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Vocabulary

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CHECK YOUR ENGLISH VOCABULARY FOR

I E L T S
Rawdon Wyatt

A & C Black Ⴇ London

First edition published 2001 by Peter Collin Publishing, reprinted 2002
This second edition published in Great Britain 2004 by
Bloomsbury Publishing Plc
Reprinted 2005, 2007 by
A & C Black Publishers Ltd
38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB

© Rawdon Wyatt 2004

All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publishers.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A CIP entry for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 978 0 7136 7604 4 eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0157-5
Text typeset by A & C Black
Printed in the UK by Caligraving Ltd

This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

ii

Introduction
This workbook has been written for students who are planning to sit either the general training or the academic modules of the IELTS exam. It covers some of the main vocabulary points that you will need for, or come across in, the listening, reading, writing and speaking sections of the exam.
We hope that you find the modules in this book useful and that the vocabulary you acquire will help you to achieve the grade you want in the IELTS.
Good luck!

about this workbook

About this workbook

Structure of the IELTS Workbook
Each vocabulary area is presented in the form of a self-contained module with task-based activities which present each vocabulary item in a real context.
• Pages 1-53 focus on general vocabulary items which can be used in all aspects of your English. Some of these are relevant to specific tasks in the IELTS exam (for example, describing how something works, writing a letter or describing a table).
• Pages 54-101 focus on topic-specific vocabulary areas which may be required in the exam (for example, education, business and industry or global problems). Each module consists of three tasks: the first two present vocabulary items in context, and the third gives you the opportunity to review the vocabulary in the form of a gap-fill exercise.

Using the IELTS Workbook
You should not go through the modules mechanically. It is better to choose areas that you are unfamiliar with, or areas that you feel are of specific interest or importance to yourself.

Recording Vocabulary
Remember that you should keep a record of new words and expressions that you acquire, and review these on a regular basis so that they become a part of your active vocabulary.

Extending Your Vocabulary
Also remember that there are other methods of acquiring new vocabulary. For example, you should read as much as possible from a different variety of authentic reading materials (books, newspapers, magazines, etc).

Using an English Dictionary
To help you learn English, you should use an English dictionary that can clearly define words, provide information about grammar and give sample sentences to show how words are used in context. You can use any good learner’s English dictionary with this workbook, but it has been written using the material in the Easier English Dictionary for Students (ISBN 0 7475 6624 0), published by Bloomsbury
Publishing (www.bloomsbury.com/reference).

International English Language Testing System (IELTS)
This workbook has been written to help you improve your vocabulary when working towards the
International English Language Testing System (IELTS) examination. The IELTS English examination is administered by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, The British Council and IDP
Education Australia. For futher information, visit the www.ucles.org.uk website.

iii

contents

Contents
PAGE

TITLE

General Vocabulary

PAGE

TITLE

67

Healthcare

69

Travel

71

Crime & the law

73

Social tensions

75

Science & technology

78

Food & diet

1

Condition

2

Changes 1

4

Describing & analysing tables

6

How something works

7

Writing a letter

8

Presenting an argument

9

Contrast & comparison

10

Location

12

Joining/becoming part of something bigger

13

Reason & result

14

Generalisations & specifics

16

Focusing attention

17

Opinion, attitude & belief

18

Stopping something

19

Time

Answers

20

Objects & actions

102

Answers

22

Likes & dislikes

123

Vocabulary record sheets

24

Obligation & option

25

Success & failure

26

Ownership, giving, lending & borrowing

27

Groups

28

Around the world

30

Size, quantity & dimension

32

Shape & features

33

Emphasis & misunderstanding

34

Changes 2

36

Opposites

38

Addition, equation & conclusion

39

Task commands

40

Confusing words & false friends

44

Useful interview expressions

45

Phrasal verbs 1

46

Phrasal verbs 2

48

Phrasal verbs 3

49

Phrasal verbs 4

50

Phrasal verbs 5

52

Spelling

Topic-Specific Vocabulary
54

The media

58

Work

61

Money & finance

63

Politics

65

iv

Education

56

The environment

80

Children & the family

82

On the road

84

The arts

87

Town & country

89

Architecture

92

Men & women

95

Geography

97

Business & industry

100

Global problems

A. Look at these sentences. They all use ‘if’. Rewrite each sentence, replacing ‘if’ with the words in bold. You may need to remove some of the other words.
1. You can borrow my dictionary if you return it before you go home. providing that
2. You can’t go to university if you don’t have good grades. unless 3. Pollution will get worse if we continue to live in a throwaway society.

general vocabulary

Condition

as long as
4. Many developed countries are willing to waive the Third World debt if the money is reinvested in education and medicine. on condition that
5. Some countries will never be able to rectify their deficits even if they work very hard. no matter how
6. Computers are difficult things to understand, even if you read a lot of books about them. however many
7. Crime is a problem, even if you go to relatively safe countries. wherever B. Now rewrite each sentence beginning with the words in bold. For example:
Providing that you return it before you go home, you can borrow my dictionary.
C. Complete these sentences using an appropriate word or expression from above and your own ideas.
1. British universities will accept students from abroad ____________________________________________
2. Working for a large company can be a fulfilling experience ______________________________________
3. Most banks are happy to lend customers money ________________________________________________
4. The government will reduce income tax ________________________________________________________
5. The environmental situation will continue to worsen ____________________________________________
6. There will always be long waiting lists at our hospitals __________________________________________
7. Travelling helps you understand more about the world around you ______________________________
D. Some nouns can be used to express condition. Complete these sentences 1-3 with one of the words from A, B or C.
1. Being able to drive is one of the _________________ of the job of salesman.
A. prerequirements

B. prerequisites

C. prescriptions

2. Before you accept a job, it is important that you agree with the __________________ of the contract.
A. conditionals

B. conditions

C. conditioners

3. It is a _________________ of the university that you attend an interview.
A. requirement

B. requisite

C. requiem

1
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Changes 1
Look at the pairs of sentences in 1-20 and choose a verb from the box which can be used with both sentences. In some cases, the meaning of the verb may change slightly. Then use a dictionary to find other objects which can be used with the verbs.

adapt • adjust • alter • cure • demote • disappear • dissolve exchange • expand • fade • increase • promote • reduce • renew renovate •

replace



swell



switch



transform



vary

1. We need to____________ these cars so disabled people can drive them.

The country found it hard to ____________ to the new government

2. To make sure your car is safe, you should check and ____________ the brakes on a regular basis. He found it hard to _______________ to living in a tropical country.

3. You must _______________ the voltage or the system will blow up.

He decided to _______________ his appearance by having plastic surgery.

4. Our bills will be less if we ______________ from gas to electricity.

They had to _______________ flights at Heathrow
Airport.

5. You can’t ____________ the terms of the contract once it has been signed.

He wants to ____________ his appearance.

6. It will help your digestion if you ____________ your diet.

Prices of flats ___________ from a few thousand to millions of pounds.

7. We need to _______________ our pounds for dollars. You can usually _______________ goods which are faulty if you show the receipt.

8. We have had to _____________ our sales force to cope with the extra demand.

Water will ____________ when it is frozen.

9. The price of oil will ____________ next year.

Most bosses refuse to _____________ salaries when they are asked.

2
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

10. The management decided to ___________ the company and sell the offices.

_____________ the sugar in boiling water.

11. More and more people are moving to cities to
____________ the population there.

The wasp sting caused his leg to ___________ up.

12. The market for typewriters will probably___________ completely in the next few years.

The police are baffled by the increasing number of people who ____________ each year.

13. The old contract ran out and we had to
____________ it.

Many people argue that it’s futile to __________ old hostilities.

14. They have received funds to ____________ the old buildings.

The house is in good structural condition, but we need to ____________ the central heating system.

15. The boss offered to _______________ him from salesman to manager.

Our main aim is to _______________ tourism in the country.

16. They wanted to _______________ me from manager to salesperson.

If we _______________ you, you will lose a large part of your salary.

17. If you wash it too much, the colour will
_______________ .

We watched the islands _______________ away into the distance.

18. The company decided to _______________ the permanent staff with freelancers.

You must _______________ the books on the shelf when you have finished with them.

19. The doctors were unable to _______________ her illness.

_______________ the meat in salt water for between three and five days.

20. Governments are trying to _______________ pollution. general vocabulary

Changes 1

The best way to save money is to ____________ the number of staff.

3
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Describing & analysing tables
A. Look at the four tables below. These show demographic trends in four different countries between 1996 and 2000. The numbers on the left and right of each table show the number of people in hundred thousands. Using the information in these tables, match sentences 1-13 on the next page with the appropriate country. Use the words and expressions in bold to help you.

Number of people under 18 years of age

Number of people over 65 years of age

Number of deaths

Number of married people

Number of single people

Country 1: Lycia
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Country 2: Cilicia
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Country 3: Moesia
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Country 4: Cappadocia
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

4
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

1. In which two countries was there a considerable discrepancy between married and single people between
1996 and 1998?
2. In which country was there a constant and considerable discrepancy between married and single people over the five-year period?
3. In which country was there a sudden and noticeable difference between those under 18 and those over
65 in 1998?
4. In which country did the number of under-18s rise dramatically between 1996 and 2000?
5. In which country did the number of under-18s increase slightly between 1996 and 2000?

general vocabulary

Describing & analysing tables

6. In which country did the number of over-65s go up sharply between 1996 and 1998?
7. In which country did the number of married people decline significantly over the five-year period?
8. In which country did the number of deaths decrease significantly between 1996 and 1999?
9. In which two countries was there a slight decline in the number of married people between 1998 and
1999?
10. In which country was there a sharp drop in the number of under-18s between 1997 and 1998?
11. In which country was there a slight reduction in the number of deaths over the five-year period?
12. In which country was there a significant increase in the number of deaths between 1998 and 2000?
13. In which country did the number of deaths remain constant over the five-year period?
B. Now look at the table below, which shows the changes in economic activity in a town over a period of five years. The figures on the left and right show the number of people involved in these activities, in thousands. Write your own sentences to describe the situation in the town regarding the number of:
1. People employed in industry between 1996 and 2000.
2. People employed in retail between 1996 and 2000.
3. People employed in public services between 1999 and 2000.
4. People employed in tourism between 1996 and 2000.
5. Unemployed between 1998 and 2000.
6. People employed in industry compared with those in retail in 1996.
7. People employed in industry between 1998 and 1999.

Number of people in industry

Number of people
Number of people
Number of semi-skilled / skilled in retail in tourism people in public services (including police, doctors, bus drivers, etc.)

Number of unemployed 10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

5
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

How something works
A. Look at these sentences and decide which object is being described in each one. Use the words in bold to help you. You will find the objects hidden in the word grid at the bottom of the page.
1. The most important part of this object is a strip of two different metals, one on top of the other. As they heat up, both metals expand, but one does it faster than the other. The strip bends and connects with a switch, which turns off the power supply. When the strip cools down, the metals contract and the switch is disconnected. (1 word)
2. This object has several component parts, most of which are made of plastic. A disc inserted into the object spins quickly. At the same time a thin beam of light strikes the disc and converts digital symbols into sounds. These sounds can be increased or decreased in volume by means of a button or dial.
(3 words)
3. Liquid and gas are compressed in a hard metal tube. This can be released by pushing or squeezing a button which opens a valve. When the liquid-gas combination leaves the tube and is mixed with oxygen, it rapidly expands. (1 word)
4. This object is mainly made of aluminium. As it moves forward, air flows over two horizontal sections.
As it accelerates, a vacuum is formed over the horizontal sections and the object is pulled into the air by the force of this vacuum. (1 word)
5. This object consists of two main parts; one is made mainly of plastic and metal, the other is made mainly of glass. Light enters the glass section and a small door in the device opens up when a button is pressed. At the same time, a smaller window called an aperture adjusts itself to control the amount of light. The light is then absorbed by a sheet of plastic coated in a special chemical. An image is formed and this can then be processed and developed into a two-dimensional paper-based object.
(1 word)
6. A sharp blade inside a plastic container rotates very quickly. It chops or grinds anything it touches, which we can then use to produce soup, sauces and dressing. (2 words)
7. This is a very simple object which originated in China. A small piece of paper is lit with a match. It burns away until the flame ignites the chemical compound inside a cardboard tube. The result is a display of light and colour. (1 word)
Q

C

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B. There are nine more objects hidden in the grid. Choose four of them and write a brief description of how they work, using the bold words and expressions above. There are some more useful words in the answer key (on page 103).

6
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. Below, you will see eleven common situations that people encounter when they are writing a formal letter. Choose the sentence or phrase (A, B or C) that would be most appropriate in each situation.
1. You are writing a letter to the headteacher of a school or college, but you don’t know their name.
How do you begin your letter?
A. Dear headteacher
B. Dear Sir / Madam
C. Dear Sir
2. You have received a letter from the manager of a company which buys computer components from your company, and you are now replying. What do you say?
A. Thank you for your letter.
B. Thanks a lot for your letter.
C. It was great to hear from you.

general vocabulary

Writing a letter

3. You recently stayed in a hotel and were very unhappy with the service you received. You are now writing to the manager. What do you say?
A. I had a horrible time at your hotel recently.
B. I would like to say that I am unhappy about your hotel.
C. I would like to complain about the service I received at your hotel recently.
4. You have sent a letter of application to a college, together with your curriculum vitae which the college requested. What do you say in the letter to explain that your curriculum vitae is attached?
A. You asked for my curriculum vitae, so here it is.
B. As you can see, I’ve enclosed my curriculum vitae.
C. As you requested, I enclose my curriculum vitae.
5. You have applied for a job, but you would like the company to send you more information. What do you say?
A. I would be grateful if you would send me more information.
B. I want you to send me more information. C. Send me some more information, if you don’t mind.
6. In a letter you have written to a company, you tell them that you expect them to reply. What do you say?
A. Write back to me soon, please. B. Please drop me a line soon.
C. I look forward to hearing from you soon.
7. In a letter you have written, you want the recipient to do something and are thanking them in advance of their action. What do you say?
A. Thank you for your attention in this matter..
B. Thanks for doing something about it.
C. I am gratified that you will take appropriate action.
8. The company you work for has received an order from another company and you are writing to them to acknowledge the order and let them know when you can deliver. What do you say?
A. About the order you sent on 12 January for....
B. I would like to remind you of the order you sent on 12 January for...
C. I refer to your order of 12 January
9. In a letter, you explain that the recipient can contact you if they want more information. What do you say?
A. Give me a call if you want some more information.
B. If you would like any more information, please do not hesitate to contact me.
C. If you would like any more information, why not get in touch?
10. You began a letter with the recipient’s name (e.g., Dear Mr. Perrin). How do you end the letter?
A. Yours faithfully
B. Yours sincerely
C. Best wishes
11. You did not begin the letter with the recipient’s name (see number 1 above). How do you end the letter?
A. Yours faithfully
B. Yours sincerely
C. Best wishes
B. Look at these sentences and decide if they are true or false.
1. Formal letters are always longer than informal letters.
2. In a formal letter it is acceptable to use colloquial English, slang and idioms.
3. In a formal letter it is acceptable to use contractions (e.g., I’ve instead of I have)
4. In a formal letter you should include your name and address at the top of the page.
5. In a formal letter, you should always write the date in full (e.g., 1 April 2000 and not 1/4/00).
6. In a formal letter, you should always put your full name (e.g., James Harcourt and not J. Harcourt) after your signature at the bottom of the letter.
7. Formal letters do not need to be broken into paragraphs. It is acceptable to write them as one continuous paragraph.
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

7

general vocabulary

Presenting an argument
A. Read the text below, in which somebody is trying to decide whether to go straight to university from school, or spend a year travelling around the world. Put their argument into the correct order, using the key words and expressions in italics to help you. The first one and last one have been done for you.
A (1)

I’m really in two minds about what to do when I leave school. Should I go straight to university or should I spend a year travelling around the world?

B.

It is often said that knowledge is the key to power, and I cannot disagree with this.

C.

On the one hand, I would experience lots of different cultures.

D.

Unfortunately, another point is that if I spent a year travelling I would need a lot of money.

E.

And I’m not alone in this opinion. Many consider a sound career and a good salary to be an important goal.

F.

However, it could be argued that I would also meet lots of interesting people while I was travelling. G.

Secondly, if I go straight to university, I’ll learn so many things that will help me in my future life.

H.

First of all, there are so many benefits of going straight to university.

I.

But I believe that it would be easy to make a bit while I was travelling, giving English lessons or working in hotels and shops.

J.

Moreover, I’ll be able to take part in the social activities that the university offers, and meet lots of new friends who share the same interests.

K.

The most important point is that the sooner I get my qualifications, the quicker I’ll get a job and start earning.

L.

Nevertheless, these inconveniences would be an inevitable part of travelling and would be greatly outweighed by the other advantages.

M.

In my opinion, starting work and making money is one of the most important things in life.

N.

On the other hand, I could end up suffering from culture shock, homesickness and some strange tropical diseases.

O.

Furthermore, if I spent a year travelling, I would learn more about the world.

P. (16) All right, I’ve made my mind up. Now, where’s my nearest travel agency?

B. Using the key words and expressions in italic from the last exercise, present an argument for one of the following issues:
1. A government’s main priority is to provide education for its people.
2. The only way to save the environment is for governments to impose strict quotas on the energy we use (for example, by restricting car ownership, limiting the water we use).
3. Satisfaction in your job is more important than the money you earn.
4. Living in a town or city is better than living in the countryside.
5. It is our responsibility to help or look after those less fortunate than ourselves (for example, the homeless, the mentally ill).

8
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

Complete these sentences with the most appropriate word or expression from A, B or C.
1. The two machines __________________________ considerably. One has an electric motor, the other runs on oil.
A. differ
2

B. differentiate

C. differential

The __________________________ in weather between the north and the south of the country is very noticeable. A. comparison

B. contrast

C. compare

general vocabulary

Contrast & comparison

3. Many people cannot __________________________ between lemon juice and lime juice.
A. differ

B. differentiate

C. contrast

4. Children must be taught to __________________________ between right and wrong.
A. differ

B. contrast

C. distinguish

5. There is a __________________________ between being interested in politics and joining a political party. A. distinguish

B. distinctive

C. distinction

6. Can you tell the __________________________ between a good boss and a bad one?
A. difference

B. differentiate

C. contrast

7. The management must not __________________________ between male and female applicants.
A. differ

B. contrast

C. discriminate

8. Asia covers a huge area. __________________________ , Europe is very small.
A. By way of contrast

B. By ways of comparing

C. By similar means

9. The new model of car is very __________________________ to the old one.
A. same

B. similar

C. common

10. Her political opinions are __________________________ to mine.
A. same

B. exactly

11. Some political parties have
__________________________ .
A. tell apart

such

C. identical similar B. say apart

manifestoes

that

they

are

difficult

to

C. speak apart

12. My friends and I enjoy doing many of the same things. In that respect, we have a lot
__________________________ .
A. in similar

B. in particular

C. in common

13. There seems to be a large __________________________ between the number of people employed in service industries, and those employed in the primary sector.
A. discriminate

B. discretion

C. discrepancy

14. British and Australian people share the same language, but in other respects they are as different as __________________________ .
A. cats and dogs

B. chalk and cheese

C. salt and pepper

15. Britain’s economy is largely based on its industry, __________________________ a few hundred years ago it was an agrarian country.
A. while

B. whereas

C. whereby

9
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Location
A. Look at this diagram and complete the sentences opposite using the expressions listed below. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

*
^
^
^
^
^ ____

&

a

✘ 7

✩ ✩ ✩
✩ : ✩
✩ ✩ ✩

Q

R
>

Φ

Ε

6

...directly opposite...

...stands outside...

...on the right-hand side of...

...halfway between...

...in close proximity to...

...in the bottom left-hand corner of...

...to the left of...

...at right angles to/perpendicular to...

...to the right of...
...roughly in the middle of...
...at the bottom of...
...in the bottom right-hand corner of...
...surrounded by...

...on the left-hand side of...
...parallel to...

...in the top left-hand corner of...

...at the top of...

...exactly in the middle of...

...in the top right-hand corner of...

10
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

1. The

10. The

is ____________________ the

11. The Q is

2. The : is ____________________ the ✩

3. The & is ____________________ the diagram

4. The

is

is ____________________ the diagram

__________________ the diagram

____________________ the R

12. The ^^^ are

________________ the ___

general vocabulary

Location

13. The ✘ is ____________________ the 7

14. The a is __________________ the diagram
5. The Φ is ____________________ the Ε
15. The 6 is ____________________ the diagram
6. The > is ______________________ the the 6

7. The

8. The

is

and

____________________ the diagram

is __________________ the diagram

9. The * is ____________________ the diagram

16. The

is ____________________ the

17. The

is ____________________ the diagram

18. The

is ____________________ the diagram

19. The 

______________________ the diagram

B. How well do you know your country? Write the name of a city, town, village or island which...
1.

____________________________ is situated in the middle of your country.

2.

____________________________ is built on the slopes of a mountain.

3.

____________________________ is located on the coast.

4.

____________________________ stands on a cape or peninsula.

5.

____________________________ is built on the edge of a river or lake.

6.

____________________________ is a two-hour journey by car or bus from the capital.

7.

____________________________ is a short distance off the coast.

8.

