (John). This is (Mario) . Formal A: Let me introduce (Moria) . B: Pleased to meet you. C: Pleased to meet you, too . Welcome to {London). A: Nice to meet you. B: Nice to meet you, too . Boost Your Vocabulary I Unit 1 Personaldetails First name(s} Surname Mole / Female Address Street Town / City Postcode Dote of bi......

Words: 2613 - Pages: 11

Vocabulary

...Vocabulary words Chapter 1 Replication 6: is the repetition of experiments or studies utilizing the same methodology. Verification 6: is confirmation of the accuracy of findings or attainment of greater certitude in conclusions through additional observations. Methodological narcissism 7: in which substance is overlooked in the name of method. Preferred rigor in research design is seldom realized in criminal justice field studies. This does not justify throwing out “the baby with the bath water.” Theory 7: in criminal justice represents an attempt to develop plausible explanations of reality, which in this case are crime and the criminal justice system. Paradigm 8: is “some implicit body of intertwined theoretical and methodological belief that permits selection, evaluation, and criticism” Methodology 9: (methods), on the other hand, involves the collection of accurate facts and/or data regarding the nature of crime and criminal justice policy. In short, while theory addresses the issue “why,” methodology concerns itself with “what is.” “Broken Windows” 9 Pure research 10: is concerned with the acquisition of new knowledge for the sake of science or the development of the field. Applied research 10: is practical research concerned with solving immediate policy problems. Crime analysis 13: allows the analyst to determine who’s doing what to whom by its focus on crimes against persons and property (homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, theft, etc.). Quantitative...

Words: 1145 - Pages: 5

Vocabulary

...witty adjective, wit•ti•er, wit•ti•est. 1. possessing wit in speech or writing; amusingly clever in perception and expression: a witty writer. 2. characterized by wit: a witty remark. 3. British Dialect . intelligent; clever. Example sentences As clever and witty as his writing is, youprobably wouldn't, because there is The production is witty , clever, and blessedly brief. He's kind and so funny-not goofy funny, witty funny-and gets along really great . They don't carry many plants, but the few they dohave the same witty edge many. silly adjective, sil•li•er, sil•li•est. 1. weak-minded or lacking good sense; stupid or foolish: a silly writer. 2. absurd; ridiculous; irrational: a silly idea. 3. stunned; dazed: He knocked me silly. 4. Cricket. (of a fielder or the fielder's playing position) extremely close to the batsman's wicket: silly midoff. 5. Archaic. rustic; plain; homely. Example sentences Frustratingly, there are plenty of silly story elements that mar the program. They had known each other since eighth grade, sharing the silly private jokes. Throwing money at it without a plan to actuallyimprove it is silly . It is a predatory industry with far-reachingconsequences that can't be. limerick noun a kind of humorous verse of five lines, in which the first, second, and fifth lines rhyme with each other, andthe third and fourth lines, which are shorter, form a rhymed couplet. giggle verb (used without object), gig•gled...

Words: 955 - Pages: 4

Vocabulary

... sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas. The word "sparked" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) brought about (B) surrounded (C) sent out (D) followed 031. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. The word "outstanding" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) extensive (B) surprising (C) vertical (D) excellent 034. In the seventeenth century the organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group, a supremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of the eighteenth century. The words "a supremacy" in line 9 are closest in meaning to (A) a suggestion (B) an improvement (C) a dominance (D) a development 035. A series of mechanical improvements continuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction of pedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame, and steel wire of the finest quality, finally produced an instrument capable of myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almost orchestral fullness of sound, from a liquid, singing tone to a ship, percussive brilliance. The word "myriad" is closest in meaning to...

Words: 2152 - Pages: 9

Vocabulary

...Independent Learning Task: Academic Vocabulary Building Project Full Name: _____Yuki (Huang Yuxi)___________________________________________ Class: _____UEECxv16__________________ ILT2: Include 50 words taken from reading texts to complete this table. The words selected should be of value to your future field of study. Future field of study: ________Commerce_____________________________________ No. | Word/phrase | Example of use | Collocations / Synonym | Morphology | 1 | accounting | A new accounting system would certainly help china.  | | account<n>accountant<n>accountable<adj> | 2 | allocation | The school gave them a generous allocation of money with which to purchase books. | efficient allocation/give/increase allocation | allocate<v> | 3 | auction | The estate is holding an auction to raise money. | put sth. up for auction | auction<n><v> | 4 | assumption | New research finds an absence of evidence to support this assumption.  | on the assumption that/assumption about | assume<v> | 5 | average | His test results are well above average. | above/below average | | 6 | barter | The prisoners tried to barter with the guards for items like writing paper and books. | barter with | | 7 | benefit | This arrangement will be of great benefit to you both. | enormous/obtain/benefit from/for | beneficial<adj> | 8 | budget | If we budget carefully we should be able to afford a holiday this...

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Vocabulary

.... Divide the words above into two groups, one group being the words which mean only or solely, and one group being the words which mean in most cases , normally or the main reason for something. Only or solely In most cases, normally or the main reason for something 16 For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3) A. The words in italics in the following sentences are all used to talk about opinion and belief. However, the words are grammatically incorrect (for example, a noun has been used instead of an adjective, or a verb has been used instead of a noun, etc.), or sometimes a noun has been used which has the wrong meaning. Put the words into their correct form. 1. In my opinionated, technology is moving too quickly. 2. As far as I am concerning, happiness is more important than money. 3. Scientists are convincingly that human degradation of the environment is causing thousands of species to become extinct. general vocabulary Opinion, attitude & belief 4. The government are regardless the Third World debt as a major barrier to global economic development. 5. Hundreds of people called the television station to register their disapprove of the presenter’s behaviour. 6. She maintenance that most young people would rather work than go to school. 7. Do you reckoning that there will be an election in the next two years? 8. We strongly suspicion that the proposal to develop the computer facilities will not......