____________________________ is about 10 miles (approximately 16 kilometres) from your home town.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

11
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Joining/becoming part of something bigger
The sentences below all contain a word or expression in italics which is related to the idea of two or more things joining together, sometimes with the result that they become part of something bigger. However, the words and expressions have all been put into the wrong sentence. Put them into their correct sentence. In some cases, more than one answer is possible. A. Move the verbs into the right sentences.
1. His salary is merged to the cost of living, and increases on an annual basis.
2. The International Book Association blended with Universal Press in 1999 to form the International
Press.
3. To get a better finish, he swallowed up the two paints together.
4. The firm integrated with its main competitor in the battle to win more customers.
5. The suggestions from all the committees were took over into the main proposal.
6. The immigrants faced hostility when they were first incorporated into the community.
7. A lot of students had problems before they amalgamated into college life.
8. When the large international college got together the smaller school, a lot of people lost their jobs.
9. The students linked one evening and decided to protest about their situation.
10. A large international company assimilated our firm last month and started making immediate changes. B. Move the nouns into the right sentences.
1. The alloy between England and France came close to breaking down many times during the nineteenth century.
2. The synthesis between England and Scotland is over 300 years old.
3. In 2003, the three regional organizations responsible for helping homeless people formed a national blend to help and support one another.
4. Brass is a well-known alliance of copper and zinc.
5. Water is a coalition of hydrogen and oxygen.
6. The plan is a unification of several earlier proposals.
7. The merger of Italy did not occur until the second half of the nineteenth century.
8. The company made its fortune by selling a popular union of coffee.
9. The proposed federation of the Liberal and Labour Parties in the election was cause for much ridicule.
10. As a result of the compound with the other company, Flax International became the largest in its field.

12
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. Join the first part of a sentence in the left-hand column with a second part from the right-hand column, using an appropriate expression showing reason or result from the central column. In some cases, more than one of the expressions from the middle is possible.

1. The police asked him his...
2. He failed his exam...

...pass his exams

...ensued...

...wake anyone

...effects of...

3. A persistent cough... haranguing 5. He spent the whole weekend revising...

...was unable to enroll for the course.

...on account of...

4.. She started the crowd...

...prompted him to...

...upsetting me like that?
...his lack of revision

...as a consequence...

6. They came in quietly...
7. He refused to anyone money...

...starting a riot lend was

...affect...
...owing to...

8. The bank manager refused to lend the company more money...
9. The school to close...

general vocabulary

Reason & result

forced

10. What were your...
11. What are the...
12. Stress and overwork can...

...its low turnover and poor sales history
...its action

...on the grounds that...
...so as not to...

...when the police officers on trial were acquitted.
...a large earthquake?

...with the aim of...
...in order to...
...consequences of...

13. The army attacked without considering the...

...due to...

...seek professional medical help ...motives in...

14. He failed to send off his application form and...

...people rarely repay a loan

15. Riots and street fighting...

...reason for...

...different people in different ways
...poor student attendance
...speeding through the town

B. Now complete these sentences with an appropriate expression from the central column of the table above.
1. Panic buying __________________________ when the stock market crashed.
2. People often do things without considering the __________________________ their actions.
3. The government raised the income tax rate __________________________ curb inflation.
4. The government raised the income tax rate __________________________ curbing inflation.
5. The government raised the income tax rate __________________________ the rapidly rising rate of inflation.
6. When questioned, many racists cannot give a logical __________________________ their attitudes towards other racial groups.
7. The soaring crime rate alarmed the police superintendent and __________________________ adopt a zero-tolerance policing policy.
8. He was arrested __________________________ he was a danger to others and himself.
9. The family was forced to economise __________________________ go heavily into debt.
10. The fumes from motor traffic __________________________ people in many different ways.

13
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Generalisations & specifics
A. Match the sentences in the list below with an appropriate sentence in the list opposite. The underlined expressions in the first list should have a similar meaning to the words or expressions in bold in the second list.
FIRST LIST

1. Small items of information are very important in a curriculum vitae.

2. I need to have precise information about your new proposals.

3. The plan was unable to go ahead because of a small important detail which is important in order to make something happen.

4. He demanded to know the small, precise and sometimes unimportant details.

5. When you read a piece of text in the exam, you should read it quickly first to get the general idea.

6. Before you write an essay, you should plan it first and give a broad description without giving much detail. 7. Odd features or details which make something different make the world a more interesting place.

8. Saying that all seventeen-year-olds take drugs is a bit of a general statement.

9. Many cars have very similar typical features.

10. The huge rise in computer sales is a good example of the direction in which technology is heading.

11. Normally, most students sitting the exam manage to pass with a good grade.

12. The new library shows a good example of British architecture at its best.

13. Before you travel somewhere, it is important to make a detailed list of things that you need to take.

14. French fries with mayonnaise is a dish which is an odd feature or detail of Belgian cuisine.

15. The article shows as an example his views on the way the company should develop.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

14
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

SECOND LIST

A. Please let me have the specifics as soon as possible.

general vocabulary

Generalisations & specifics

B. It’s very frustrating when a minor technicality puts a stop to your plans.
C. In the same way, kimchii is a concoction of cabbage, chilli and garlic which is peculiar to Korea.
D. You should include full details of your past experience.
E. Once you have an outline, you will discover that your work is easier to organise.
F.

We must be careful not to make this kind of generalisation.

G. Itemise everything in order of importance, beginning with your passport and visa.
H. As far as he was concerned, the minutiae could not be overlooked.
I.

Most manufacturers are aware that these characteristics are what help sell their product.

J.

It also provides us with an accurate illustration of the advances we have made in the last twenty years.

K. It illustrates his preference for increased automation.
L. Once you have the gist, it should be easier to understand it.
M. It exemplifies the style that is becoming increasingly popular with town planners.
N. In general, the average result is a B or C.
O. For example, it one of the peculiarities of the British system that judges and lawyers wear wigs in court. B. Write a list of the words and expressions in bold above. Put them into two groups based on whether they are talking about general things or specific things. Try to give examples of each word in a sentence of your own.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

15
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Focusing attention
A. Rearrange the letters in bold to form words which are used to focus attention on something. They all end with the letters -LY. Write the words in the grid underneath. If you do it correctly, you will find another word used to focus attention in the bold vertical box.
1. They reduced pollution pislmy by banning cars from the city centre during the rush hour.
2. The strange weather at the moment is gaerlly due to the El Niño phenomenon.
3. We’re examining iilmprary the financial aspects of the case.
4. People ilnamy go on holiday in the summer.
5. The library is veceslxuily for the use of students and staff.
6. It’s a ilaptarrculy difficult problem which we hope to resolve as soon as possible.
7. The advertisement is elcifipcsaly aimed at people over 50.
8. Some western countries, otbanly Canada and the United States, have a very high standard of living.
9. The staff are stomly women of about twenty.
10. Our trip to Poland was rpeluy an educational visit.
11. My home town is famous hfiecly for its large number of schools and colleges.

The word in the in the bold vertical box fits into this sentence:

The company trades __________________________ in the Far East.
B. Divide the words above into two groups, one group being the words which mean only or solely, and one group being the words which mean in most cases , normally or the main reason for something. Only or solely

In most cases, normally or the main reason for something

16
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. The words in italics in the following sentences are all used to talk about opinion and belief.
However, the words are grammatically incorrect (for example, a noun has been used instead of an adjective, or a verb has been used instead of a noun, etc.), or sometimes a noun has been used which has the wrong meaning. Put the words into their correct form.
1. In my opinionated, technology is moving too quickly.
2. As far as I am concerning, happiness is more important than money.
3. Scientists are convincingly that human degradation of the environment is causing thousands of species to become extinct.

general vocabulary

Opinion, attitude & belief

4. The government are regardless the Third World debt as a major barrier to global economic development. 5. Hundreds of people called the television station to register their disapprove of the presenter’s behaviour. 6. She maintenance that most young people would rather work than go to school.
7. Do you reckoning that there will be an election in the next two years?
8. We strongly suspicion that the proposal to develop the computer facilities will not go ahead.
9. I doubtful that the new government will keep all its promises.
10. Do you disapproval of smoking?
11. I take strong except to people coming late or cancelling appointments at short notice.
12. A lot of people are fanatic about sport in general and football in particular.
13. British health inspectors are obsession about cleanliness in restaurant kitchens.
14. After years of struggle, the moderations have gained control of the party.
15. He has very conservatism views and disapproves of change.
16. The government are commitment to the struggle to end institutional racism in the police force.
17. She was dedication to her family and would do anything to protect them.
18. They come from a strongly tradition family who still believe in arranged marriages.
B. Put these nouns and adjectives, which describe people’s beliefs, under the most appropriate heading in the table. Can you think of any other words or expressions that you could add? opinionated •

a revolutionary open-minded •

a republican



pragmatic





a moralist

tolerant

a vegan



left-wing





a Muslim


right-wing



an intellectual

narrow-minded


a socialist



bigoted



a royalist

a Buddhist • a conservative • a liberal • a communist • a vegetarian • dogmatic moral • a fascist • religious • a Hindu • middle-of-the-road • an anarchist • a stoic

Political beliefs

Personal convictions and philosophies

17
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general vocabulary

Stopping something
For each of the examples 1-15, choose an appropriate verb from the box which best fits the description and can be used in the sample sentence.

back out • sever • quash • suppress • deter • dissuade • give up • cancel remove • turn down • put an end to • delete • repeal • rescind • deny
1. To cut out part of a document, a computer file, etc.
To stop your hard disk becoming too full, you should __________________________ any unwanted programmes. 2. To officially end a law so that it is no longer valid.
The new government Bill seeks to __________________________ the existing legislation.
3. To discourage someone from doing something.
The threat of severe punishment didn’t __________________________ the thieves from striking again.
4. To persuade someone not to do something.
The college tries to __________________________ students from entering exams which are not suitable for them.
5. To annul or cancel a contract or agreement.
The committee decided to __________________________ its earlier resolution on the use of its premises. 6. To limit or suddenly stop something, such as a person’s freedom.
The military government attempted to __________________________ the democracy movement by arresting its leaders.
7. To end something suddenly and finally.
The Cornucopian government decided to __________________________ relations with Utopia.
8. To refuse something which is offered.
You should never __________________________ a good job when it’s offered to you.
9. To decide not to support or be part of a project or activity after you have agreed to do so.
We decided to __________________________ when we discovered the company was in financial difficulty. 10. To state that something is not correct.
Before his trial, his lawyer advised him to __________________________ embezzling company funds.
11. To stop something which has been planned.
There is no refund if you __________________________ your holiday less than three weeks before the date of the departure.
12. To make a judging or ruling no longer valid.
He applied for a judicial review to __________________________ the verdict.
13. To stop doing something that you have done for quite a long time.
You should __________________________ smoking if you want to feel healthier.
14. To stop something which has been going on for a long time.
They agreed to __________________________ their long-standing dispute.
15. To take something away.
I would be grateful if you would __________________________ my name from your mailing list.

18
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. Use the time clauses in the boxes to complete the sentences. Pay particular attention to the words that come before or after the time clause.
Part 1: One action or situation occurring before another action or situation

prior to



previously



earlier



formerly



precede



by the time

1. _____________________the advent of the Industrial Revolution, pollution was virtually unheard of.
2. _____________________the army had restored order, the city had been almost completely devastated.

general vocabulary

Time

3. _____________________known as Burma, the republic of Myanmar is undergoing a slow and painful political transformation.
4. A sudden drop in temperature will usually _____________________a blizzard.
5. It was my first trip on an aeroplane. _____________________I’d always gone by train.
6. The Prime Minister made a speech praising charity organisations working in Mozambique.
_____________________that day he had promised massive economic aid to stricken areas.
Part 2: One action or situation occurring at the same time as another action or situation

while/as/just as • during/throughout • at that very moment • in the meantime/meanwhile
1. _____________________the minister was making his speech, thousands of demonstrators took to the streets.
2. _____________________ the speech they jeered and shouted slogans.
3. The minister continued speaking.

_____________________ the police were ordered onto the streets.

4. He finished the speech with a word of praise for the police. throwing bottles and bricks, and the riot began.

_____________________ people began

Part 3: One action or situation occurring after another action or situation

afterwards



as soon as / once / the minute that



following

1. _____________________ the earthquake, emergency organisations around the world swung into action.
2. _____________________ the stock market collapsed, there was panic buying on an unprecedented scale.
3. The Klondike gold rush lasted from 1896 to 1910. practically deserted overnight.

_____________________ the area became

B. Look at these words and expressions and decide if we usually use them to talk about (1) the past, (2) the past leading to the present, (3) the present or (4) the future. Try to write a sentence for each one.

for the next few weeks nowadays •



as things stand

from now on





ever since

back in the 1990s

over the coming weeks and months in those days





a few decades ago





in medieval times

over the past six weeks

in another five years’ time


lately





one day

at this moment in time

at the turn of the century • in my childhood / youth • at this point in history by the end of this year • for the foreseeable future • for the past few months last century



these days



from 1996 to 1998



sooner or later

19
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Objects & actions
A. The words in the box describe the actions of the things in 1-37. Match each action with the thing it describes.

evaporate



explode



change



melt



fade



bounce

crumble • trickle • rise • sink • ring • contract • crack • escape stretch • wobble • congeal • burn • spill • smoulder • erupt • spin revolve • set • flow • slide • rotate • spread • erode • meander turn •

subside • freeze



grow



expand



vibrate



float

1. The planet Earth moving round on its axis.

______________________

2. A washing machine in its final stage of a wash.

______________________

3. The moon moving around the Earth.

______________________

4. The CD-ROM tray on a computer base unit.

______________________

5. A house slowly sinking into soft ground.

______________________

6. Water slowly being converted into vapour.

______________________

7. Cooking fat becoming solid on an unwashed plate.

______________________

8. Traffic moving smoothly along a motorway.

______________________

9. Water changing from a liquid to a solid because of the cold.

______________________

10. Glass changing from a solid to a liquid in very high heat.

______________________

11. A loose wheel on a car.

______________________

12. Gas coming out of a faulty valve.

______________________

13. A rubber ball hitting the ground and going back into the air.

______________________

14. Loose windows in a window frame when a large vehicle passes nearby.

______________________

15. The population of a town becoming bigger.

______________________

16. A T-shirt which has been washed so often it has lost its colour.

______________________

17. The sun coming up in the morning.

______________________

18. The sun going down in the evening.

______________________

19. A wheel on a slow-moving train.

______________________

20. Traffic lights going from red to amber to green.

______________________

21. Cliffs being slowly destroyed by the sea.

______________________

22. Documents being laid out on a table.

______________________

20
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

23. A wide river winding through the countryside.

______________________

24. The sun turning people on a beach bright red.

______________________

25. An incense stick in the entrance to a temple.

______________________

26. A lump of dry earth being rubbed between somebody’s fingers.

______________________

27. Cold metal as it gets hotter.

______________________

28. Hot metal as it gets cooler.

______________________

29. A piece of elastic being pulled so that it becomes longer.

______________________

30. A window being hit by a stone so that a long, thin break is formed.

______________________

31. Coffee falling out of a cup by mistake.

______________________

32. A bomb suddenly blowing up.

______________________

33. An alarm clock suddenly going off.

______________________

34. A boat going to the bottom of a river.

______________________

35. Dead fish lying on the surface of a polluted lake.

______________________

36. A volcano throwing out lava and ash.

______________________

37. Orders for a new product arriving at a company very slowly.

general vocabulary

Objects & actions

______________________

B. Several of the words in the box on the previous page can have more than one meaning.
Use your dictionary to check which ones, then complete these sentences below with an appropriate word. You will need to change the form of most of the words.
1. The queues for the embassy were so long they __________________________ all the way down the street.
2. “What do you think you’re doing?” he __________________________angrily.
3. The government decided that the best economic course would be to let the dollar
__________________________ .
4. Prices have been __________________________steadily all year.
5. The light from the torch began to __________________________as the batteries ran out.
6. The twig __________________________loudly as he stood on it.
7. After the rainstorms passed, the floodwaters gradually __________________________ .
8. The discussion __________________________around the problem of student accommodation.
9. The doctor __________________________his broken arm.
10. The car __________________________out of control on the icy road.

21
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Likes & dislikes
A. Look at the words and expressions in the box and decide if they have a positive connotation (for example, they tell us that somebody likes something) or a negative connotation (for example, they tell us that somebody dislikes something).

loathe



yearn for

fancy



keen on

appeal to



fascinated by



detest


passionate about




fond of

look forward to


cannot stand

tempted by



disgust







dread

captivated by


long for

repel



attracted to

revolt



cannot bear

B. Now look at these pairs of sentences. Sometimes, both sentences are correct, sometimes one of them is wrong (for example, the construction is wrong) or it does not sound natural.
Decide which ones.
1. A. It was well-known that he was loathed by the other teachers.
B. It was well-known that the other teachers loathed him.

2. A. Sometimes I yearn for some time on my own.
B. Sometimes some time on my own is yearned for.

3. A. Sport is passionate about by a lot of people
B. A lot of people are passionate about sport.

4. A. Animals are quite fond of by British people.
B. British people are quite fond of animals.

5. A. The first time I visited Venice, I was captivated by the city.
B. The first time I visited Venice, the city captivated me.

6. A. Going to the cinema tonight is fancied by me.
B. I fancy going to the cinema tonight.

7. A. From a young age, the idea of travelling was keen on me.
B. From a young age I was keen on the idea of travelling.

8. A. I look forward to hearing from you soon.
B. To hearing from you soon I look forward.

9. A. It is a well-known fact that students dread exams.
B. It is a well-known fact that exams are dreaded by students.

22
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

10. A. Most children long for the long summer holiday to arrive.
B. The long summer holiday is longed for by most children.

11. A. His sense of humour is appealed to by watching other people suffer.
B. Watching other people suffer appeals to his sense of humour.

general vocabulary

Likes & dislikes

12. A. Racism is really detested by me.
B. I really detest racism.

13. A. A lot of people cannot stand the long British winters.
B. The long British winters cannot be stood by a lot of people.

14. A. The idea of living in a cold country repels me.
B. I am repelled by the idea of living in a cold country.

15. A. She was attracted to the tall, handsome man who had helped her.
B. The tall, handsome man who had helped her attracted her.

16. A. I have always been fascinated by information technology.
B. Information technology has always fascinated me.

17. A. Were you tempted by his offer of a job in Australia?
B. Did his offer of a job in Australia tempt you?

18. A. His mannerisms and habits disgusted me.
B. I was disgusted by his mannerisms and habits.

19. A. Bigoted, arrogant people revolt me.
B. I am revolted by bigoted, arrogant people.

20. A. Getting up early in the morning cannot be born by me.
B. One thing I cannot bear is getting up early in the morning.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

23
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Obligation & option
A. Look at sentences 1-10 and decide if the explanation which follows each one is true or false. Use the words and expressions in bold to help you decide.
1. During the exam, a pencil and eraser are required.
The people organising the exam will provide you with a pencil and an eraser.
2. Parents can be made liable for their children’s debts.
Parents may be legally responsible for the money their children owe.
3. He was obliged to pay back the money that he had won.
He had the choice whether or not to pay back the money that he had won.
4. Students doing holiday jobs are exempt from paying income tax.
Students doing holiday jobs pay a smaller amount of income tax than other people.
5. The United Nations voted to impose mandatory sanctions on the country.
The United Nations imposed legally-binding sanctions which had to be obeyed by everyone, without exception. 6. The doctors forced him to stop smoking.
The doctors asked him to stop smoking.
7. It was an emergency and she pressed the red button; there was no alternative.
There was nothing else she could do; she had to set off the alarm by pressing the red button.
8. Classes on Wednesday afternoons are optional.
It is necessary to attend classes on Wednesday afternoons.
9. It is compulsory to wear a crash helmet on a motorcycle.
It is your choice whether or not to wear a crash helmet when you ride a motorcycle.
10. The museum is asking visitors for a voluntary donation of £2.
You don’t need to pay £2 to visit the museum.
B. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word or expression from the exercise above. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible.
1. Visitors to the country are __________________________ to declare any excess tobacco or alcohol imports to the customs officer.
2. I’m afraid I have __________________________ but to resign from the committee.
3. If you are caught speeding, you will be __________________________ the payment of the fine.
4. Attendance at all classes is __________________________ , otherwise you may not get a certificate at the end of the course.
5. Many retired people do __________________________ work in their local community.
6. In some countries, there is a __________________________ death sentence for all drug traffickers.
7. For visitors to Britain from outside the European Union, a visa may be __________________________ .
8. He said he was innocent, but the police __________________________ him to confess.
9. Most new cars come with __________________________ air-conditioning.
10. Children’s clothes are __________________________ from VAT.
Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

24
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. Match the first part of each sentence in the left-hand column with its second part in the right-hand column using an appropriate word from the central column. These words should collocate with the underlined words in the right-hand column. In most cases, it is possible to use the words in the central column with more than one sentence.
SUCCESS
1. The two warring countries managed to...
2. During his first year as
President he managed to...
3. The company couldn’t afford to move to new premises but were able to...
4. He worked hard at his job and was soon able to...
5. The country badly needed to increase its overall standard of living and attempted to...
6. After four years of hard work, the motor racing team managed to...
7. He desperately wanted to start a new job, but first of all he had to...
8. Many people want to be rich but few...
9. I have a lot of plans, and one of them is to...

...secure...

...accomplish...

...his ambitions promoted to manager. of being marketing general vocabulary

Success & failure

...my aims of doing well at school and then going to university. ...an agreement for a new lease.

...attain...

...its targets - those of free education and healthcare within eight years.

...achieve...

...his obligations to his current employer. ...fulfil...

...their goal of millionaires. becoming

...their dreams of winning the
Monaco Grand Prix.
...realise...

...reach...

...a

than lot more predecessor had in previous five.

his the ...a compromise over the terms for peace.

B. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word or expression from A, B or C.
FAILURE
1. The People’s Foundation Party decided to _____________its plans to establish a coalition government with the Democratic Liberal Party.
A. abate

B. abandon

C. abhor

2. Peace talks between the two countries _____________ , with neither side able to agree on terms.
A. collapsed

B. collaborated

C. collared

3. Progress in the talks _____________when the inevitable impasse was reached.
A. faulted

B. faltered

C. fondled

4. Our planned visit to the Czech Republic _____________because we were unable to get the visas.
A. fell over

B. fell down

C. fell through

5. The company _____________with debts of over £1 million.
A. faulted

B. folded

C. foiled

6. Their plans to impose stricter import quotas _____________when the European Bank declared their actions illegal.
A. mistook

B. mislead

C. misfired

25
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Ownership, giving, lending & borrowing
A. Complete sentences 1-13 with an appropriate word from the box. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible.
NOUNS

donation • possessions • lease • owners • tenants • rent • property mortgage • estate • proprietors • belongings • landlords • loan
1. The law ensures that _____________ respect the privacy of the people who live in their houses.
2. ____________________ of restaurants across the country protested at the new government tax that was put on food.
3. Private car ____________________ were hit the hardest when tax on petrol was increased.
4. The price of commercial ____________________ has almost doubled in the last four years.
5. When the recession hit, he was forced to sell his 250-acre ____________________ .
6. Many families lost all their ____________________ when the river flooded.
7. Put your ____________________ in the locker and give the key to the receptionist.
8. We will need to relinquish the offices when the ____________________ runs out at the end of the year.
9. They applied to the World Bank for a ____________________ to help pay off their balance of payments deficit. 10. A lot of people lost their homes when the interest rate rose so much they were unable to pay off their ____________________ .
11. The ____________________ complained to the council that the house they were living in was overrun with vermin.
12. The law does little to protect families who are thrown out of their homes because they are unable to pay the ____________________ .
13. Everybody is being asked to make a ____________________ to help the victims of the disaster.
B. The words in bold have been put into the wrong sentences. Decide which sentences they should belong in. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.
VERBS
1. Banks will refuse to rent money to anyone without sufficient collateral.
2. If you want to contribute a room in the centre of the city, you should be prepared to pay a lot of money. 3. The best way to see the country is to provide a car from an agency for a couple of weeks.
4. Companies allocate from banks to finance their business.
5. It is not only the wealthy who provide for money to charities.
6. It is our responsibility to leave our parents when they get old.
7. The government will tax you heavily for any money that your relatives may lend for you in their will.
8. Local councils will borrow free accommodation to the most needy on a first-come, first-served basis.

26

9. Charities such as the Red Crescent hire free medical aid to areas hit by disasters.
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. Put these words into the table based on the group of things they usually refer to.

batch • huddle • heap / pile • company • stack • team • litter swarm • flock • platoon • bundle • herd •

throng • gang • crowd

bunch • set • pack • staff • group • crew • cast • shoal / school
People in general

People working together

Animals

Objects

general vocabulary

Groups

B. Complete these sentences using one of the words from the above task. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.
1.
2.
3.
4
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

After the election, the huge _____________ danced in the street.
The refugees sat in a small, tight _____________ underneath some trees.
The first prize was a _____________ of cheap saucepans.
The school is closed because the _____________ are on strike.
The theatre _____________ benefited from a government grant.
Following an outbreak of BSE, a _____________ of cows has been destroyed.
The company processed a _____________of orders.
A _____________ of football fans wandered around the street breaking shop windows.
Half the _____________ of the film were nominated for Oscars.
They threw the weapons in a _____________ on the ground.
A small _____________ of people petitioned the Prime Minister outside his house.
The _____________ of fish that had been caught were deemed inedible owing to pollution in the water.
We were all surprised when our dog gave birth to a _____________ of puppies.
Cabin _____________ on aircraft are drilled in safety procedure.
As winter approaches, the _____________ of geese fly south to warmer climes.
Half the football _____________ were sent off in disgrace.
The stars had difficulty making their way through the _____________ of people outside the cinema.
A _____________ of soldiers from the Third Infantry have been charged with human rights abuses.
The immigrant arrived clutching nothing but a _____________ of personal possessions.
A _____________ of flowers is always an acceptable gift if you visit someone.
We were unable to open the door because a _____________ of boxes was blocking it.
The women fell on the surprised burglar like a _____________ of wild dogs.
The harvest was destroyed by a huge _____________ of insects.

C. The following words all refer to groups of people meeting for a specific purpose. Match the words with their definitions below.

delegation • tribunal • symposium • seminar • lecture • tutorial
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

students listening to a talk on a particular subject a group of representatives (for example, of a union) who want to explain something to someone a student or small group of students who attend a teaching session a meeting organised to discuss a specialised subject a small group of university students discussing a subject with a teacher a specialist court outside the main judicial system which examines special problems and makes judgements

For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

27

general vocabulary

Around the world
A. Choose the correct geopolitical word in A, B or C to complete each of these sentences.
1. Japan, Korea and the Philippines are all in the __________________________ .
A. Near East

B. Middle East

C. Far East

2. The South Pole is situated in the __________________________ .
A. Arctic

B. Antarctic

C. Antarctica

3. New Zealand is part of __________________________ .
A. Australia

B. Australasia

C. Austria

4. Bangladesh is part of __________________________ .
A. the Indian subcontinent

B. India

C. Indiana

5. Nicaragua is a country in __________________________ .
A. North America

B. South America

C. Central America

6. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Panama and Honduras all form part of __________________________ .
A. Latin America

B. Spanish America

C. South America

7. Apartheid was abolished in __________________________ in the 1990s.
A. southern Africa

B. North Africa

C. South Africa

8. The United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland form a group of islands known as
__________________________ .
A. Great Britain

B. England

C. the British Isles.

9. The United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland form part of __________________________ .
A. Continental Europe
10. Kuwait, Oman and the United as__________________________ .
A. the West Indies

B. Mainland Europe
Arab

Emirates

B. the Gulf States

C. Europe form part

of

what

is

known

C. the European Union

11. Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark are known collectively as __________________________ .
A. the Baltic Republics

B. the Caribbean

C. Scandinavia

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

28
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

B. Change each country / area below into the nationality and / or language spoken of the people who come from that place (for example: Britain = British). Write each word in the appropriate space in the table. Be careful, because usually we add or remove letters to / from the name of the country before we add the ending.

Greece



Portugal



Ireland



Belgium



Finland

Wales



Scotland



Holland



Lebanon



Malaysia

Sweden



Iran

Burma



Switzerland
Kuwait

Thailand














Bangladesh



America

Saudi Arabia
Russia

Peru

Canada

Denmark •

Yemen










Israel
Spain

Norway




Iraq • Australia
Philippines

England



Japan

general vocabulary

Around the world

Turkey


Malta
Poland

-ese

-(i)an

-ish

-i

-ic

Others

(e.g., China =
Chinese)

(e.g., Brazil =
Brazilian)

(e.g., Britain =
British)

(e.g., Pakistan
= Pakistani)

(e.g., Iceland
= Icelandic)

(e.g., France =
French)

C. A quick quiz. Answer these questions.
1. What do we call a variety of language spoken in a particular area? Is it an accent, a dialect or an idiom? 2. What is your mother tongue?
3. What do we call a person who is able to speak (a) two languages and (b) three or more languages fluently? 4. With regard to your country, what is (a) the name of the continent in which it is located, (b) the main language spoken and (c) the nationality of the people?

29
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Size, quantity & dimension
A. Look at the following list and decide whether we are talking about something big (in terms of size, quantity or dimension) or something small.

1. a minute amount of dust __________________

14. a giant building __________________________

2. a minuscule piece of cloth__________________

15. a gargantuan meal ______________________

3. an enormous book ________________________
4. a mammoth job __________________________

16. a wide avenue __________________________
17. a broad river ____________________________

5. a huge waste of time ______________________
18. a tall man________________________________
6. a vast room ______________________________
19. a high mountain ________________________
7. a gigantic wave __________________________
20. a deep lake ______________________________
8. a tiny car ________________________________
21. a shallow pool __________________________
9. a monumental error ______________________
10. a colossal statue__________________________
11. plenty of food __________________________

22. a long-distance journey __________________
23. a vast crowd of supporters ________________

12. dozens of times __________________________

24. tons of work ____________________________

13. a narrow alleyway________________________

25. a great deal of time ______________________

B. Now complete these sentences using one of the expressions above. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.
1. Before you embark on __________________________ , it is essential that you are well-prepared.
2. We spent ______________________________ working on the plans for the new library.
3. I’ve told you ______________________________ not to smoke in here.
4. __________________________ must have blown into the camera and scratched the film.
5. Villages along the coast were destroyed when _________________________ caused by the earthquake swept houses into the sea.
6. It was _________________________ going there; he didn’t even turn up.

30

7. One of the Roman emperor Nero’s greatest excesses was to build _________________________ of himself in the city centre.
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

8. Despite the poor harvest, there was _________________________ for the whole population.

9. _________________________ called the Thames separates the city of London from the suburbs to the south.

10. _________________________ gathered to see their favourite football team.

general vocabulary

Size, quantity & dimension

11. We ate _________________________ and then lay down to rest.

12. It was _________________________ and his voice echoed around the walls.

13. We have _________________________ to do in the next few days, so I suggest we start as soon as possible.

14. Loch Ness is _________________________ in the Highlands of Scotland.

15. The only evidence was _________________________ which was stuck on a branch of one of the trees in the garden.

16. ‘Sumo’ is _________________________ containing almost 1,000 pictures by the controversial photographer Helmut Newton.

17. He had _________________________ to do, so took the phone off the hook, made himself some coffee and sat down at his desk.

18. The Matterhorn, _________________________ in Switzerland, has claimed the lives of many who have tried to climb it.

19. He made _________________________ in his calculations and had to start all over again.

20. The manufacturers have built _________________________ which is ideal for getting around the city.

21. The NEC in Birmingham is _________________________ which is used for concerts and exhibitions.

22. The main feature of the town is a _________________________ lined with shops and cafés.

23. I could see the key glittering at the bottom of _________________________ .

24. Legend spoke of __________________________ dressed in gold, known as El Dorado.

25. _________________________ ran along the side of the house to a garden at the rear.
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

31

general vocabulary

Shape & features
A. (Shape) Match the words below with the picture that best represents each word.

1. pyramid

2. cube

7. rectangle 8. triangle

A

3. crescent
9. square

B

C

H

G

4. spiral
10. circle

D

I

5. cone

6. sphere

11. cylinder

12. oval

E

J

F

K

L

B. (Shape) Look at the following list of words and decide what the correct adjective form is,
A, B or C.
1. sphere

______________

A. spherous

B. spherical

C. spherocous

2. cube

______________

A. cubed

B. cubous

C. cubal

3. cone

______________

A. conacular

B. conous

C. conical

4. rectangle

______________

A. rectanglous

B. rectanglis

C. rectangular

5. triangle

______________

A. triangular

B. trianglous

C. triangled

6. circle

______________

A. circled

B. circulous

C. circular

7. square

______________

A. square

B. squaret

C. squarous

8. cylinder

______________

A. cylindrous

B. cylindal

C. cylindrical

C. (Features) Match the descriptions on the left with the objects, geographical features, etc., on the right.
1. a sharp edge with jagged teeth

________

A. a country road in very poor condition

2. steep, with a pointed peak

________

B. somebody’s hair

3. rolling, with undulating wheat fields

________

C. a very old tree

4. curved, with a smooth surface

________

D. a knife

5. flat, with words and dotted lines

________

E. a slow-moving river

6. wavy, with blonde highlights

________

F. a mountain

7. meandering, with a calm surface

________

G. a banana

8. winding and bumpy, with deep potholes

________

H. agricultural countryside

9. hollow, with rough bark

________

I. an application form

32
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. (Emphasis) Match the sentences on the left with an appropriate sentence on the right.
1. The minister’s emphasis on the word
‘peace’ was noticeable.
2. Our guide accentuated the importance of remaining calm if there was trouble.
3. Our teacher explained that it was crucially important to pace ourselves while revising for the exam.

A. The government will have to sit up and take note of what these important people have to say.
B. She emphasised the fact that panicking would only make matters worse.
C. The leader gave prominence to the need to create better job opportunities.

4. At the People’s Party conference, the accent was on youth unemployment.

D. We consider progress in this field to be extremely important.

5. Prominent trade unionists have called for a boycott of imported goods.

E. He put great stress on the maxim that ‘All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy’.

6. It is of crucial importance that we make more use of technology if we are to make progress. F.

general vocabulary

Emphasis & misunderstanding

He stressed again and again the importance of an established détente.

B. (Emphasis) Now complete these sentences with an expression in bold from the above exercise. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible.
1. Some medical treatments do very little to help the patient. In fact, in some cases, they only
__________________________ the pain.
2. The revolution began when a __________________________ member of the ruling party was assassinated. 3. At the meeting of the Students’ Council, the __________________________ was on better standards of accommodation. 4. She __________________________ the need to be fully prepared for all eventualities while travelling.
5. The Minister of Transport __________________________ on the need for an integrated transport policy.
6. It is __________________________ that we try to improve relations between our countries.
7. She banged the table for __________________________ as she spoke.
C. (Misunderstanding) Complete sentences 1 - 9 with an appropriate word or expression from the box. In some cases, more than one answer is possible.

mix-up

misapprehension

obscure
• mistaken

• impression •
• confusion • assumed

distorted
• confused

1. She was __________________________ by the journalist’s questions.
2. There were scenes of ____________________ at the airport when the snowstorm stopped all the flights.
3. We nearly didn’t catch our flight because of a __________________________ over the tickets.
4. There are several __________________________ points in his letter. It’s not very clear.
5. He _____________________ the meaning of my speech, creating the false impression that I was a racist.
6. He was under the __________________________ that socialism and communism were the same thing.
7. The jury __________________________ , wrongly, that he was innocent.
8. They were __________________________ in the belief that the refugees were in the country for economic rather than political reasons.
9. The press were under the __________________________ that the Prime Minister was about to resign.

33
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Changes 2
A. Look at these sentences and decide if the statement which follows each one is true or false.
Use the words and expressions in bold to help you decide.
1. The population of the country has trebled in the last 25 years.
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of people living in the country.
2. Unemployment has dropped by about 2% every year for the last six years.
There has been a steady decrease in the number of people out of work.
3. The government has spent a lot of money improving roads around the country.
There has been a deterioration in the national road system.
4. The number of exam passes achieved by the school’s pupils has risen by almost 50%.
There has been a decline in the number of exam passes.
5. American travellers abroad have discovered that they can buy more foreign currency with their dollar.
There has been a weakening of the dollar.
6. It is now much easier to import goods into the country than it was a few years ago.
There has been a tightening up of border controls.
7. We’re increasing our stocks of coal before the winter begins.
We’re running down our stocks of coal.
8. Prices have gone up by about 4% every year since 1998.
There has been a constant rise in the rate of inflation.
9. The pass rate for the exam was 3% lower this year than it was last year.
There has been a sharp fall in the pass rate.
10. The alliance are going to reduce the number of conventional weapons in their armed forces.
The alliance are going to build up the number of weapons they have.
11. Deflation has adversely affected industries around the country.
There has been a growth in industrial activity.
12. The rules are much stricter now than they were before.
There has been a relaxation of the rules.
13. Last year, 12% of the population worked in industry and 10% worked in agriculture. This year, 14% of the population work in industry and 8% work in agriculture.
There has been a narrowing of the gap between those working in different sectors of the economy.

34
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

14. Some management roles in the company will not exist this time next year.
Some management roles are going to be phased out.
15. More people are shopping at large supermarkets rather than small village shops.
There has been an upward trend in the number of people shopping in small village shops.
16. Her English is clearly better now than it was when she first arrived.

general vocabulary

Changes 2

There has been marked progress in her English.
17. People live in better houses, drive nicer cars and eat higher-quality food than they did twenty years ago.
There has been a general improvement in the standard of living.
18. Our company has opened factories in France, Germany and Italy in the last five years.
Our company has witnessed considerable expansion in the last five years.
19. The government will spend less on the National Health Service next year.
There are going to be cuts in healthcare spending next year.
20. British people nowadays want to see more of the world.
British people nowadays want to narrow their horizons.

B. Check your answers, then use some of the words and expressions in bold above and in the answer key to write some sentences about your country.

35
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Opposites
Replace the words in bold in these sentences with a word from the box which has an opposite meaning. VERBS

withdrew denied •


fell



rewarded

deteriorated





loosened

abandoned



refused (to let)



forbade





set

lowered

demolished • retreated • refused • simplified • defended • rejected

1. They accepted the offer of a ceasefire.

2. He admitted telling lies in his original statement.

3. The army slowly advanced, leaving a trail of devastation in its path.

4. They agreed to meet to discuss the future of the organisation.

5. The minister attacked his party’s policies in a speech in Parliament.

6. The apartments blocks they built were the ugliest in the city.

7. He complicated matters by rewriting the original proposal.

8. They continued with their plans to assassinate the king when he opened the parliament.

9. He deposited £7,000 - half his college fees for the forthcoming year.

10. Relations between the two countries have improved considerably in the last year.

11. He permitted us to present our petition directly to the President.

12. The members of the commune were punished for their part in the revolution.

13. He raised the overall standards of the company within two months of his appointment.

14. As soon as the sun rose, the demonstrators began to appear on the streets.

15. Prices rose sharply in the first three months of the financial year.

16. As soon as he had tightened the knots, he pushed the boat out.

36
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

ADJECTIVES

scarce



delicate even easy






approximate

innocent



marked





detrimental graceful dim






compulsory

reluctant clear •


crude flexible 1. The meaning of his words was very ambiguous.

general vocabulary

Opposites

2. According to his colleagues, he’s a very awkward person to deal with.

3. When she first started dancing, she was very awkward.

4. His policies were beneficial to the economy as a whole.

5. We need exact figures before we embark on a new venture.

6. The jury decided he was guilty of the crime.

7. Add up all the odd numbers between 1 and 20 to get a result.

8. Despite the weather, supplies of food after the harvest were plentiful.

9. The laws protecting the green belt around the city are very rigid.

10. There is a slight difference in the way the company is run these days compared with a few years ago.

11. The device is very sophisticated and should only be operated by someone who is familiar with it.

12. The spices used in the production of some international dishes have a very strong flavour.

13. The strong light from the torch picked out details on the walls of the cave.

14. Attendance at afternoon classes should be voluntary.

15. A lot of students are willing to attend classes on Saturday morning.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

37
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Addition, equation & conclusion
This module will help you to review more of the important words that we use to join ideas in an essay, a verbal presentation or sometimes in everyday speech (also see page 1 - Condition
- and page 9 - Contrast & comparison).
A. Put the following words and expressions into their correct place in the table depending on their function.

to

sum

up

similarly



in

addition

briefly



likewise


in

it


can

besides

brief



what’s more



to summarise



as well as




concluded

that





in

furthermore

Addition
(For example: and)

be

to conclude

the

same

moreover therefore Equation
(For example: equally)

way




also




too thus along with correspondingly Conclusion
(For example: in conclusion)

B. Complete these sentences with one of the words or expressions from above. In most cases, more than one answer is possible.
1. Tourism brings much-needed money to developing countries. __________________________ , it provides employment for the local population.
2. __________________________ bringing much-needed money to developing countries, tourism provides employment for the local population.
3. Tourists should respect the local environment. __________________________ they should respect the local customs.
4. __________________________ industrial waste, pollution from car fumes is poisoning the environment.
5. In order to travel, you need a passport. __________________________ , you might need a visa, immunisation jabs and written permission to visit certain areas.
6. Drugs are banned in Britain - __________________________ weapons such as guns and knives.
7. All power corrupts. __________________________ , absolute power corrupts absolutely.
8. You shouldn’t smoke, drink, take drugs or eat unhealthy food. __________________________ , you should live a more healthy lifestyle.
9. The ozone layer is becoming depleted, the air in the cities is becoming too dirty to breathe and our seas and rivers are no longer safe to swim in. __________________________ pollution is slowly destroying the planet.
10. Your grades have been very poor for the past two years. __________________________ you need to work really hard if you want to pass your exams next month.

38
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

Look at the list of tasks in the first list. In particular, look at the words in bold, which are telling the writer/speaker what he/she must do. Match these words with a suitable definition of the task command in the second list. Two of these definitions can be used more than once.
1. Account for the increased use of technology in modern society.

______

2. Analyse the effects of climactic change around the world.

______

3. Assess the improvements you have made in your English since you started using this book.

______

4. Compare the lifestyles of young people in Britain and young people in your country.

______

5. Define the word ‘hope’.

______

6. Demonstrate the different features of this computer.

______

7. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of growing up in a single-parent family.

______

8. Elaborate on your feelings about capital punishment.

______

9. Estimate the costs of setting up a website for the company.

______

10. Evaluate how useful our class visit to the Bank of England was.

______

11. Examine the causes of global warming.

______

12. Explain the sudden interest in old-fashioned toys such as yo-yos.

______

13. Identify the person who attacked you.

______

14. Illustrate the problems the National Health Service is currently facing.

______

15. Justify your reasons for refusing to help me.

______

16. Outline the history of the motor car in the last fifty years.

general vocabulary

Task commands

______

17. Predict the changes that we are going to see in information technology in the next ten years. ______
18. Suggest ways in which you can become a more efficient student.

______

19. Summarise your feelings towards a united Europe.

______

20. Trace the development of nuclear technology from its earliest days.

______

A. Describe what you think can be done in order to achieve something.
B. Tell in advance what you think will happen.
C. Explain, with real examples, why something has happened or is happening.
D. Give a brief history of something, in the order in which it happened.
E. Give the meaning of something.
F.

Talk about something with someone else, or write about it from different viewpoints.