Words: 51513 - Pages: 207

Vocabulary Work

...Vocabulary Work 2 Guessing Game He knew he would win the case because he mastered the law and charmed the jury. He always did, and losses were infrequent (罕见的,稀少的)now. Part of it came from being able to select the cases he had the expertise to(有把握) win. (有专长) Not about the case. That was fine. It was something else. Something about Allie. But damn, he couldn’t put his finger on it.(染指) A life like that makes you empty inside, and you’re looking for someone who will magically fill that void. (空虚) It was so unexpected, yet uplifting, and as the words began to replay in her mind, she realized how sorry she would have been had she decided not to see him again. (意外的)(令人振奋的) In a couple of seasoned moves,(在一些老调的影片中) long since mastered by habit, he had it in the water working its way upstream with himself as the pilot and engine. (控制,引导) He spent the next twenty minutes splitting and stacking(伐木) logs. He did it s easily, his stroke(击打) efficient, and didn’t break sweat. She passed an art gallery on Front Street, almost walked by it in her preoccupation, then turned and went back. (全部精力)(全神贯注,入神) The artists were either uninspired or lazy, she thought. (没有感觉的)(无灵感的) After a few minutes of abstraction, she did a rough sketch of the street scene as seen from her room, amazed at how easily it came. (分心) Since she didn’t have a model, she visualized it in her head before starting. And though it was harder than the street scene, it began to take...

Words: 707 - Pages: 3

Vocabulary

...VOCABULARY: W-2 WAGE AND TAX STATEMENT: SOCIAL SECURITY: JUBILACION SUBSIDIO: GOBIERNO ESTRATEGIA: EISENHOWER: PENSAMIENTO ESTRATEGICO: HABILIDAD PARA PENSAR A EL LARGO PLAZO. AMENAZAS Y OPORTUNIDADES, DEBILIDADES (disminuir o elimina), FORTALEZAS (las utiliza para disminuir las amenazas y aprovechar las oportunidades. CONTRAPONES EL FODA- SWOT PATTON PENSAMIENTO TACTICO: HABILIDAD PARA PENSAR EN EL PRESENTE. 60 % (INCENTIVE COMPENSATION) ON FINANCIAL INDICATORS: Return on capital, profitability, cash flow, operating cost. 40% (INCENTIVE COMPENSATION) ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION INDICATORS: Dealer satisfaction, employee satisfaction and environmental responsibilities. MARKETSHARE: The percentage of sales of a particular product achieved by a single company in a specific period of time. BALANCE SCORE CARD: Strategic performance management tool, cuadro de mando integrado para implementar la estrategia. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT: HIGH LABOR COSTS: EFFICENCY: Eficiencia EFICENT: eficiente EFFECTIVENESS: Eficacia OUTSORCING: OFFSHORING: PROFITS REVENUE STAKEHOLDERS: Los interesados: Employees, government, customers, suppliers, investors, owners, unions, community SHAREHOLDERS: los que tienen ganancias en base a los ingresos de la empresa. ENTREPRENUER: ROI JOB DESCRIPTION: TDRs JOB SPECIFICATION KSAOs JOB DESIGN: is the process of defining how work will be performed and the task that will...

Words: 714 - Pages: 3

Teaching Vocabulary

... practice, and develops memory. Moreover,tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and can be scored objectively. * The disadvantages of the method are that it does not enhance a student’s communicative ability, exercises are boring and mechanical and also little attention is paid to the development of listening and speaking skills. The Direct Method, also called Natural Method, was established in Germany and France in 1900. It became popular as the Grammar-Translation Method was not so effective. Its name is derived from the fact that meaning is to be connected directly with the target language, without translating into the students’ native language. The Direct Method works on the idea that second language learning should be more like first language learning and should include lots of oral interaction, spontaneous use of the language, no translation between first and second languages and little or no analysis of grammatical rules. * The advantages of this method are that it allows immersion into the foreign environment provides listening and speaking practice, refrains from giving clear grammar rules. Moreover, it gives students an opportunity to use the language in real contexts, and vocabulary is acquired more naturally. * The disadvantages are the underestimation of the role of reading and writing in language teaching, the lack of explicit rules. The Direct Method enjoyed popularity through the end of the 19th century......

Words: 8385 - Pages: 34

Mangament Vocabulary

...MT140 vocabulary: Acquisition: One firm buying another. Barriers to Entry: Conditions that prevent new companies from entering an industry. Benchmarking: The process of comparing an organization’s practices and technologies with those of other companies. Buffering: Creating supplies of excess resources in case of unpredictable needs. Competitive Environment: The immediate environment surrounding a firm; includes suppliers, customers, rivals, and the like. Competitive Intelligence: Information that helps managers determine how to compete better. Cooperative Strategies: Strategies used by two or more organizations working together to manage the external environment. Defenders: Companies that stay within a stable product domain as a strategic maneuver. Demographics: Measures of various characteristics of the people who make up groups or other social units. Diversification: A firm’s investment in a different product, business, or geographic area. Divestiture: A firm selling one or more businesses. Domain Selection: Entering a new market or industry with an existing expertise. Empowerment: The process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization. Environmental Scanning: Searching for and sorting through information about the environment. Environmental Uncertainty: Lack of information needed to understand or...

Words: 465 - Pages: 2