G. Calculate (but not exactly) the value or cost of something.
H. Give a broad description of something without giving too much detail.
I.

Explain something closely and scientifically.

J.

Write or talk about the different aspects (e.g., causes, results) of something.

K. Explain something in more detail than you did previously.
L. Look at two things side by side to see how they are similar or different.
M. Explain something in a few main points, without giving too much detail.
N. Say why something has happened.
O. Show or prove that something is right or good.
P.

Show how something works, usually by physically operating it so that the other person knows what it does and how it works.

Q. Give a physical description of somebody.
R. Calculate the value of something.

39
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Confusing words & false friends
CONFUSING WORDS
Confusing words are two or more words which have a similar meaning to each other but are used in a different way.
OR
Are related to the same topic, but have a different meaning.
OR
Look similar, but have a different meaning.
FALSE FRIENDS
False friends are words in English which have a similar-looking word in another language but which have a different meaning.
Complete the following sentences with the appropriate word.
1. action / activity
The police took immediate ________________ when they realised the situation was getting out of hand.
Economic __________________ stagnated as the recession took hold.

2. advice / advise
Can you __________________ me on the best course of action to take?
He offered me some excellent __________________ .

3. affect / effect
Cuts in spending will have a serious __________________ on the National Health Service.
The strike will seriously __________________ train services.

4. appreciable / appreciative
There is an __________________ difference between manslaughter and murder.
She was very __________________ of our efforts to help.

5. assumption / presumption
They raised taxes on the __________________ that it would help control spending.
It’s sheer __________________ for the government to suggest things have improved since they came to power.

6. avoid / prevent
Rapid government reforms managed to __________________ a revolution taking place.
He’s always trying to __________________ taking a decision if he can help it.

7. beside / besides
The office is just __________________ the railway station.
__________________ their regular daytime job, many people do extra work in the evening.

40
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

8. briefly / shortly
__________________ before the conflict began, the army pulled down the border posts.
The minister spoke __________________ about the need for political reform.

9. channel / canal
The television __________________ received a formal complaint about the programme.

general vocabulary

Confusing words & false friends

The Suez __________________ was built in the second half of the nineteenth century.

10. conscientious / conscious
Most people are __________________ of the need to protect the environment.
__________________ workers should be rewarded for their hard work.

11. continual / continuous
A __________________ trade embargo has badly affected the economic infrastructure.
The computer has given us __________________ problems ever since we installed it.

12. control / inspect
Environmental health officers regularly __________________ kitchens and other food preparation areas.
The government plans to __________________ the price of meat to make sure it doesn’t go up too much.

13 criticism(s) / objection(s)
They didn’t raise any __________________ when we insisted on inspecting the figures.
The government’s plan was met with severe __________________ .

14. damage / injury / harm
It was a severe ________________ which needed immediate hospital treatment.
A lot of __________________ was caused to buildings along the coast during the storm.
There’s no __________________ in taking a break from your job now and then.

15. discover / invent
When did he __________________ the telephone?
Did Alexander Fleming __________________ penicillin?

41
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Confusing words & false friends
16. during / for / while
Shops were closed __________________ the duration of the conflict.
__________________ the transition from a dictatorship to democracy, the country experienced severe strikes and riots.
The bomb went off __________________ the President was making his speech.

17. however / moreover
The plan was good in theory. __________________ , in practice it was extremely difficult to implement. The plan was excellent. __________________ , it was clear from the beginning that it was going to be a success.

18. inconsiderate / inconsiderable
An __________________ amount of money was wasted.
__________________ behaviour makes life unpleasant for everybody.

19. intolerable / intolerant
I consider his behaviour to be quite __________________ .
The government is __________________ of other political parties.

20. job / work
Everybody has the right to a decent __________________ with good pay.
Following the recession, many people are still looking for __________________ .

21. lay(s) / lie(s)
The city of Quito __________________ near the equator.
The manager made it clear he intended to __________________ down some strict rules.

22. look at / watch
We must __________________ the situation in Lugumba carefully, and be prepared to act if violence flares again.
We need to __________________ the problem carefully and decide if there is anything we can do about it.

23. permission / permit
I’m afraid we can’t __________________ photography in here.
They received __________________ to attend the sessions as long as they didn’t interrupt.

42
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

24. possibility / chance
There is always the __________________ that the government will reverse its decision.
If we act now, we have a good __________________ of finding a cure for the disease.

25. practise / practice
It’s important to __________________ your English whenever possible.

general vocabulary

Confusing words & false friends

You need more __________________ before you take the exam.

26. priceless / worthless
__________________ paintings by artists like Van Gogh should not be in the hands of private collectors. As inflation spiralled out of control, paper money suddenly became __________________ .

27. principal(s) / principle(s)
Many people refuse to eat meat on __________________ .
The __________________ of the college is an ardent non-smoker.
The country’s __________________ products are paper and wood.
Not many people are familiar with the __________________ of nuclear physics.

28. process / procession
The __________________ made its way down the avenue.
Applying for a visa can be a long and frustrating __________________ .

29. raise / rise
As prices __________________ , demand usually drops.
In response to the current oil shortage, most airlines plan to __________________ their fares.

30. respectable / respectful
The delegates listened in __________________ silence as the chairman spoke.
They want to bring up their children in an area which is considered to be __________________ .

31. treat / cure
Hospitals are so understaffed that they find it almost impossible to ________________ patients with minor injuries.
They were unable to __________________ the disease, and hundreds died as a result.

43
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Useful interview expressions
Below you will see some common expressions that you might find useful in the IELTS speaking test. Put each expression into the correct box according to the function of that expression.
25. To put it another way...

1. May I think about that for a moment? 14. What are your feelings about...? 2. In short,...

15. So in conclusion,...

3. What I’m trying to say is...

27. In brief,...

4. To sum up,...

16. I see things rather differently myself

5. What are your views on...?

17. True enough

6. Would you mind repeating that? 18. That’s right

29. Well, my own opinion is that... 7. How can I put this?
8. In other words...

26. That’s just what I was thinking 28. Could I just say that...

30. That’s my view exactly

19. I don’t entirely agree with you 31. To summarise,...
32. What was that?

9. Sorry to butt in...

20. Perhaps I should make that clearer by saying...

10. Well, as a matter of fact...

21. How can I best say this?

11. I’m not so sure about that

22. Could you repeat what you said? 34. Let me get this right

23. I couldn’t agree more

36. I’m afraid I didn’t catch that

24. Actually...

37. What’s your opinion?

12. Pardon?
13. I can’t help thinking the same Agreeing with somebody
Example: Yes, I agree.

Interrupting
Example: Excuse me for interrupting.

Asking somebody for their opinion
Example: What do you think about...?

Giving yourself time to think
Example: (in response to a question)
Let me see.

33. I must take issue with you on that

35. Sorry to interrupt, but....

Disagreeing with somebody
Example: I’m afraid I disagree.

Asking for clarification or repetition
Example: I’m sorry?

Saying something in another way
Example: What I mean is.....

Summing up
Example: So basically.....

44
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Complete the following phrasal verbs with a preposition(s) or particle(s) from the box. The meaning of the phrasal verb is given in brackets at the end of each sentence.

over on out



back


into

down






to

in





forward



up off •


of behind •

with

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 1

1. Some parents are criticized for the way they bring __________ their children. (raise)
2. The committee members fell __________ over plans for the new health centre. (argued)
3. They refused to face __________ __________ their responsibilities, with disastrous consequences.
(accept an unpleasant state of affairs, and try to deal with it)
4. The President decided to call __________ his visit to Europe. (not to go ahead with something)
5. It is only at election time that Members of Parliament count __________ support from their constituents. (rely / depend)
6. Many developing countries are failing to catch __________ neighbours. (get to the same level)

__________ their more developed

7. It can take months or even years for political scandals to die __________. (become less strong)
8. An alarming number of students drop __________ __________ school early every year. (leave)
9. Major international companies can't figure __________ the popularity of the anti-capitalist movement.
(find it hard to understand)
10. If they examined the issues more closely, they would find __________ the reasons for the changes.
(discover)
11. As we grow __________ our priorities change. (change from being children to being adults),
12. Students can be quite creative with the reasons they give for not handing __________ their homework.
(giving their teachers)
13. Salaries very rarely keep __________ __________ the cost of living. (rise at the same speed as)
14. The latest Avicenna report leaves __________ the reasons for demographic shifts. (does not include)
15. It does point __________ the mistakes made by the agency over the last few years. (show)
16. Before you write your essay, you should look __________ the Party's history. (research)
17. Many employees carried __________ working despite pressure from the unions. (continued)
18. Once people fall __________ with their mortgage payments, they come under extreme financial pressure from their bank. (become late)
19. The first step to a healthier lifestyle is to cut __________ smoke each day. (reduce)

__________ the number of cigarettes you

20. It is becoming more common for people to cut __________ meat from their diet. (stop eating)
21. During the 1990's, a lot of hospitals were taken __________ by private trusts. (become controlled by another organisation)
22. When computer technology fails us, we have to make do __________ more primitive methods. They're called 'pen and paper'. (use something because there is nothing else available)
23. In this essay, I'd like to put __________ the arguments in favour of global capitalism. (suggest or state the case for something)
24. When I look __________ __________ my childhood, I remember the many sacrifices my parents made for me. (think about something that happened in the past)

45
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 2
Complete the second sentence in each pair with a phrasal verb from the box so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence. You will need to change the verb form in most of the sentences. break down



do up

end up






carry out

let down



let off

sort out



split up



cut back on



fall through pull out of


wear off

cut off







hold up

do away with


keep on



show up

pull through wear out



work out

1. Peace talks between the two countries collapsed when neither side reached an agreement.
Peace talks between the two countries __________ when neither side reached an agreement.

2. I'm trying to calculate if we've sold more this year than last year.
I'm trying to __________ if we've sold more this year than last year.

3. The effects of the drug disappear after a few hours.
The effects of the drug __________ after a few hours.

4. A lot of people exhaust themselves through overwork.
A lot of people __________ themselves __________ through overwork.

5. Despite the severity of the disease, many people recover with the help of appropriate drugs.
Despite the severity of the disease, many people __________ with the help of appropriate drugs.

6. Through careful negotiation, they were able to resolve the problem.
Through careful negotiation, they were able to __________ the problem.

7. When parents start to live apart, it can be particularly difficult for their children to cope.
When parents __________ , it can be particularly difficult for their children to cope.

8. At the opening night, only a few audience members came.
At the opening night, only a few audience members __________ .

9. The Australian partners stopped being a part of the deal at the last moment.
The Australian partners __________ the deal at the last moment.

10. People celebrate the Chinese New Year by exploding fireworks in the street.
People celebrate the Chinese New Year by __________ fireworks in the street.

46
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11. It is pointless relying on people to help you if they don't do as they promised.
It is pointless relying on people to help you if they __________ you ___________.

12. New government pension plans mean that many people will continue working well into their seventies. New government pension plans mean that many people will __________ seventies. working well into their

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 2

13. The planned changes were delayed because committee members argued among themselves.
The planned changes were __________ because committee members argued among themselves.

14. At the last minute, the plans for the proposed motorway didn't take place.
At the last minute, the plans for the proposed motorway __________ .

15. During the recession, many workers in the primary sector became jobless.
During the recession, many workers in the primary sector __________ jobless.

16. Doctors did some tests on the patients.
Doctors __________ some tests on the patients.

17. Minor economies, such as spending less on staff costs, can often prevent a company sliding into bankruptcy. Minor economies, such as __________ bankruptcy. staff costs, can often prevent a company sliding into

18. We were accidentally disconnected in the middle of our phone call.
We were accidentally __________ in the middle of our phone call.

19. Once the government removed quotas, the market was flooded with cheap foreign imports.
Once the government __________ quotas, the market was flooded with cheap foreign imports.

20. It cost almost £8 million to renovate the stadium, by which time the team was in serious financial difficulties. It cost almost £8 million to __________ the stadium, by which time the team was in serious financial difficulties. 47
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general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 3
These sentences can all be completed with a phrasal verb using come or get. In one case, either may be possible. Make sure you use the correct form of the verb in each one.
1. In rural districts, it can be difficult to __________ by without a car.
2. Scientists __________ across the cure by accident, while studying the health benefits of a rare species of plant.
3. The anti-smoking message is finally __________ through to people.
4. Large industries can no longer __________ away with dumping industrial waste in rivers.
5. Doctors realised there was going to be a problem when several people in the same village __________ down with suspected food poisoning.
6. It can be very difficult to __________ down to studying for exams when the weather is nice.
7. It was only after he __________ into his inheritance after his father died that he was able to expand the company.
8. After the revolution, it took almost five years for the country to __________ round to opening its borders. 9. The government __________ up against a lot of opposition from locals when they proposed building an immigration centre near the village.
10. Developed countries are usually able to __________ through a period of recession by drawing on financial reserves.
11. There was strong resistance to the union when it urged workers to __________ out on strike.
12. People who live in close proximity to one another must learn to __________ on with their neighbours.
13. Nothing __________ of the company's plans to develop solar-powered vehicles.
14. The final bill for the project __________ to almost £10 million.
15. For most poor people, __________out of the cycle of poverty can be next to impossible.
16. In any dispute with an insurance company, it is usually the consumer who __________ off the worst.
17. When supply of a particular product exceeds demand, it is common for the price to __________ down.
18. By the time the message __________ through it was too late to evacuate the residents.
19. The country never __________ over the effects of the civil war.
20. Generally, people are reluctant to break rules, but will try to _____ round them somehow.

48
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The following sentences all use phrasal verbs with give, go or look. However, half of them use the wrong phrasal verb. Decide which ones are wrong and replace them with the correct phrasal verb, which you will find in the other sentences.
1. I'd like you to look after these figures and tell me if you think the project is possible.
2. As ticket prices go up, fewer people go to the cinema and prefer to stay at home with a video.
3. People who have to give in elderly relatives or other dependants should receive financial support.

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 4

4. The chancellor had decided to stand firm on his decision, but under pressure from protesters, he decided to go into and reduce tax on petrol.
5. The committee were asked to look into the latest crime statistics and try to establish a pattern.
6. It is important not to let the fire go out, as it's the main source of power.
7. Very few children give off their end-of-year school exams.
8. The threat of severe reprisals meant that many refused to give themselves up to the police.
9. Before entering an agreement, it is essential to go off the details very carefully.
10. People who want to know how to go about starting their own company should talk to a trained adviser. 11. Some people tend to go over others who are less fortunate purely because of their financial situation.
12. There were very few clues to the crime, and police didn't have enough information to go on.
13. People often look over the idea of starting their own company when they realise the risks that are involved. 14. Even if you fail the first time, you should go on trying.
15. After years of decline, government investment is revitalising the area, and things are beginning to look up.
16. The first step to a healthier lifestyle is to give up smoking.
17. New legislation lays down strict penalties for factories which look up to poisonous fumes.
18. We decided not to go through with our plans until we had sufficient capital.
19. Although children should look forward to their parents, many rebel against their values and way of life. 20. We asked them for more information, but they refused to look down on details.

49
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 5
The verbs and particles in the two boxes can be combined to make phrasal verbs, which can then be used to complete the sentences below.
Decide which phrasal verbs go into each sentence, and write the answers in the crossword grid. In many cases, you will need to change the form of the verb (eg, past participle, infinitive, third person 's', etc). The meaning of each phrasal verb is in italics at the end of each sentence.
Don't forget that some phrasal verbs need two particles.
The first one has been done as an example.

talk

put

take

run

opt

stand

pick

make

Clues across (

turn set on

off

with

for

round

against

down

aside

in

out

up

after

)

1. Accommodation in some cities is so expensive that some people cannot even afford to _____ the 8 weeks' deposit that is required. (to make a deposit) Answer = put down
4. They were reluctant to make changes, but we managed to _____ them _____. (to persuade somebody)
5. Children often _____ one of their parents, either in their mannerisms or in the way they look. (to resemble) 6. After _____ a few unexpected difficulties, they decided to scrap the project. (to stop because something is in the way)
8. They were _____ of the apartment by their landlord when they could no longer afford the rent, and ended up living on the street. (to be forced to leave)
11. When I was at school, some teachers unfairly _____ children who avoided sport because they prefered more creative interests and pastimes. (to choose someone to attack or criticize)
12. Although many companies offer their employees a pension programme, many decide to _____ of the programme and make their own arrangements. (to decide not to take part in something)
16. A lot of applicants expressed an interest in the job, but only a handful _____ for the interview. (to arrive for a meeting, appointment, etc)
19. Air pollution can _____ asthma and other chest diseases in those most vulnerable. (to start)
20. People who use credit cards unwisely can easily _____ debts of thousands of pounds every month. (to make debts go up quickly)
21. By the time he was 18, he had _____ his mind that he wanted to be famous. (to decide on something)

Clues down (

)

1. It's often a good idea to _____ some money for a 'rainy day'. (to save money)
2. Technology is moving at such a fast pace it is no longer possible to _____ all the latest developments.
(to understand or assimilate information)
3. Nobody was _____ by the government's false figures on unemployment. (to be fooled or tricked)
5. He _____ the job that was offered to him, even though he was desperate for the money. (to refuse something which is offered)
7. Most people will _____ a stressful job if the money is good enough. (to tolerate something which is not very pleasant)

50
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9. He was unable to make the speech, so I was asked to _____ and make it on his behalf. (to take the place of someone - often also used with 'for')
10. A lot of people are _____ the idea of working for themselves because of the lack of a regular salary.
(to be discouraged from doing something, usually because of a potentially negative outcome)
13. Once bad weather _____, people tend to stay at home rather than go out. (to start and become permanent) 14. Doctors amd medical experts were unable to _____ why some people survived the virus and others didn't. (to understand or know the reason for something)

general vocabulary

Phrasal verbs 5

15. She _____ a story about ghosts in the cellar to stop us going down there, but of course we didn't believe her. (to invent a story)
17. At the age of 38 he _____ the post of President, but lacked sufficient experience to be taken seriously.
(to apply for a job in politics, competing against other people for the same job)
18. Despite massive promotion by the tourist board. it took a long time for tourism to _____ again after the terrorist attacks. (to improve, to get better)
1.

P

2.

U

T

D

O

W

N

3.
4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.
13.
15.

16.

14.

17.

18.

19.
20.
21.

51
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general vocabulary

Spelling
A. There are several words in this passage which are spelt incorrectly. Can you find and correct them? Apart from condemming tobacco companies and rising the price of cigarettes, the goverment's anti-smoking campain has failed to have any long-term affects, and the only people bennefitting from it are the Inland Revenue departement.
Meanwhile, persistant smokers are being denied treatment by the NHS.

These words are spelt incorrectly

These are the correct spellings

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
B. Instructions as above.

It is argueable whether good pronounciation is more important than good grammer and vocabulery. Consientious students balance their aquisition of these skills, hopeing to acheive both fluency and accuracey. Teachers should encourage there students to practice all the relevant language skills.

These words are spelt incorrectly

These are the correct spellings

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

52
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10.
11.

C. Instructions as per previous page

It is becomming increasingly difficcult for many to find decent acommodation in
London at a price they can afford. To put it simpley, most people just don't have the neccesary funds. Organiseations such as Home Front can offer advise, but it widely agreed that the situation is no longer managable. The fact that city councils are building cheap, tempory housing for lower-paid profesionals is the only official acknowledgment of this problem.
These words are spelt incorrectly

general vocabulary

Spelling

These are the correct spellings

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

53
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topic-specific vocabulary

Education
A. Look at the sentences below and fill in the gaps using the appropriate word from
A, B or C.
1. He didn’t get a good grade the first time he did his IELTS exam, so decided to _____________ it.
A. resit
B. remake
C. repair
2. People who attend university later in life are often called _____________ students.
A. aged
B. mature
C. old
3. Although she had left school and was working, she went to evening classes at the local College of
_____________ Education.
A. Upper
B. Further
C. Higher
4. After he left school, he decided to go on to _____________ education and applied for a place at
Edinburgh University.
A. further
B. upper
C. higher
5. He received a local government _____________ to help him pay for his course.
A. fee
B. fare
C. grant
6. Education helps us to acquire knowledge and learn new _____________ .
A. skills
B. powers
C. abilities
7. Although she already had a first degree from university, she decided that she wanted to work towards a _____________ degree later in life.
A. further
B. senior
C. higher
8. We should make the best of every _____________ to learn.
A. chance
B. opportunity
C. availability
9. Nowadays, _____________ education is promoted a lot in schools.
A. body
B. health
C. vitality
10. A large number of parents are dissatisfied with the _____________ education system, and put their children into private schools instead.
A. government
B. national
C. state
11. Because so many students find exams stressful, some colleges offer a system of __________________ assessment instead.
A. continual
B. continuous
C. continuing
12. He has read a lot of books and _____________ a lot of knowledge.
A. acquired
B. won
C. achieved
B. Complete sentences 1-11 with a suitable word or expression from the box.

primary discipline •

numeracy


literacy




graduate day release



evening class


kindergarten



course


enrol

secondary • skills • pass • correspondence • qualifications • degree
1. When Michael was three, he started going to a __________________________ .
2. At the age of five, he entered __________________________ education.
3. He learned basic
__________________________
and __________________________ .

such

as

__________________________

54
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4. After he turned eleven he began to attend __________________________ school.
5. Although he was lazy and lacked sufficient __________________________ , he was able to
__________________________ his exams.
6. When he was eighteen he found a college which offered a __________________________ in Art and Design.
7. He was able to __________________________ for the course a few days before his nineteenth birthday.
8. He worked hard and three years later was able to __________________________ with a
__________________________ in Art and Design.
9. After that he followed a __________________________ course in photography from a college in the USA using the Internet.

topic-specific vocabulary

Education

10. The __________________________ he gained impressed an advertising company he wanted to work for.
11. Although he is now working, he has decided to attend an __________________________ after work, although he was disappointed that his boss didn’t offer him __________________________ .
C. Now read this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from
Tasks A and B. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
‘You are never too old to learn’. Do you agree with this statement?
Education is a long process that not only provides us with basic (1)__________________________ such as
(2)__________________________ and (3)__________________________ , but is also essential in shaping our future lives. From the moment we enter (4)__________________________ as small children, and as we progress through (5)__________________________ and (6)__________________________ education, we are laying the foundations for the life ahead of us. We must (7)__________________________ ourselves to work hard so that we can (8)__________________________ exams and gain the (9)__________________________ we will need to secure a good job. We must also (10)__________________________ valuable life skills so that we can fit in and work with those around us. And of course (11)__________________________ education helps us to understand how we can stay fit and healthy.
For most people, this process ends when they are in their mid-to-late teens. For others, however, it is the beginning of a lifetime of learning. After they finish school, many progress to
(12)__________________________ education where they will learn more useful skills such as computer literacy or basic business management. Others will (13)__________________________ on a programme of
(14)__________________________ education at a university where, with hard work, they will have the opportunity to (15)__________________________ after three or four years with a well-earned
(16)__________________________ . After that, they may work for a while before opting to study for a
(17)__________________________ degree - an MA, for example, or a PhD. Alternatively, they may choose to attend an (18)__________________________ after work or, if they have a sympathetic employer, obtain
(19)__________________________ so that they can study during the week. And if they live a long way from a college or university, they might follow a (20)__________________________ course using mail and the
Internet. In fact, it is largely due to the proliferation of computers that many people who have not been near a school for many years, have started to study again and can proudly class themselves as
(21)__________________________ students.
We live in a fascinating and constantly changing world, and we must continually learn and acquire new knowledge if we are to adapt and keep up with changing events. Our schooldays are just the beginning of this process, and we should make the best of every (22) __________________________ to develop ourselves, whether we are eighteen or eighty. You are, indeed, never too old to learn.

55
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topic-specific vocabulary

The media
A. Match the words and expressions in box A with a suitable definition in box B.
Box A.

1. current affairs
5. broadsheets
9. web

2. reporters
6. coverage

10. website

3. journalists

4. tabloids

7. information overload

11. download

12. the Internet

8. broadcasts
13. log on

Box B.
I.

the millions of pages and sites which display text and images within the
Internet

J.

A. large-format newspapers

to transfer pages from a web site onto your own computer

B. small-format newspapers
C. people who write for newspapers or periodicals D. the amount of space or time given to an event in newspapers or on television

K. the international network millions of computers

E. the political situation as it is now

linking

G. to enter a password and start to access a computer system

L. a modern expression referring to the inability of a human to process everything he or she hears and sees

H. journalists who write reports of events for a newspaper, periodical or television programme M. a collection of related pages on the
World Wide Web created by a company, organisation or individual

F.

radio or television programmes

B. Complete this extract from a television interview with an appropriate word or expression from the box.

entertainment • invasion of privacy • exploiting • libel • censorship information • readership • media tycoon • paparazzi • freedom of the press unscrupulous •

gutter

press

•chequebook

journalism

Interviewer:

Welcome to today’s programme. Today we will be discussing the
1__________________________ , and asking the question: Should we allow newspapers and television channels to print or say whatever they like? In the studio I have television personality Timothy Blake and 2__________________________ Rupert Poubelle, multimillionaire owner of the Daily Views newspaper. Timothy, let’s start with you.

T.B.:

Thank you. In my opinion, it’s time the government imposed stricter
3__________________________
of the press in order to prevent
4__________________________ journalists and reporters from making money by
5__________________________ people. I have often accused Mr Poubelle’s organisation of
6__________________________ - nowadays I can’t even sunbathe in my garden without being photographed by his hordes of 7__________________________ . They’re like vultures.
And everything they print about me is lies, complete rubbish.

Interviewer:

But isn’t it true that the media provides us with valuable 8__________________________

56
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and 9__________________________ , and censorship would deprive us of much of this?
Rupert?
R.P.:

Of course. Mr. Blake’s accusations are unfounded, as are the accusations of
10__________________________ we have received, but I can safely say that my journalists never pay people money to create stories. We are simply reporting the truth. Of course, if Mr. Blake wants to sue us for 11__________________________ , he is very welcome to try.
But he would be depriving our 12__________________________ - all eight million of them
- of the things they want…

T.B.:

You’re talking rubbish, as usual, like the pathetic 13__________________________ you own and use to fill your pockets with dirty money.

R.P.:

Now look here, mate…

topic-specific vocabulary

The media

C. Now read this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from
Tasks A and B. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
‘The media plays a valuable role in keeping us informed and entertained. However, many people believe it has too much power and freedom.’ Discuss your views on this, giving examples and presenting a balanced argument both in favour of, and against, the power and freedom of the media.
Barely a hundred years ago, if we wanted to stay informed about what was going on in the world, we had to rely on word of mouth or, at best, newspapers. But because communication technology was very basic, the news we received was often days or weeks old.
We still have newspapers, of course, but they have changed almost beyond recognition. Whether we choose to read the 1__________________________ , with their quality 2__________________________ of news and other 3__________________________ by top 4__________________________ and articles by acclaimed
5__________________________ , or if we prefer the popular 6__________________________ , with their lively gossip and colourful stories, we are exposed to a wealth of information barely conceivable at the beginning of the last century.
We also have television and radio. News 7__________________________ let us know about world events practically as they happen, while sitcoms, chat shows and documentaries, etc. keep us entertained and informed. And there is also the 8__________________________ , where we can access information from millions of 9__________________________ around the world which we can then
10__________________________ onto our own computers.
However, these forms of 11__________________________ and 12__________________________ (or
‘infotainment’ as they are now sometimes collectively called) have their negative side. Famous personalities frequently accuse the 13__________________________ (and sometimes even respectable papers) of 14__________________________ by the 15__________________________ who are determined to get a story at any cost. Newspapers are often accused of 16__________________________ by angry politicians who dislike reading lies about themselves, and there are frequent accusations of
17__________________________ , with 18__________________________ reporters paying people to create stories for their newspapers or television programmes. Of course, it is not just the papers which are to blame. Sex and violence are increasing on the television. Undesirable people fill the 19__________________________ with equally undesirable material which can be accessed by anyone with a home computer. And the fear of 20__________________________ prevents many from
21__________________________ to the Internet.
Many argue that the government should impose stricter 22__________________________ to prevent such things happening. But others argue that 23__________________________ is the keystone of a free country.
Personally, I take the view that while the media may occasionally abuse its position of power, the benefits greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Our lives would be much emptier without the wealth of information available to us today, and we are better people as a result.

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topic-specific vocabulary

Work


A. How would you generally feel, happy or unhappy situations? Use the words in bold to help you decide.

, if you were in the following



1. The company you work for is well-known for its job security.



2. You were suddenly made redundant.
3. You received a promotion.



4. You were given an increment.



5. You worked unsociable hours.



6. You had a steady job.




7. You had adverse working conditions.



8. You suddenly found yourself unemployed.



9. You took time off work because of repetitive strain injury.
10. The office where you work has sick building syndrome.
11. You receive regular perks as part of your job.







12. Somebody called you a workaholic.

13. Your company doesn’t give you many incentives.



14. Your boss announces that there is going to be some downsizing of the workforce.
15. Your work didn’t offer much job satisfaction.
16. Your company has a generous incentive scheme.




17. You receive a commission for the work you have done.





18. You receive support from a union.
19. You were under stress.





20. You were forced to resign.



21. You received a cut in your salary.



22. Your company gave you sickness benefit.
23. You found your job very demanding.





58
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B. Match sentences 1-6 in box A with one of the sentences A-F in box B. Use the words in bold to help you.
Box A.

1. Samantha is the assistant manager of a bank and she works from 8.30 to 5.30 every day.
2. Tracy works on the production line of a factory which makes cars. She uses a machine to spray paint onto the finished car parts.
3. Jane works for herself. She is a photographer. She works every day for about eight or nine hours. topic-specific vocabulary

Work

4. Jeanette is a cleaner for a company in Birmingham, but she only works there for about three or four hours a day.
5. Claire has a powerful job in the personnel office of a large multinational company. She is responsible for employing new people and getting rid of those that the company doesn’t want to employ any more.
6. Marie works in the finance department of an international college in Oxford.

Box B.

A. She is a semi-skilled blue-collar worker in a manufacturing industry.
B. She is a self-employed and works full-time. She likes to describe herself as freelance.
C. She is responsible for hiring and firing.
D. She calculates the wages, salaries, pension contributions and medical insurance contributions of all the staff.
E. She is a full-time white-collar worker in a service industry.
F.

She is an unskilled part-time employee.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

59
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topic-specific vocabulary

Work
C. Now read this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from
Tasks A and B. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
‘Some people live to work, and others work to live. In most cases, this depends on the job they have and the conditions under which they are employed. In your opinion, what are the elements that make a job worthwhile?’

In answering this question, I would like to look first at the elements that combine to make a job undesirable. By avoiding such factors, potential 1__________________________ are more likely to find a job that is more worthwhile, and by doing so, hope to achieve happiness in their work.

First of all, it doesn’t matter if you are an 2__________________________ worker cleaning the floor, a
3__________________________ 4__________________________ worker on a production line in one of the
5__________________________ , or a 6__________________________ worker in a bank, shop or one of the other 7__________________________ : if you lack 8__________________________ , with the knowledge that you might lose your job at any time, you will never feel happy. Everybody would like a
9__________________________ in which he or she is guaranteed work. Nowadays, however, companies have a high turnover of staff, 10__________________________ new staff and 11__________________________ others on a weekly basis. Such companies are not popular with their workers.

The same can be said of a job in which you are put under a lot of 12__________________________ and worry, a job which is so 13__________________________ that it takes over your life, a job where you work
14__________________________ and so never get to see your family or friends, or a physical job in which you do the same thing every day and end up with the industrial disease that is always in the papers nowadays - 15__________________________ .

With all these negative factors, it would be difficult to believe that there are any elements that make a job worthwhile. Money is, of course, the prime motivator, and everybody wants a good
16__________________________ . But of course that is not all. The chance of 17________________________ , of being

given

a

better

position

in

a

company,

is

a

motivating

factor.

Likewise,

18__________________________ such as a free lunch or a company car, an 19__________________________ scheme to make you work hard such as a regular 20__________________________ above the rate of inflation, 21__________________________ in case you fall ill and a company 22__________________________ scheme so that you have some money when you retire all combine to make a job worthwhile.

Unfortunately, it is not always easy to find all of these. There is, however, an alternative. Forget the office and the factory floor and become 23__________________________ and work for yourself. Your future may not be secure, but at least you will be happy.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

60
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A. Use a dictionary to find the differences between the words and expressions in bold in the following groups.
1. make a profit & make a loss

11. a bank and a building society

2. extravagant & frugal / economical

12. a discount & a refund

3. a current account & a deposit account

13. something which was a bargain, something which was overpriced and something which was exorbitant

4. a loan & a mortgage
5. to deposit money & to withdraw money
6. a wage & a salary

14. worthless & priceless

7. broke & bankrupt

15. save money and invest money

8. shares, stocks, and dividends

16. inflation and deflation

9. income tax & excise duty

17. income and expenditure

10. to credit & to debit

topic-specific vocabulary

Money & finance

18. to lend and to borrow

B. Match the sentences in column A with the sentences in column B. Use the words in bold to help you.
Column A

Column B

1. The managing director believes the company

A. I’m really looking forward to spending my

should start producing pocket computers.
2. I always put my money in a building society and

pension.
B. The cost of living seems to go up every day.

not in a bank.
C. Of course, it’s always so difficult to economise.
3. I can’t afford to buy a new car right now.
I don’t have enough money.

D. Shops all over the country are making huge reductions on just about everything.

4. I find Christmas a very expensive time.
5. I came into a lot of money recently when my

E. I always seem to run up a huge overdraft at the bank. uncle died.
6. Look at this cheque that came in the post this

F.

morning from the Inland Revenue.
7. I’ve been spending too much recently.
8. In my country, there are a lot of very poor

Of course, the potential global market for them is enormous.

G. Fortunately I receive unemployment benefit.
H. There is a very uneven distribution of wealth.

people and only a few rich ones.
9. I lost my job last month.
10. I retire next month.

I.

The interest they pay me is much higher.

J.

It’s the first time I’ve inherited something.

11. Prices are rising quickly everywhere.

K. It seems to be some kind of tax rebate.

12. The January sales start tomorrow.

L. Maybe I should consider getting one on credit.

61
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topic-specific vocabulary

Money & finance
C. Now read this passage and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from
Tasks A and B. You may need to change the form of some of the words.

‘Financial advice from a father to a son’
In the play ‘Hamlet’ by William Shakespeare, a father gives his son some financial advice. ‘Neither a borrower nor a lender be’, he says. He is trying to tell his son that he should never
1__________________________ money from anyone because it will make it difficult for him to manage his finances. Likewise he should never give a financial 2__________________________ to a friend because he will probably never see the money again, and will probably lose his friend as well.
The play was written over four hundred years ago, but today many parents would give similar advice to their children. Imagine the conversation they would have now:
Son:

Right dad, I’m off to university now.

Father: All right son, but let me give you some sound financial advice before you go.
Son:

Oh come on dad.....

Father: Now listen, this is important. The first thing you should do is to make sure you balance your 3__________________________ - the money you receive from me - and your
4__________________________ - the money you spend. If you spend too much, you will end up with an 5__________________________ at the bank. Don’t expect me to pay it for you.
Son:

But it’s so difficult. Things are so expensive, and the 6__________________________ goes up all the time. 7__________________________ is running at about 10%.

Father: I know, but you should try to 8__________________________ . Avoid expensive shops and restaurants. Also, put your money in a good 9__________________________ . They offer a much higher rate of 10__________________________ than banks. Also, avoid buying things
11__________________________ .
Son:

Why?

Father: Because shops charge you an 12__________________________ amount of money to buy things over a period of time. It’s much better to 13__________________________ a little bit of money each week so that when you see something you want, you can buy it outright. Try to wait for the sales, when shops offer huge 14__________________________ and you can pick up a
15__________________________ . And try to get a 16__________________________ .
Son:

How do I do that?

Father: Easy. When you buy something, ask the shop if they’ll lower the price by, say, 10%. Next, when you eventually get a job and are earning a good salary, try to 17__________________________ the money in a good company. Buy 18__________________________ in government organisations or
19__________________________ in private companies.
Son:

OK dad, I’ve heard enough.

Father: One final piece of advice, son.
Son:

What’s that dad?

Father: To thine own self be true.
Son:

You what?

62
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A. Look at the sentences 1-12 and rearrange the letters in bold to make a word connected with politics. (The first and last letters of each word are underlined. A dictionary definition is included to help you.) Then put the words into the grid below. If you do it correctly, you will find a word in the bold vertical strip which means ‘rule of a country by one person’.
1. We live in a meyoadcrc. (A country governed by freely elected representatives of the people)
2. Scotland is aiming for ndnpniedceee in the next few years. (Freedom)
3. A aidtdenac for the Labour Party called at our house last week. (A person who is standing for election)
4. The military junta abolished the constitution and set up a ioaialrtttan régime. (Having total power and not allowing any opposition or personal freedom)

topic-specific vocabulary

Politics

5. An huiatoitaarrn government is not necessarily a bad thing. (Controlling people strictly)
6. The Prime Minister has appointed a group of octthraecns to run the government. (A person with particular skills brought in to run a country or an organisation)
7. The Conservative Party lost the election and is now in opsionotip. (The party or group which opposes the government)
8. France is a picubrel, with a president and prime minister. (A system of government which is governed by elected representatives headed by an elected or nominated president)
9. Governments often impose strict economic ontincsas on countries which abuse their power.
(Restrictions on trade with a country in order to try to influence its political development)
10. The American Congress is formed of the eoHus of Representatives and the Senate. (Part of a parliament) 11. Her socialist oildgyoe led her to join the party. (A theory of life based not on religious belief, but on political or economic philosophy)
12. liarPatmen has passed a law forbidding the sale of cigarettes to children. (A group of elected representatives who vote the laws of a country)

63
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topic-specific vocabulary

Politics
B. Look at these sentences and decide if they are TRUE or FALSE. Use a dictionary to help you.
1. A monarchy is a system of government with an elected king or queen.
2. A politician is a person who works for the king or queen.
3. A statesman or stateswoman is an important religious leader or representative of a country.
4. A cabinet is a committee formed of the most important members of a government.
5. A president is the head of a republic.
6. A ministry is a person who works for the government.
7. A constituency is an area of a country which elects a Member of Parliament.
8. A policy is a government which is controlled by the police.
9. A referendum is the process of choosing by voting.
10. An election is a vote where all the people of a country are asked to vote on a single question.
C. Now look at this extract from a current affairs radio programme and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
Good evening, and welcome to today’s edition of ‘Today in Government’
There were angry scenes in both 1____________________

of Parliament today following an

unprecedented walkout by the Prime Minister and other members of his 2____________________ during a speech by the leader of the 3____________________ . Criticising their 4____________________ on law and order, the Prime Minister called his opposite number a ‘strict 5____________________ who wants to take away the freedom of the individual and turn the country from a freedom-loving 6____________________ to a 7____________________ run by one man.’
It’s almost time for the people of Britain to vote again and it is now only one month until the
8____________________ . All over the country, 9____________________ from all the major parties are knocking on doors asking people to vote for them. We conducted a recent survey to find out who people will be voting for. Surprisingly, many support the Workers’ Union Party for their policy of turning the country from a 10____________________ to a 11____________________ : a lot of people support the idea of getting rid of the Queen in favour of an elected president.
Members of Parliament have called for a 12____________________ so that the people of Britain can decide whether or not the country joins the ‘One Europe’ organisation. This follows a survey in the town of Woolhampstead, the Prime Minister’s own 13____________________ .
The Ministry of Education was accused by the press today of employing too many
14_________________ . Chris Smith, editor of the Daily News, defended his attack. ‘It’s no good having a department full of computer experts if they are unable to run our schools properly’, he said.
Michael Yates, a senior statesman for Britain at the European Commission, has called for EU member states to impose strict economic 15____________________ on the government of Boland. This follows alleged human rights abuses on tribesmen in the north of the country who are demanding
16____________________ . Their leader, Asagai Walumbe, called on countries around the world to help them in their struggle for freedom.

64
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A. Match the first part of each sentence in the left-hand column with its second part in the right-hand column. Use the words in bold to help you. Check that each sentence you put together is grammatically correct.
1. Some modern agricultural methods have been heavily criticized,...

(A) ...in many countries poaching is considered more serious than drug smuggling.

2. If you wear a fur coat in public,...

(B) ...and rare breeds parks are very popular with many. 3. It is illegal to kill pandas, tigers...

(C) ...in wildlife management.

4. If we don’t do more to protect pandas,...

(D) ...the government’s conservation programme has been very successful.

5. A lot of British people are interested in unusual animals,...

topic-specific vocabulary

The environment

(E) ...they’ll soon be extinct.

6. National parks in Kenya are currently recruiting experts...
7. In an attempt to preserve forests around the country... 8. We would like to carry out more scientific study into rainforests...

(F) ...with battery farming in particular receiving a lot of condemnation.
(G) ...it was fascinating to observe their natural behaviour.
(H) ...on a successful panda breeding programme.

9. I don’t like zoos because I think...

(I) ...keeping animals in captivity is cruel.

10. I saw a fascinating documentary about the way animals live in Venezuela and thought...

(J) ...or any other endangered species.

11. In order to increase the birth rate, the Chinese government has spent a lot of money...
12. Hunters have killed so many animals that...

(K) ...but it is often difficult to get people to fund the research.
(L) ...you risk coming under attack from animal rights activists.

B. Replace the expressions in bold with a word or expression from the box which has the same meaning. unleaded petrol



genetically modified erosion •

fossil fuels


greenhouse

contaminated

biodegradable packaging








recycle (things) rain forest



environmentalists

acid rain



Green Belt



organic

global warming



emissions ecosystem 1. In Britain, building is restricted or completely banned in the area of farming land or woods and parks which surrounds a town.
2. Many companies are developing boxes, cartons and cans which can easily be decomposed by organisms such as bacteria, or by sunlight, sea, water, etc.
3. The burning of some fuels creates carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, methane and other gases which rise into the atmosphere.
4. Farmers have cleared hectares of thick wooded land in tropical regions where the precipitation is very high. 65
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topic-specific vocabulary

The environment
5. Planting trees provides some protection from the gradual wearing away of soil.
6. We should all try to process waste material so that it can be used again.
7. These potatoes are cultivated naturally, without using any chemical fertilisers or pesticides.
8. This bread is made from wheat which has been altered at a molecular level so as to change certain characteristics which can be inherited.
9. More and more cars are built to use fuel which has been made without lead additives.
10. Polluted precipitation which kills trees falls a long distance away from the source of the pollution.
11. Human beings have had a devastating effect on the living things, both large and small, in many parts of the world.
12. The gases and other substances which come from factories using oil, coal and other fuels which are the remains of plants and animals can cause serious damage to the environment.
13. Don’t drink that water! It’s been made dirty by something being added to it.
14. Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace and other people concerned with protecting the environment are holding a forum in London next month.
15. The heating up of the earth’s atmosphere by pollution is threatening life as we know it.
C. Now look at this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from
Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
‘Environmental degradation is a major world problem. What causes this problem, and what can we do to prevent it?’
There is no doubt that the environment is in trouble. Factories burn 1__________________________ which produce 2__________________________ , and this kills trees. At the same time,
3__________________________ gases rise into the air and contribute to 4__________________________ , which threatens to melt the polar ice cap. Meanwhile farmers clear huge areas of
5__________________________ in places such as the Amazon to produce feeding land for cattle or produce wood for building. Rivers and oceans are so heavily 6__________________________ by industrial waste that it is no longer safe to go swimming. Cars pump out poisonous 7__________________________ which we all have to breathe in. 8__________________________ and overfishing are killing off millions of animals, including whales, elephants and other 9__________________________ . In fact, all around us, all living things large and small which comprise our finely balanced 10__________________________ are being systematically destroyed by human greed and thoughtlessness.
There is a lot we can all do, however, to help prevent this. The easiest thing, of course, is to
11__________________________ waste material such as paper and glass so that we can use it again. We should also check that the things we buy from supermarkets are packaged in
12__________________________ packaging which decomposes easily. At the same time, we should make a conscious effort to avoid foods which are 13__________________________ (at least until someone proves that they are safe both for us and for the environment). If you are truly committed to protecting the environment, of course, you should only buy 14__________________________ fruit and vegetables, safe in the knowledge that they have been naturally cultivated. Finally, of course, we should buy a small car that uses 15__________________________ which is less harmful to the environment or, even better, make more use of public transport.
The serious 16__________________________ , however, do much more. They are aware of the global issues involved and will actively involve themselves in 17__________________________ by making sure our forests are kept safe for future generations. They will oppose activities which are harmful to animals, such as 18__________________________ . And they will campaign to keep the 19__________________________ around our towns and cities free from new building.
We cannot all be as committed as them, but we can at least do our own little bit at grass roots level.
We, as humans, have inherited the earth, but that doesn’t mean we can do whatever we like with it.

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A. Match the sentence in the left-hand column with a sentence in the right-hand column. Use the words in bold to help you.
PROBLEMS
1. Mrs Brady has suffered from terrible

(A) Illnesses which affect the circulation of blood are particularly common with people who are overweight. rheumatism for years.
2. More women than men are affected by

(B) This is deposited on the walls of the arteries and can block them.

arthritis.
3. Air conditioning units are often responsible

(C) They can easily be spread from one person to another. for spreading infections around an office.
4. Cardiovascular disease is becoming more

topic-specific vocabulary

Healthcare

(D) Pains or stiffness in the joints or muscles can be very difficult to live with.

common in Britain.
5. Too much exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer. 6. It is important not to eat too much food with a high cholesterol content.
7. Too many people these days live a sedentary lifestyle. 8. People in positions of responsibility often have

(E) They don’t get enough exercise.
(F) Their immune system is not properly developed and can be easily hurt.
(G) The painful inflammation of a joint may require surgery.
(H) The government has reduced its expenditure in this area.
(I) But there are drugs which can slow down its cell-destroying properties.

stress-related illnesses.
9. Premature babies are vulnerable to illnesses.
10. The National Health Service is suffering from cutbacks and underfunding.

(J) Once the body’s cells start growing abnormally, a cure can be difficult to find.
(K) The pressures of a high-powered job can cause nervous strain, which may require drugs.

11. The AIDS virus is incurable.

B. Replace the words or expressions in bold with a word or expression from the box which has the same meaning.
CURES

protein



holistic medicine

therapeutic surgeon •




traditional

active



a diet



medicines

consultant



minerals




vitamins

welfare

state

conventional medicine

1. If you suffer from a bad back, a massage may be able to cure or relieve the disorder.
2. One of the secrets of remaining in good health is to choose food to eat that is high in fibre and low in fat.
3. Most people, when they are ill, rely on modern pills and tablets to cure them.
4. Some old-fashioned cures for illnesses, such as herbal tablets and remedies, are becoming increasingly popular.

67
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topic-specific vocabulary

Healthcare
5. Many people are turning to treatments which involve the whole person, including their mental health, rather than just dealing with the symptoms of the illness.
6. Doctors sometimes refer their patients to a medical specialist attached to a hospital.
7. It takes many years of training to become a doctor specializing in surgery.
8. Meat, eggs and nuts are rich sources of a compound which is an essential part of living cells, and which is essential to keep the human body working properly.
9. On his holiday, he had to take essential substances which are not synthesized by the body but are found in food and are needed for growth and health, because the food he ate lacked the B and C groups. 10. Calcium and zinc are two of the most important substances found in food.
11. Most doctors recommend an energetic lifestyle, with plenty of exercise.
12. British people enjoy free healthcare thanks to the large amount of money which is spent to make sure they have adequate health services.
C. Now look at this extract from a magazine article and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
A cure for the future in the past?
For over fifty years, the people of Britain have relied on the 1___________________ to make sure they have adequate health services. But now the National Health Service is sick. Government 2___________________ and 3___________________ are forcing hospitals to close, and waiting lists for treatment are getting longer.
Under such circumstances, it is no surprise that more people are turning to private (but expensive) healthcare. For some, however, there are alternatives. They are turning their back on modern pills, tablets and other
4___________________ . It seems paradoxical, but in an age of microchips and high technology,
5___________________ (the old-fashioned cures that our grandparents relied on) is making a comeback.
Consider these case studies:
Maude is 76 and has been suffering from 6___________________ for almost ten years. “The inflammation in my joints was almost unbearable, and my doctor referred me to a 7___________________ at the London
Hospital. I was told that I needed 8___________________ , but would need to wait for at least two years before I could have the operation. In desperation, I started having massage sessions. To my surprise, these were very 9___________________ , and while they didn’t cure the disorder, they did relieve it to some extent”. Ron is 46. His high-powered city job was responsible for a series of 10___________________ illnesses, and the drugs he took did little to relieve the nervous strain. “I read about treatments which involve the whole person rather than the individual symptoms, but I had always been sceptical about
11___________________ . However, my friend recommended a dietician who advised me that part of my problem was 12___________________-related. Basically, the foods I was eating were contributing to my disorder. She gave me a list of foods that would provide the right 13___________________ and
14___________________ to keep me in good health. At the same time, she recommended a more
15___________________ lifestyle - running, swimming, that kind of thing. I’m a bit of a couch potato, and the 16___________________ lifestyle I had lived was compounding the problem. Now I feel great!”
So is there still a place in our lives for modern medicine? While it is true that some infections and viruses may be prevented by resorting to alternative medicine, more serious illnesses such as
17___________________ need more drastic measures. We do need our health service at these times, and we shouldn’t stop investing in its future. But we mustn’t forget that for some common illnesses, the cure may lie in the past.

68
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A. Look at the following sentences and decide if they are true or false. If they are false, explain why.
1. A travel agency is the same as a tour operator.
2. A package tour is a holiday in which the price includes flights, transfers to and from the airport and accommodation. 3. An all-inclusive holiday is a holiday in which the price includes flights, transfers, accommodation, food and drink.
4. When passengers embark, they get off an aeroplane or ship.
5. When passengers disembark, they get on an aeroplane or ship.
6. The first thing you do when you go to an airport is go to the check-in.

topic-specific vocabulary

Travel

7. The first thing you do when you arrive at your hotel is check in.
8. The opposite of a package tourist is an independent traveller.
9. Mass tourism can have a negative effect on the environment.
10. Eco-tourism is tourism which has a negative effect on the environment.
11. The words trip, excursion, journey and voyage all have the same meaning.
12. It is always necessary to have a visa when you visit a different country.
13. A flight from London to Paris could be described as a long-haul flight.
14. Flying economy class is more expensive than flying business class.
15. A Canadian citizen flying to Japan will have to fill in an immigration card before he arrives.
B. Complete sentences 1-11 with a suitable word or expression from the box.

deported



repatriated



economic migrants

expatriates immigration •




UNHCR

culture shock



internally


displaced

persona non grata

emigration



refugees

1. At the beginning of the war, thousands of ____________________ fled over the border to the next country. 2. Since the civil war began, almost a million people have been forced to move to another part of the country. These ____________________ persons are now without food or shelter.
3. Nineteenth-century governments encouraged ____________________ to the colonies.
4. The government is encouraging ____________________ because of the shortage of workers in key industries. 5. Going from California to live with hill tribes in India was something of a ____________________ .
6. Thousands of British ____________________ live in Singapore, where many of them have high-powered jobs. 7. The _____________ is under a lot of pressure owing to the huge number of displaced persons around the world.
8. He was ____________________ from the country when his visa expired.
9. Because he had a criminal record, the government didn’t want him to enter the country, declared him
____________________ and asked him to leave immediately.
10. After the economy collapsed in the east, thousands of ____________________ headed west in the hope of finding a good job.
11. He didn’t want to be ____________________ , but nevertheless was put on a plane back home.

69
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topic-specific vocabulary

Travel
C. Now look at this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from
Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change the form of some of the words.

Travel: the other side of the coin
Most of us have, at some point in our lives, experienced the joys of travel. We go to the
1__________________________
to pick up our brochures.
We
book a two-week
2__________________________ with flights and accommodation included (or if we are
3__________________________ , we make our own way to the country and travel around from place to place with a rucksack on our back). We make sure we have all the right currency, our passport and any
4__________________________ that are necessary to get us into the country. We go to the airport and
5__________________________ . We strap ourselves into our tiny 6__________________________ aircraft seats and a few hours later we 7__________________________ from the aircraft, strange new sights, smells and sounds greeting us. Nowadays, it seems, the whole world goes on holiday at once: the age of
8__________________________ is in full swing!
But for the great majority of people around the world, travel for them is done in the face of great adversity and hardship. They never get to indulge in an 9__________________________ holiday in a luxury hotel with all meals and drinks included. They never get to explore the lush Amazon rain forest or the frozen wastes of the Arctic on an 10__________________________ holiday. For them, travel is a matter of life and death. I refer, of course, to all the 11__________________________ escaping from their own countries, or the 12__________________________ , moved from one part of their country to another by an uncaring government, or 13__________________________ forced to find a job and seek a living wherever they can.
Can you imagine anything worse than the misery these people must face? Let’s not confuse them with those 14__________________________ , who choose to live in another country and often have nice houses and high salaries. These people are simply desperate to survive. As well as losing their homes because of war or famine or other natural disasters, they must come to terms with their new environment: for many, the 15__________________________ can be too great. And while many countries with an open policy on 16__________________________ will welcome them in with open arms, others will simply turn them away. These people become 17__________________________ , unwanted and unwelcome. Even if they manage to get into a country, they will often be 18__________________________ or repatriated. Their future is uncertain.
Something to think about, perhaps, the next time you are 19__________________________ to your fivestar hotel by a palm-fringed beach or sitting in a coach on an 20__________________________ to a pretty castle in the countryside.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

70
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A. Match the words and expressions in the box with their correct definition 1-9.

law-abiding offender •


solicitor

victim



• barrister defendant


judge




jury witness 1. A person appointed to make legal decisions in a court of law.
2. A group of twelve citizens who are sworn to decide whether someone is guilty or innocent on the basis of evidence given in a court of law.
3. A person who sees something happen or is present when something happens.
4. A person who is accused of doing something illegal.

topic-specific vocabulary

Crime & the law

5. A person who is attacked or who is in an accident.
6. A qualified lawyer who gives advice to members of the public and acts for them in legal matters.
7. A person who commits an offence against the law.
8. A lawyer who can present a case in court.
9. An expression used to describe someone who obeys the law.
B. The following groups of sentences describe the legal process which follows a crime.
However, with the exception of the first sentence, the sentences in each group are in the wrong order. Put them into the correct order, using the key words in bold to help you. Some of these words appear in Task A.
Part 1
A. One night, Jim Smith committed a serious crime. = Sentence 1
B. Jim asked the officer for a solicitor to help him.
C. At the same time, the police arranged for a barrister to prosecute him.
D. They took him to the police station and formally charged him with the crime.
E. When the trial began and he appeared in court for the first time, he pleaded his innocence.
F.

The next morning the police arrested him.

Part 2
A. His barrister also said he was innocent and asked the court to acquit him. = Sentence 1
B. While he was in prison, he applied for parole.
C. As a result, the judge sentenced him to two years in prison.
D. He was released after 18 months.
E. However, there were several witnesses, and the evidence against him was overwhelming.
F.

Having all the proof they needed, the jury returned a guilty verdict.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

71
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topic-specific vocabulary

Crime & the law
Part 3
A. Unfortunately, prison failed to rehabilitate him and after his release he continued with his misdeeds, attacking an old woman in the street. = Sentence 1
B. Jim promised to reform and the pensioner withdrew her call for more severe retribution.
C. With this in mind, instead of passing a custodial sentence, he fined him a lot of money and ordered him to do community service.
D. He was re-arrested and returned to court.
E. His new victim, a pensioner, thought that the judge was being too lenient on Jim and called for the reinstatement of corporal punishment and capital punishment!
F.

At his second trial the judge agreed that prison was not a deterrent for Jim.

C. Now look at this extract from a politician’s speech and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
Are you worried about crime? I am. We read it every day in the papers. A terrible crime has been
1__________________________ , the police have 2__________________________ someone, he has appeared in front of a jury in 3__________________________ , he has 4__________________________ his innocence but has been found 5__________________________ of his crime and he has been 6__________________________ to ten years in prison. We are all very relieved that the criminal is being punished for his
7__________________________ , and 8__________________________ citizens like you and me can sleep more safely at night.
But what happens next? We all hope, don’t we, that the prisoner will benefit from society’s
9__________________________ , that a spell in prison will 10__________________________ him and make him a better person. We all hope that he will 11__________________________ and become like us. We all hope that when he is eventually 12__________________________ and let loose on the streets, he will be a good character, the threat of another spell in jail being a suitable 13__________________________ which will stop him from breaking the law again. Oh yes.
But let’s face it. The reality is usually very different. The prisoner may be released on
14__________________________ , before the end of his sentence. He will try to re-enter society. But then he often becomes a 15__________________________ himself, unable to find work and rejected by society. It isn’t long before he’s back in prison again.
So what alternatives are there, I hear you say. What can we do to the 16__________________________ to make sure he doesn’t commit another crime? There are alternatives to prison, of course, such as 17__________________________ in which he will provide a service to those around him. Or he can pay a large 18__________________________ . Alternatively, we could establish a more severe system of punishment, including 19__________________________ and 20__________________________ , but we like to consider ourselves civilised, and the idea of beating or executing someone is repellent to us. Oh yes.
The answer, of course, is far simpler. We need to be tough not on the criminal, but on the cause of the crime. We should spend less of the taxpayer’s money funding the 21__________________________ and
22__________________________ and all the other people who work for the legal system, and put the money instead into supporting deprived areas which are the breeding grounds for crime. We in the
ConLab Party believe that everybody needs a good chance in life, and this is a good step forward. Vote for us now!

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

72
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

A. Match each newspaper headline in the box with the first line of its accompanying story below. Use the underlined words and expressions to help you.

A. ILLEGAL ALIENS TO BE EXPELLED
B. ETHNIC MINORITIES ‘LIVING BELOW POVERTY LEVEL’
C. HOMELESS SQUATTERS EVICTED
D. INSTITUTIONAL RACISM STILL A PROBLEM
E. INTERNALLY DISPLACED IN NEW GENOCIDE HORROR
F.

topic-specific vocabulary

Social tensions

EXTREMISTS ACCUSED OF INCITING RACIAL HATRED

G. UNREST, RIOTS AND ANARCHY CONTINUE
H. REBELS VICTORIOUS IN LATEST POWER STRUGGLE
I.

DISCRIMINATION AND EXPLOITATION A MAJOR PROBLEM IN BRITISH INDUSTRY

J.

DISSIDENTS ASK AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT FOR POLITICAL ASYLUM

1. Officers from the Thames Valley Police Force raided a house in Kidlington earlier this morning and forcibly removed a family who had been staying there illegally since they lost their home in August.
2. Almost 50% of factory workers in national companies claim they have received bad treatment or have been taken advantage of because of their class, religion, race , language, colour or sex, it has been revealed. 3. The UN has accused the government of Zarislavia of further atrocities committed in the west of the country, where hundreds of migrants are reported to have been killed by security forces.
4. Opponents of the government in Yugaria have asked to stay in Sydney because the political situation in their own country is making it unsafe for them to return.
5. The police have once again been accused of discriminating against minority groups, despite their reassurances earlier this year that they had reformed their practices.
6. Neo-Nazi groups in Paris were today condemned for inciting violence against non-whites in the centre of the city.
7. A shocking survey has revealed that almost 30% of Asian and African racial groups living in London are suffering financial hardship.
8. Following further devaluation of the Malovian dollar, violence has once again erupted on the streets of the capital.
9. Groups fighting against the government of George Malikes in Livatia have succeeded in capturing and occupying the parliament building.
10. The Government has ordered the immediate deportation of over 200 immigrants who entered the country without passports or visas last year.

73
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topic-specific vocabulary

Social tensions
B. Match the words and expressions in the first box with a word or expression in the second box which is either the closest in meaning or which is normally associated with it. Some of these also appear in Task A.

ethnic cleansing rebel •



picket line

prejudice




civil rights

poverty-stricken





harassment

refugee



outcast

reject (noun) • non-conformist • blackleg • human rights • destitute discrimination •

displaced person



intimidation



racial purging

C. Now look at this news programme and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
Good evening. Here is the news.
Neo-Nazis and other 1__________________________ have been held responsible for a wave of
2__________________________ in the Bratilovan Republic. The United Nations estimates that over 20,000 people have been murdered there in the last six months. 3__________________________ who have escaped from the country have asked the British government to grant them 4__________________________ , as they fear for their safety if they have to return.
The government are to deport 500 5__________________________ whose visas have expired. Angry members of the opposition have accused the government of 6__________________________ , as most of the deportees are of African origin. Meanwhile, the police have been accused of
7__________________________ , after Asian families in Bradford complained they had been pestered and worried by officers following a series of robberies in the city.
8__________________________ leaders in the USA have held a demonstration in Washington against the death penalty. They have called for a total abolition of capital punishment, claiming that it is contrary to basic 9__________________________ principles outlined in the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights.
10__________________________ fighting the government of President Stanislow have taken control of the television station in the centre of the capital. This follows a long-standing 11_________________________ . between Mr Stanislow and the principal opposition party which has seriously weakened his power.
A spokesman for the 12__________________________ community in London has presented a petition to the government asking them to provide housing for everyone. He argues that the government’s refusal to raise the minimum wage rate has resulted in thousands living in 13__________________________ , with not enough money to pay for somewhere to live. Meanwhile, the Metropolitan Police evicted several
14__________________________ who took over a house in the city centre last week and refused to leave until the government took positive action.
A recent survey reveals that at least 30% of public companies have been accused of
15__________________________ and 16__________________________ in the past year. The main offender is
Anglo-Amalgamated Telecommunications, a Bristol-based company. Their employees, many of them
Asian women, claim they have received bad treatment or been taken advantage of by the company.
And finally, the Cardiff police are preparing for angry scenes at the Welsh International Computers factory tomorrow when 17__________________________ , anxious to return to work after six months on strike, will attempt to break through the picket line. A senior officer has expressed his concern that there will be
18__________________________ and people will get hurt as a result.

74
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A. Replace the words and expressions in bold in sentences 1 - 18 with a word or expression from the box.

analysed • genetic engineering • breakthrough • molecular biology a technophobe • safeguards • development • cybernetics • invented nuclear engineering a technophile





combined

innovations





react

life expectancy




an experiment

discovered


research

1. The company is carrying out scientific study to find a cure for Aids.

topic-specific vocabulary

Science & technology

2. The planning and production of the new computer system will take some time.
3. Modern home entertainment systems and other modern inventions are changing everyone’s lives.
4. Some elements change their chemical composition when mixed with water.
5. The scientists have created a new machine to automate the process.
6. Who was the person who found penicillin?
7. When the food was examined closely and scientifically, it was found to contain bacteria.
8. Rain joined together with CO2 gases produces acid rain.
9. Ron is terrified of modern technology.
10. Geoff is very interested in modern technology.
11. Protection against accidents in this laboratory are minimal.
12. Scientists conducted a scientific test to see how people react to different smells.
13. Brian is studying the techniques used to change the genetic composition of a cell so as to change certain characteristics which can be inherited.
14. Sarah is studying the things which form the structure of living matter.
15. Christine is studying how information is communicated in machines and electronic devices in comparison with how it is communicated in the brain and nervous system.
16. Neil is studying the different ways of extracting and controlling energy from atomic particles.
17. There has been a sudden success in the search for a cure for cancer.
18. The number of years a person is likely to live has increased a great deal thanks to modern medicine and technology.

75
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topic-specific vocabulary

Science & technology
B. Read this description of a computer. Unfortunately, the person who is describing it is not very familiar with computer terminology and cannot remember all the words. Help them by using the appropriate word or expression in the box to give a more scientific definition of their words in bold.

log on



hardware

keyboard


crashed



load / install


base unit / disk drive

software






virus
Internet

website





e-mail




scanner

printer



download


mouse monitor OK, here's my new computer. As you can see, there are five main parts. Now, the large box with the slots and sliding disk carrier (1) ________________ is the most important part. It carries all the stuff that makes the computer work (2)_______________. You can also put in (3)_______________ your own games and other things (4)_______________. Next to it there is the thing that looks like a small television (5)_______________ so that you can see what the computer is doing. To the right of that, there is the machine that lets you make black and white or colour copies of the documents that you create on the computer (6)_______________. You can control the computer by using the rectangular flat thing with all the letters and numbers on (7)_______________ or the funny little object with the long lead which you can move across your desk (8)_______________. The large flat thing to the left of the computer is the machine you can use to make copies of your photographs onto the computer, a bit like a photocopier (9)_______________.
It's a very useful machine, of course. Once you get it up and running (10)__________ you can do lots of things on it. You can create documents, play games or get information from the fantastic thing that links computers from around the world (11)_______________. A lot of companies and organizations have their own special computer page (12)_______________ which you can look at, and you can transfer (13)_______________ the information to your own computer files. Or, if you like, you can send messages to other people by using a special electronic letter-sending facility
(14)_______________.
Unfortunately, I can't let you use it as it stopped working (15)_______________ last night. It's probably got a technical fault, usually created on purpose, that affects computer files and folders
(16)_______________.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

76
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

C. Now look at this essay and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks
A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.
Technology has come a long way in the last fifty years, and our lives have become better as a result. Or have they?
The second half of the twentieth century saw more changes than in the previous two hundred years.
Penicillin has already been 1__________________________ and used to treat infections; there have been many remarkable

advances

in

medicine

that

have

helped

to

increase

our

average

2__________________________ way beyond that of our ancestors. Incredible 3__________________________ such as television have changed the way we spend our leisure hours. Perhaps the most important

topic-specific vocabulary

Science & technology

4__________________________ , however, has been the microchip. Nobody could have imagined, when it was first 5__________________________ , that within a matter of years, this tiny piece of silicon and circuitry would be found in almost every household object from the kettle to the video recorder. And nobody could have predicted the sudden proliferation of computers that would completely change our lives, allowing us to access information from the other side of the world via the 6__________________________ or send messages around the world by 7__________________________ at the touch of a button.
Meanwhile, 8__________________________ into other aspects of information technology is making it easier and cheaper for us to talk to friends and relations around the world. Good news for
9__________________________

who

love

modern

technology,

bad

news

for

the

10__________________________ who would prefer to hide from these modern miracles.
But everything has a price. The development of 11__________________________ led to mass automation in factories, which in turn led to millions losing their jobs. The genius of Einstein led to the horrors of the atomic bomb and the dangerous uncertainties of 12__________________________ (we hear of accidents and mishaps at nuclear power stations around the world, where 13__________________________ to prevent accidents were inadequate). The relatively new science of 14__________________________ has been seen as a major step forward, but putting modified foods onto the market before scientists had properly
15__________________________ them was perhaps one of the most irresponsible decisions of the 1990s.
Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies continue to 16__________________________ on animals, a move that many consider to be cruel and unnecessary.
Of course we all rely on modern science and technology to improve our lives. However, we need to make sure that we can control it before it controls us.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

77
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topic-specific vocabulary

Food & diet
A. Find words in the box below which have the same meaning as the dictionary definitions 111. A sample sentence with the word removed has been given to you.
1. Units of measurement of energy in food.
(Example: She’s counting ____________________ to try and lose weight)
2. A compound which is an essential part of living cells, one of the elements in food which you need to keep the human body working properly.
(Example: Eggs are a rich source of ____________________ )
3. A chemical substance containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
(Example: Bread, potatoes and rice are good sources of ____________________ )
4. A white substance from plants or animals which can be used for cooking.
(Example: Fry the meat and drain off the ____________________ )
5. Matter in food which cannot be digested and passes out of the body.
(Example: A diet that doesn’t contain enough ___________________ can cause intestinal problems)
6. A fatty substance found in fats and oils, also produced by the liver and forming an essential part of all cells.
(Example: If you eat too much ____________________ , it can be deposited on the walls of arteries, causing them to become blocked)
7. Essential substance which is not synthesised by the body but is found in food and is needed for health and growth.
(Example: He doesn’t eat enough fruit and suffers from ____________________ C deficiency)
8. Substance which is found in food, but which can also be dug out of the earth.
(Example: What is the ____________________ content of spinach?)
9. Too heavy, often as a result of eating too much.
(Example: The doctor says I’m ____________________ and must go on a diet)
10. The result of not having enough to eat, or the result of eating too much of the wrong sort of food.
(Example: Many of the children in the refugee camp were ____________________ )
11. Receiving food.
(Example: We are developing a scheme to improve ____________________ in the poorer areas)

78

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For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

B. Match sentences 1-10 with a second sentence A-J. Use the key words in bold to help you.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

A lot of people are allergic to nuts.
Many people do not trust genetically modified foods.
Organic vegetables are more expensive but are better for you.
We refuse to eat battery chickens.
We prefer to eat free range meats.
The harvest has been very bad this year.
Following the floods in Mozambique, there was a terrible scarcity of food.
There has been an outbreak of salmonella, listeria and other food poisoning in Perth.
Too many people don’t eat a balanced diet.
Fast food is very popular.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.

topic-specific vocabulary

Food & diet

This is because they are cultivated naturally, without using any chemical fertilisers or pesticides.
There wasn’t enough to feed everyone affected by the disaster.
They are not sure that altering the composition of cells to change certain characteristics is safe.
It’s good to know that the animals were given enough space to express their natural behaviour.
Terrible weather conditions have prevented the crops from ripening and reduced the yield.
A lot of people are in hospital as a result.
Unfortunately, a diet of burgers, pizzas and fried chicken is not very healthy.
They physically react very badly.
This is because they spend their life confined in a small cage.
They don’t consume sufficient quantities of the different food groups.

C. Now complete this article with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms. Most children enjoy eating 1____________________ , but scientific tests have shown us that burgers and pizzas can lack essential 2____________________ and 3____________________ which are essential for health and growth, while simultaneously containing large amounts of 4____________________ and
5____________________ which can result in obesity and heart problems. Many children end up suffering from 6____________________ , since they eat too much of the wrong sort of food. In fact, in many areas of the developed world, a lot of children show similar symptoms to those in poorer developing countries, where 7____________________ of food causes thousands of deaths from starvation, especially in the wake of natural disasters which ruin crops and in some cases totally destroy the annual 8___________________ .
Dieticians tell us that we must eat a 9____________________ , as it is essential we consume sufficient quantities of the different food groups. They tell us that we should all eat more 10___________________, which cannot be digested by the body, and fewer foods which are high in 11____________________ , as this can block the walls of arteries and lead to heart problems. This is good advice, of course, but our lifestyles often make this difficult. Many of the ready-prepared foods we buy from supermarkets are high in
12____________________ , giving us more energy than we actually need. 13____________________ foods are appearing on our supermarket shelves, even though nobody is really sure if altering the composition of food cells is safe. We have the option, of course, of buying 14____________________ foods, but naturallycultivated fruits and vegetables are expensive. And to make matters worse, we are continually hearing about outbreaks of 15____________________ and 16____________________ which put us off eating certain foods, as nobody wants to spend time in hospital suffering from 17____________________ .
A few things to watch out for next time you go shopping. If you have the time and the money, that is!

79
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topic-specific vocabulary

Children & the family
A. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word or expression from A, B or C.
1. Mr and Mrs Smith live at home with their two children. They are a typical example of a modern
____________________ family
A. extended
B. nuclear
C. compact
2. Mr and Mrs Popatlal live at home with their aged parents, children and grandchildren. They are a typical example of a traditional ____________________ family
A. nuclear
B. enlarged
C. extended
3. Mrs Jones lives on her own and has to look after her two children. There are a lot of
____________________ families like hers
A. single-parent
B. mother-only
C. mono-parent
4. Some parents need to ____________________ their children more strictly
A. bring down
B. bring about
C. bring up
5. When I was a child, I had a very turbulent ____________________
A. upbringing
B. upraising
C. uplifting
6. Mrs Kelly is ____________________ and finds it difficult to look after her children on her own
A. divorced
B. divided
C. diverged
7. Many men believe that ____________________ is the responsibility of a woman
A. childhelp
B. childcare
C. childaid
8. ____________________ is a particularly difficult time of life for a child
A. convalescence
B. adolescence
C. convergence
9. A person’s behaviour can sometimes be traced back to his/her ____________________
A. creative years
B. formulating years
C. formative years
10. The country has seen a sharp drop in the ____________________ in the last few years
A. birth rate
B. baby rate
C. born rate
11. She has five ____________________ who rely on her to look after them
A. dependants
B. dependers
C. dependents
12. ____________________ is on the rise, with over 20% of serious crimes being committed by children under the age of seventeen
A. junior crime
B. juvenile delinquency C. minor crime

B. Match sentences 1-12 with a second sentence A-M. Use the key words and expressions in bold to help you.
1. Mr and Mrs White are very authoritarian parents.
2. Mr. Bowles is considered to be too lenient.
3. Mr and Mrs Harris lead separate lives.
4. Billy is a well-adjusted kid.
5. The Mannings are not very responsible parents.
6. My parents are separated.
7. Parents must look after their children, but they shouldn’t be over-protective.
8. Professor Maynard has made a study of the cognitive processes of young children.
9. I’m afraid my youngest child is running wild.

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10. She looks quite different from all her siblings.
11. There are several different and distinct stages of development in a child’s life.
12. Tony was raised by a foster family when his own parents died.
A. They don’t look after their children very well.
B. He is fascinated by the way they learn new things.
C. He very rarely punishes his children.
D. I live with my mother and visit my father at weekends.
E. He never listens to a word I say, and is always playing truant from school.
F.

Brothers and sisters usually bear some resemblance to one another.

topic-specific vocabulary

Children & the family

G. Although they are married and live together, they rarely speak to each other.
H. They are very strict with their children.
I.

Of all of these, the teenage years are the most difficult.

J.

Children need the freedom to get out and experience the world around them.

K. He’s happy at home and is doing well at school.
L. My families take in children who are not their own.
C. Now read this case study and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from
Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.
Bob’s

problems

began

during

his

1_______________________

years.

His

parents

got

2_______________________ when he was young, and neither of them wanted to raise him or his brother and sister, so he was 3_______________________ by a 4_______________________ chosen by his parents’ social worker. Unfortunately, his foster-father was a strict 5_______________________ and often beat him.
Bob rebelled against this strict 6_______________________ , and by the time he was eight, he was already
7_______________________ , stealing from shops and playing truant. By the time he reached
8_______________________ , sometime around his thirteenth birthday, he had already appeared in court several times, charged with 9_______________________ . The judge blamed his foster parents, explaining that children needed 10_______________________ parents and guardians who would look after them properly. The foster father objected to this, pointing out that Bob’s 11_______________________ - his two brothers and sister - were 12_______________________ children who behaved at home and worked well at school. This has raised some interesting questions about the modern family system. While it is true that parents should not be too 13_______________________ with children by letting them do what they want when they want, or be too 14_______________________ by sheltering them from the realities of life, it is also true that they should not be too strict. It has also highlighted the disadvantages of the modern
15_______________________ family where the child has only its mother and father to rely on (or the
16_______________________ family, in which the mother or father has to struggle particularly hard to support their 17_______________________ ). In fact, many believe that we should return to traditional family values and the 18_______________________ family: extensive research has shown that children from these families are generally better behaved and have a better chance of success in later life.

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topic-specific vocabulary

On the road
A. Choose the most suitable explanation or interpretation, A or B, for the following sentences. Use the words in bold to help you.
1. People enjoy the mobility that owning a car gives them.
A. People enjoy being able to travel easily from one place to another.
B. People enjoy being able to drive very fast.
2. What’s your destination?
A. Where have you come from?
B. Where are you going to?
3. Congestion in the city centre has increased dramatically.
A. It is now easier to drive around the city centre than it was before.
B. It is now more difficult to drive around the city centre than it was before.
4. The local council wants to reduce the risks to pedestrians.
A. The local council wants to make it safer for people to walk along the street.
B. The local council wants to make it safer for drivers and their passengers.
5. Lead-free petrol reduces the risk of pollution.
A. Lead-free petrol does not make the environment as dirty as conventional petrol.
B. Cars fuelled by lead-free pollution are safer to drive.
6. Traffic-calming measures are becoming increasingly common throughout the country.
A. People have to drive more slowly because of the increased number of police in villages and towns. B. People have to drive more carefully through towns and villages because of specially-built obstacles in the road.
7. The centre of Camford has been designated a traffic-free zone.
A. You cannot take your car into the centre of Camford.
B. You can park your car for free in the centre of Camford.
8. Container lorries and other large vehicles dominate our roads.
A. There are a lot of large vehicles on the roads.
B. There aren’t many large vehicles on the roads.
9. Young drivers have a higher accident risk than older drivers.
A. Young drivers are more likely than older drivers to be involved in a crash.
B. Young drivers are less likely than older drivers to be involved in a crash.
10. Public transport is heavily subsidised in most areas.
A. The government has made public transport cheaper to use by giving money to bus and train companies. B. The government has made public transport more expensive to use by increasing the price of road tax.
11. The junction of London Road and Holly Street is an accident black spot.
A. A lot of traffic accidents happen here.
B. Not many accidents happen here.
12. The city council needs to adopt an effective transport strategy within the next five years.
A. The city council needs to find a better way for people to get into, around and out of the city.
B. The city council needs to encourage more drivers to bring their cars into the city.

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B. Look at sentences 1-10 and decide what has, or hasn’t, happened (sentences A-J). Use the words in bold to help you.
1. Ambulance driver to policeman: ‘The pedestrian’s injuries are very severe and he has to go to hospital.’ 2. Judge to driver: ‘Drink-driving is a serious offence and I therefore ban you from driving for a year’.
3. Driving instructor to student driver: ‘Stop! That’s a pedestrian crossing!’
4. Examiner to student driver: ‘You don't know enough about the Highway Code yet to pass your theory test.’ 5. Policeman to driver: ‘Do you realise you were speeding back there, sir?’
6. Driver to a friend: ‘I can’t believe it! He gave me a heavy fine and six points on my licence.’
7. Police officer to radio interviewer: ‘Joyriding has increased by almost 50% and I am urging everyone to think twice before they get involved in this stupid activity.’
8. Television news presenter: ‘So far this year there have been 27 fatalities on Oxfordshire’s roads.’
9. City council officer to journalist: ‘As part of our new transport strategy, we are going to construct cycle lanes in and around the city.’
10. City council officer to journalist: ‘The “Park and Ride” scheme has been very successful over the last year’.

topic-specific vocabulary

On the road

A. Somebody is unfamiliar with the government publication containing the rules for people travelling on roads.
B. More people have been leaving their cars in designated areas outside a city and catching a bus into the city centre.
C. A lot of cars have been stolen, mainly by young people who want some excitement.
D. A person walking in the street has been hit and badly hurt by a vehicle.
E. Somebody has decided to make it safer to use bicycles.
F. Somebody has almost driven through a red light and hit a person walking across the road.
G. Somebody has had to pay money because of a driving offence.
H. Somebody has consumed an illegal amount of alcohol before driving their car.
I. A lot of people have been killed in traffic-related accidents.
J. Somebody has been driving too fast.
C. Now read this article and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks
A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.
1__________________________ and 2__________________________ on Britain’s roads are increasing from year to year: last year, 2,827 people were killed and almost 300,000 hurt in traffic-related accidents. Most of these were caused by drivers 3__________________________ in built-up areas, where many seem to disregard the 30mph limit, or 4__________________________ , especially around Christmas, when more alcohol is consumed than at any other time. In many cases, it is 5__________________________ who are the victims, knocked down as they are walking across the street at 6__________________________ by drivers who seem to have forgotten that the rules of the 7__________________________ order you to stop at red lights.
But these innocent victims, together with the help of the police and local councils, are fighting back. In
Oxford, a city plagued by 8__________________________ and 9__________________________ caused by traffic, and a notorious accident 10__________________________ for pedestrians and cyclists, the city council has recently implemented its new 11__________________________ , which has improved the flow of traffic to the benefit of those on foot or on two wheels. 12__________________________ measures such as bollards and speed humps have slowed traffic down. 13__________________________ schemes have helped reduce the number of cars in the city, as office workers and shoppers leave their cars outside the city and bus in instead. Cornmarket Street, the main shopping thoroughfare, has been designated a
14__________________________ , closed to all vehicles during the day. There are more
15__________________________ on main routes into the city, making it safer for the huge number of students and residents who rely on bicycles to get around. And 16__________________________ public transport has helped to keep down the cost of using buses. Meanwhile, the police and the courts are coming down hard on drivers who misuse the roads, handing down large 17__________________________ on selfish, inconsiderate drivers who believe it is their right to 18__________________________ the roads.

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topic-specific vocabulary

The arts
A. Look at sentences 1-10, which are all extracts from art reviews, and decide what is being talked about in each one. Choose the most appropriate answer from the box. There are some which are not needed.

Performing arts a modern dance piece • a concert • a play • an opera • a film • a ballet
Literature
poetry • a biography • drama • a novel • a collection of short stories
Fine / Visual Arts abstract art • a landscape • photography • a portrait • a still life • a sculpture 1. Mimi Latouche is getting a little too old for this kind of thing, and as I watched her pirouette across the stage in a tutu two sizes too small, she reminded me not so much of a swan as a rather ungainly crow.
2. The scenery was wonderful. The costumes were marvellous. The cast were incredible. I wish I could say the same about the script. The playwright should be shot.
3. In his new book on Ernest Hemingway, acclaimed writer Michael Norris has brought the great man to life in a way nobody else could.
4. Move over Michelangelo! You have a rival. Vittorio Manelleto’s marble pieces embody the human form in a way that has not been achieved in over five hundred years.
5. I had to study the picture for almost two minutes before I realised who it was. It was none other than our Queen. I doubt she would have been amused.
6. There are no great tenors in Britain. That is until now. Brian Clack’s performance in La Traviatta sent shudders down my spine. What a man! What a voice! What a size!
7. Herbert von Caravan has been conducting now for almost forty years, and his final appearance yesterday was greeted with remarkable applause from both musicians and members of the audience. 8. ‘Stone Angel’ is an hilarious tale about the fall and rise of an opera singer. I picked it up and didn’t put it down until I had finished. A fantastic book.
9. Dylan Thomas showed remarkable eloquence, and this latest compilation of some of his finest prose will surely be a bestseller.
10. Bruschetta’s studies of dead animals might not be to everyone’s taste, but it is impossible to deny his skill in representing inanimate objects like these on canvas.
11. He usually works in black and white, and in my opinion that's the medium he should stick to. His colour shots are too static and are heavily over-filtered, the strong lighting washes out any subtlety, and much of it is out of focus.
12. Shot entirely on location in Iran, this is perhaps the director's finest hour. A stunning setting, fine performances from the leads, and a cast of thousands of extras make this a truly visual feast.

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B. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word or expression from A, B or C.
1. Tonight’s __________________________ of ‘Hamlet’ begins at 7.30.
A. perform

B. performing

C. performance

2. Camford University Press have just released a collection of Shakespeare’s ________________________ .
A. works

B. workers

C. workings

3. The rock group ‘Glass Weasel’ have released a limited __________________________ of their new album which contains a CD-Rom of their latest show.
A. edit

B. edition

C. editor

topic-specific vocabulary

The arts

4. His last book received excellent __________________________in the newspapers.
A. reviews

B. previews

C. revisions

5. There is an __________________________ of Monet’s work at the Tate.
A. exhibitionist

B. exhibit

C. exhibition

6. The British National Orchestra is delighted with the government’s promise of a £500,000
__________________________ .
A. subsidiary

B. subsidy

C. subpoena

7. Tickets have already sold out for the first day’s showing of Tom Cartmill’s paintings at the National
__________________________ .
A. Galleon

B. Galley

C. Gallery

8. Ernest Hemingway was one of the twentieth century’s most famous __________________________ .
A. novels

B. novelties

C. novelists

9. The French __________________________ of the nineteenth century had a profound influence on the world of art.
A. impressions

B. impressionists

C. impressionisms

10. Oldhaven Press are going to __________________________ my new book!
A. publish

B. publisher

C. publication

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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topic-specific vocabulary

The arts
C. Now look at this extract from a radio programme and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.
Hello, and welcome to today’s edition of ‘But is it Art?’
Now, I don’t usually enjoy 1__________________________ - all those pirouettes and pas de deux’s and dying swans usually send me to sleep, but last night’s 2__________________________ of ‘Sleeping Beauty’ at Nureyev Hall had me on the edge of my seat. And I’m not the only one: rave
3__________________________ in the national press praised the excellent choreography and the incredible stage set. It’s on again tonight, but you’ll have to move fast if you want a ticket!
The current 4__________________________ of Monetto’s paintings at the Wheatley
5__________________________ has been a disappointment. The pictures themselves are excellent, especially the great artist’s 6__________________________ of film stars, and of course his stunning
7__________________________ of a vase of daffodils, but the lighting inside the room was terrible. I would have thought that, having received a government 8__________________________ of almost £100,000, the
Wheatley Arts Council could have invested it in some good lights.
Fans of the great twentieth-century 9__________________________ George Orwell will be delighted to hear that Swansong Press are going to release a collection of his greatest
10_________________________ , which will of course include ‘Animal Farm’ and ‘Nineteen Eighty
Four’. Also included are some rare short stories which were not 11__________________________ until after his death. Look out for the book, which will be in the shops from the end of the month.
On the subject of books, a new 12__________________________ of the life of conductor
Charles Worsenmost is due to be released in January. Worsenmost conducted his last
13__________________________ in 1998 after a long and eventful career. This is highly recommended for anyone who is remotely interested in classical music.
Have you ever wanted to be an 14__________________________ singer? Well, now’s your chance!
The National Music Company are looking for tenors and sopranos to audition for a new production of
Mozart’s ‘Marriage of Figaro’. If you’re interested, we’ll give you the number to call at the end of the programme.
Potential Michelangelo’s and Henry Moore’s can try their hand at 15__________________________ this weekend. The Gleneagles Museum is holding a series of workshops which will give you the chance to chip away at a lump of stone to produce a piece of three-dimensional art. There’s no need to book - just turn up at the door on Saturday at nine o’clock.
And now here’s that number I promised you...

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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A. Match the sentences in the left-hand column with the most appropriate sentence in the right-hand column. Use the words in bold to help you.
1. London is a truly cosmopolitan city.
2. A modern metropolis needs a good integrated

A. Drug abuse is also a big problem.
B. Shops, libraries, hospitals and entertainment complexes are just a few of them.

transport system.
C. Chief
3. London suffers a lot from traffic congestion.
4. Poverty in the inner-city areas can breed

among

these

are

concerts

and

exhibitions.
D. In particular, I enjoy the atmosphere that is unique to the city.

topic-specific vocabulary

Town & country

crime.
E. Prices in London are particularly exorbitant.
5. Cities around the world have seen a huge

F.

population explosion.
6. Birmingham has plenty of amenities.

Without them, they are unable to function properly as cities.

G. It is especially bad during the rush hour, when thousands of commuters try to enter or leave

7. A lot of people visit Paris for its cultural events. the city.
H. Stress-related illnesses are very common in cities like New York.

8. Cities in poorer countries often lack basic infrastructures. 9. The pressures of modern city life can be

I.

Nowadays there are more city dwellers than ever before.

J.

Everywhere you go there are building sites, pedestrian precincts, blocks of flats and

difficult to deal with.

housing
10. The cost of living in some places can be very high. spreading

into

the

countryside.
K. They like to feel that they can do something without everybody knowing about it.

11. A lot of people appreciate the anonymity of living in a large city.

estates

L. Most people use buses and the underground to get to the banks and offices where they work. 12. I love the urban lifestyle I lead.
13. In Singapore, private cars are banned from the

M. Unfortunately, this is something that most large capital cities lack.

Central Business District at peak periods.
N. It’s a melting pot for people from all parts of
14. Urban sprawl is prevalent in most cities.

the world.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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topic-specific vocabulary

Town & country
B. Match the sentences in the left-hand column with an appropriate response in the righthand column. Use the words in bold to help you.
1. I enjoy a rural lifestyle.
2. There isn’t much pollution if you live outside a town. A. Really? So why are we seeing so much construction in the countryside around London?

3. There is a lot of productive land in this area.

B. I’m not so sure. All those pesticides and chemical fertilisers that farmers use nowadays can’t be good for the environment.

4. In recent years, there has been a lot of migration from the towns to the cities.

C. That’s probably because we import more food from abroad.

5. The government has promised to leave the green belt alone.

D. Mostly wheat, oats and barley.

6. There has been a huge reduction in the amount of arable land over the last twenty years. F. I’m not surprised. With such terrible prospects within towns, depopulation is inevitable.

7. My uncle’s farm covers almost 800 hectares.
8. What are the main crops grown in this area?

E. Really? How much is that in acres?

G. Well I can’t see much evidence of cultivation.
H. Really? I always find there’s nothing to do in the countryside.

C. Now read this article and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks
A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.
For seven years I lived in Singapore, a 1_________________________ of almost three million people. Like
London, Paris and New York, Singapore is a 2_________________________ city, with people from different parts of the world living and working together. I enjoyed the 3_________________________ lifestyle I led there, and made the most of the superb 4_________________________ , ranging from the excellent shops to some of the best restaurants in the world. In the evenings and at weekends there were always
5_________________________ ; with such diverse attractions as classical western music, an exhibition of
Malay art or a Chinese opera in the street, it was difficult to get bored. Perhaps most impressive, however, was the remarkable transport 6_________________________ , with excellent roads, a swift and efficient bus service and a state-of-the-art underground system which could whisk 7_________________________ from the suburbs straight into the heart of the city (this was particularly important, as the government banned private cars from entering the 8_________________________ during the morning and afternoon
9_________________________ in order to reduce 10_________________________ on the roads and
11_________________________ from the exhausts).
Of course, living in a city like this has its disadvantages as well. For a start, the
12_________________________ can be very high - renting an apartment, for example, is very expensive. And as the city is expanding, there are a lot of 13_________________________ where new apartments are continually being built to deal with the 14_________________________ which is a direct result of the government encouraging people to have more children.
Fortunately, Singapore doesn’t suffer from problems that are common in many cities such as
15_________________________ , which is partly the result of the government imposing very severe penalties on anyone bringing narcotics into the country, so it is safe to walk the streets at night. In fact, the
16_________________________ housing estates there are probably the safest and most orderly in the world.
Singapore wouldn’t be ideal for everyone, however, especially if you come from the countryside and are used to a 17_________________________ lifestyle. The traditional villages that were once common have disappeared as the residents there realised there were no 18_________________________ for their future and moved into new government housing in the city. Nowadays, there is very little
19_________________________ around the city, which means that Singapore imports almost all of its food.
And despite a ‘green’ approach to city planning, the 20_________________________ which has eaten into the countryside has had a detrimental effect on the 21_________________________ .

88
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A. Put the words in the box into their appropriate category in the table beneath. Some words can go into more than one category.

modernist • reinforced concrete • practical • post-modern • standardised skyscraper • well-designed • porch • façade • traditional • walls an eyesore • timber • elegant • stone • steel • functional • ugly glass • concrete • low-rise high-rise apartments



apartments • high-tech • controversial pleasing geometric forms



art deco

multi-storey car park • international style • energy-efficient • foundations

Building materials
(6 words / expressions)

Aesthetic perception
(how we feel about a building)
(6 words / expressions)

Types of building
(4 words / expressions)

Architectural style
(6 words / expressions)

Parts of a building
(4 words / expressions)

topic-specific vocabulary

Architecture

Features (that make the building easy to live or work in)
(4 words / expressions)

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topic-specific vocabulary

Architecture
B. (Level: Intermediate / Upper-intermediate): Complete these sentences with an appropriate word or expression from A, B or C.
1. The building is ________________________ . It’s been ruined and abandoned for years.
A. destabilized

B. derelict

C. defunct

2. She lives on a large housing ________________________ near the centre of the city.
A. estate

B. state

C. estuary

3. There are several run-down districts inside the city where the housing is in a bad state, although most of these ________________________ are going to be replaced by high-rise apartments.
A. slumps

B. scrums

C. slums

4. The city council are going to ________________________ the old church and built a new one in its place.
A. demobilize

B. demote

C. demolish

5. You can’t knock down that house; there’s a ________________________ order on it which makes it illegal to destroy it.
A. preservation

B. preservative

C. presentable

6. Sir Richard Rogers is the ________________________ who designed the Lloyds building in London.
A. architect

B. architecture

C. architectural

7. Some of the problems in our ________________________ are drug-related.
A. inter-cities

B. internal cities

C. inner cities

8. The council hope to reduce crime in the town by introducing new ________________________ facilities so that people have something to do in the evening.
A. sociable

B. socialist

C. social

9. The cinema is going to be closed for two months while the owners ________________________ it.
A. renovate

B. remonstrate

C. reiterate

10. If you want to add an extension to your house, you will need ________________________ permission from your local council.
A. planning

B. construction

C. plotting

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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C. Now look at this report and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks
A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.

Report from the director of the West Twyford Town Planning Committee
The last year has been a busy one for the West Twyford Town Planning Committee. Outlined below are a few of the areas we have concentrated on.
1. Applications for 1________________________ permission from home owners who want to develop their properties have increased by 50%. However, many of these homes are historic buildings and have
2________________________ orders which prevent them from being altered externally. At present, we can only allow owners to 3________________________ the inside of their homes (including installing central heating and improved wall insulation).

topic-specific vocabulary

Architecture

2. Last summer we invited several 4________________________ to design plans for the new council offices on Peach Street. We eventually chose Barnard, Jackson and Willis, a local company. It was generally agreed that their design, which included a grey tinted 5________________________
6________________________ at the front of the building, was the most aesthetically pleasing. They are currently in the process of laying the 7________________________ for the new building, which we understand is taking some time as the land must be drained first.
3. In response to a lot of complaints about the lack of 8________________________ facilities in the town, it was agreed at last month’s meeting that funds should be set aside for the construction of a new sports centre and youth club.
4. Several 9________________________ buildings which have been ruined and abandoned for over five years are to be knocked down. In their place, a new housing 10________________________ will be built.
This will provide twenty new homes within the next two years.
5. Everybody agrees that the new shops on the High Street are 11________________________ . It is certainly true that they are very ugly and out of keeping with the other buildings on the street. In future, we must ensure that all new buildings are built in a 12________________________ style so that they fit in with the older buildings around them.
6. There has been an increased crime rate in the 13________________________ to the east of the town.
We plan to demolish these run-down areas within the next eight years and re-house the residents in new 14________________________ apartments in the Berkely Heath district.
7. In an attempt to help the environment, we are going to make the town hall more
15________________________ . Windows will be double-glazed, walls and ceilings will be insulated and we will replace the current central heating system.
My next report will be in two months’ time. Anybody wishing to discuss these issues can contact me on extension 287.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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topic-specific vocabulary

Men & women
A. Look at the words and expressions in bold in the following sentences and decide if we generally consider them to have a positive connotation or a negative connotation.
1. At the interview, the manager was impressed by her astute comments.
2. In the power struggle between men and women, neither side will win.
3. After the takeover, the staff hoped that things would improve, but the new manager was just as ruthless as the man he replaced.
4. Some men believe that women are the weaker sex and should leave real work to men.
5. Our boss is a male chauvinist and believes that women should get less money than men for the same job.
6. John doesn’t consider women to be very intelligent. To him, they are just sex objects.
7. Our company is male-dominated; all the top management positions are occupied by men.
8. Maureen is a versatile worker. She is able to do a number of different jobs, often at the same time.
9. He holds egalitarian views and believes that everybody should be treated equally.
10. The new management has taken steps to ensure equality in the office; from now on, everyone will receive the same money regardless of their sex or age.
11. Militant feminists have thrown paint at a well-known television personality in order to stress their views. POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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B. Use the words and expressions in the box to complete the conversation below.

gender

roles



child-rearing



male

counterparts

breadwinner • stereotypes • household management • role division battle of the sexes

Chris:

Cleaning

and



cooking

Sex Discrimination Act

are

a

woman’s

job.

After



social convention

all,

men

are

no

good

at 1. ____________________ .
Terry:

topic-specific vocabulary

Men & women

What rubbish! Thank goodness the 2. ____________________ exists to prevent men from taking advantage of women.

Chris:

Well, let’s face it, in the workplace women never do as well as their

3. ____________________ .

Terry:

And I suppose you think that women are only good for changing babies’ nappies and other tedious aspects of 4. ____________________ .

Chris:

No, but I do believe that in a modern household there should be a clearly-defined
5. ____________________ . Men are good at DIY, for example. Most women aren’t. And I’ll always believe that it’s the man who should be the 6. ____________________ , providing food and shelter for his family.

Terry:

Well, all I can say is that I’m glad your ideas of 7. ____________________ are not shared by most people. Chris:

Nonsense! A lot of people believe in traditional 8. ____________________ ; the man goes out to work, the woman stays at home. It’s as simple as that.

Terry:

Men at work and women at home? Come on dear, those are such typical 9. __________________ !
With people like you around, the 10. ____________________ will always continue.

Chris:

Oh, shut up dad.

Terry:

Sorry Christine, but it’s an issue I feel strongly about.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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topic-specific vocabulary

Men & Women
C. Now read this essay and complete the gaps with one of the words or expressions from
Tasks A and B.
‘Men and women are, and always will be, different in the way they behave and are treated’.
Do you agree with this statement?
A totally (1)__________________________society, in which sexual (2)__________________________between men and women is the norm, is still a long way off. This is certainly the case if you watch television, where men are often portrayed as the (3)__________________________ , bringing money home to the wife, who is usually depicted as the (4)__________________________ , prone to extreme emotions and temper tantrums. But is this really the case? Is it still fair to create (5)__________________________such as this?
After all, as more women go out to work and more men stay at home to look after the house and the kids, it is quite clear that so-called (6)__________________________are merging and disappearing.

Take the office workplace as an example. For years, businesses and companies were
(7)__________________________ - the directors, managers and businessmen were always men, the secretaries and personal assistants always female. This was probably because men have traditionally been seen as more (8)__________________________ , more able to deal with the cut-and-thrust of business.
But now women are proving that they can be equally tough, while simultaneously being more (9)__________________________ and caring. In fact, in many ways, women are more
(10)__________________________ than men, a vital aspect of modern business where you are expected to do more than just one job. And thanks to the (11)__________________________ , women are paid the same as men. It would appear that, in many cases, the (12)__________________________is a dying breed.

At home, too, there is less evidence of (13)_________________________ . It is no longer the woman who does all the cooking and cleaning and (14)_________________________ . Such
(15)__________________________ is now often shared equally. (16)__________________________ no longer requires the woman to stay indoors all day while the man stays out until all hours. Whether this is due to the struggle by the (17)__________________________ in the 1960s and 1970s, or whether it is due to a natural shift in attitudes is unclear.

What is clear, however, is that women no longer feel they need to be regarded as
(18)__________________________ , the underdogs in a (19)__________________________with their
(20).__________________________ . In fact, many believe that in the (21)__________________________ , it is women who have come out on top.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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A. Put the words in each line in the box in order according to their size (the smallest first, the largest last). In each list there is one word that does not belong with the others.

1. forest



2. road
3




4. gorge



5. gulf



6. cliff

8. pond





peak

mountain

7. city

tree



hillock plain •





beach




ocean





lane

mountain range

hollow



valley



bay



cove



tributary



wood



inlet river •

track

hill

waterfall


brook

puddle

shore



ridge



footpath


continent



copse

estuary




sea



stream



county

topic-specific vocabulary

Geography

country

cape



lake

Can you think of any examples of the following in your country?
Forest
Mountain
Mountain range
Valley
Gorge
Plain
Gulf
River
Estuary
Sea
Lake

B. Put the words and expressions in the box into their correct category in the tables on the next page. Some can be included in more than one category.

depopulation • mountainous • urban sprawl • fertile • ridge • cliff densely populated • coast • under-developed • summit • industrialised peninsula •

irrigation



waterfall

shore



vegetation

conurbation


mouth




cape peak •


glacier source •





beach

coastline

overcrowding






plateau tributary highlands

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topic-specific vocabulary

Geography
Geographical features associated with water and the sea

Geographical features associated with land, hills and mountains

Words associated with agriculture and rural land

Words associated with towns and cities

C. Now look at this report of a journey and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.
We began our journey in the capital, Trinifuegos, a 1_________________________ conurbation of almost ten million. It is not a pretty place; heavily 2_________________________ , with huge factories belching out black fumes, and miles of 3_________________________ as housing estates and shopping centres spread out from the 4_________________________ centre for miles. It was a relief to leave.
As soon as we got into the countryside, things improved considerably. The climate is dry and it is difficult to grow anything, but thanks to 5_________________________ , which helps bring water in from the Rio
Cauto (the huge river with its 6_________________________ high up in the snow-covered
7_________________________ of the Sierra Maestra 8_________________________ ), the land is fertile enough to grow the sugar cane on which much of the economy is based. We saw few people, however, as many have moved to the towns and cities to look for more profitable work. It is largely due to this rural
9_________________________ that the sugar-cane industry is suffering.
Further south and we entered the Holguin 10_________________________ , with mountains rising high above us on both sides. The land here drops sharply to the sea and the slow-moving waters of the Rio
Cauto give way to 11_________________________ which tumble over cliffs, and small, fast-moving
12_________________________ which are not even wide enough to take a boat. At this point, the road we were travelling along became a 13_________________________ which was only just wide enough for our vehicle, and then an unpaved 14_________________________ which almost shook the vehicle to pieces.
And then suddenly, the Pacific 15_________________________ was in front of us. Our destination was the town of Santiago de Gibara, built on a 16_________________________ sticking out into the blue waters. The countryside here undulates gently, with low 17_________________________ covered in rich tropical jungle.
The open 18_________________________ surrounding the 19_________________________ of the Rio Cauto as it reaches the ocean is rich and 20_________________________ , ideal for growing the tobacco plants which need a lot of warm, damp soil.
That night I lay in my cheap hotel, listening to the waves gently lapping the 21_______________________ , and when I eventually fell asleep, I dreamt of the people who had first inhabited this
22_________________________ almost two thousand years before.

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A. Look at sentences 1-16, and replace the words and expressions in bold with a word or expression in the box which has an opposite meaning.

unskilled labourers • employees / workers / staff • credit • exports • loss demand for • bust / recession • shop floor • state-owned industries private • expenditure • lending • net • take on • retail • white-collar

1. We have a limited supply of computer base units.

__________________________

2. Last year, our company made a huge profit.

__________________________

3. Our gross profits are up by almost 150% on last year.

__________________________

4. Banks across the country are reporting a sharp drop in borrowing.

__________________________

5. The company will debit your bank account with £528 each month.

__________________________

6. The wholesale market has experienced a downturn since the recession began.

__________________________

7. The government is encouraging short-term investors to put their money into the public sector.

__________________________

8. Private enterprises are under a lot of financial pressure.

__________________________

9. Skilled workers are demanding a 15% pay rise.

__________________________

10. If this continues, we will have to lay off members of staff.

__________________________

11. Blue-collar workers across the country are demanding improved working conditions.

__________________________

12. He works for a company which imports camera equipment.

__________________________

13. A lot of people have benefited from the recent boom in the electrical industry.

__________________________

14. The management refuse to compromise on the quality of their products.

__________________________

15. Overall revenue is down by almost 15%.

__________________________

16. A fight broke out in the boardroom over terms and conditions of employment. (Note: you will have to change the preposition in to on)

topic-specific vocabulary

Business & industry

__________________________

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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topic-specific vocabulary

Business & industry
B. Match the words and expressions in the first box with a dictionary definition from the list
A - Q below.
1. automation
2. unemployment
3. inflation
4. balance of payments
5. taxation
6. GNP
A. The percentage charged for
__________________________ .)

7. interest rates
8. primary industries
9. secondary industries
10. service industries
11. nationalised industries
12. monopoly borrowing money.

(The

13. output
14. income tax
15. VAT
16. deficit
17. key industries

Bank

of

England

has

raised

B. Industries involved in the manufacture of goods. ( __________________________ rely on the ready supply of raw materials.)
C. The value of goods and services paid for in a country, including income earned in other countries. (Last year’s __________________________ was close to £25 billion.)
D. The amount which a firm, machine or person produces. (The factory has doubled its
__________________________ in the last six months.)
E. Industries involved in the production of raw materials. (Coal mining is an important
__________________________ .)
F

Installing machinery in place of workers ( __________________________ can be a mixed blessing machines usually tend to be out of order when you need them most.)

G. Industries which do not make products but offer a service such as banking, insurance and transport.
( __________________________ have become more important in the last decade.)
H. The difference in value between a country’s imports and exports. (The government is trying to reduce the __________________________ deficit.)
I.

The amount by which expenditure is more than receipts in a firm’s or country’s accounts. (The company announced a two million pound __________________________ .)

J. A system where one person or company supplies all of a product in one area without any competition.
(The state has a __________________________ of the tobacco trade.)
K. Industries which were once privately owned, but now belong to the state. (Workers in
__________________________ are to get a 3% pay rise.)
L. Lack of work. (The figures for __________________________ are rising.)
M. The action of imposing taxes. (Money raised by __________________________ pays for all government services.) N. The most important industries in a country. (Oil is a __________________________ which is essential to the country’s economy.)
O. A state in an economy where prices and wages are rising to keep pace with each other. (The government is trying to keep __________________________ down below 3%.)
P.

A tax on money earned as wages or salary. (She pays __________________________ at the lowest rate.)

Q. A tax imposed as a percentage of the invoice value of goods or services. An indirect tax.
( __________________________ in Britain currently runs at 17.5%.)

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C. Now look at this extract from a business programme and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.

1____________________________________ rates are to rise by a further half a percent next month, putting further pressure on homeowners paying mortgages. It will also discourage people from
2____________________________________ money from the high street banks, who are already under a lot of pressure. Last year, the National Bank was forced to 3____________________________________ 2,000 members of staff across the country, adding to the country’s rapidly rising rate of
4____________________________________ .

topic-specific vocabulary

Business & industry

5____________________________________ rose in the last year by almost 6%, despite the government’s pledge to keep price and wage rises no higher than 3%. This has had a negative impact on
6____________________________________ , since the strong pound coupled with rising prices has made it almost impossible for foreign companies to buy British goods and services. Especially affected are the
7____________________________________ producing pharmaceuticals and chemicals.

8____________________________________ workers in 9____________________________________ industries across the country are demanding higher 10____________________________________ . Unions and workers are negotiating with 11____________________________________ chiefs for an eight percent rise. This follows the announcement that the government want more investors to put their money into the
12____________________________________ sector.

13____________________________________

for

home

computers

has

finally

overtaken

the

14____________________________________ , making it once again a seller’s market. There is now a twoweek waiting list to receive a new computer. This has pushed prices up by almost a third.

Bradford Aerospace Technologies, where overall 15____________________________________ for sales of aircraft parts has dropped by almost 10% in the last quarter, will shortly become a
16____________________________________ industry in a final desperate attempt to keep it open. The government has promised it will keep on the current workforce.

Bad news too for Ranger Cars, who this week announced a 17____________________________________ of almost five million pounds. A spokesman for the company blamed high labour costs and the reluctance by union leaders to approve increased 18____________________________________ at the firm’s factories.
They insist that the installation of new machinery will lead to redundancies.

Don’t forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

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topic-specific vocabulary

Global problems
A. Complete sentences 1-15 with the correct word or expression from A, B or C. In each case two of the options are incorrectly spelt.
1. Thousands of buildings were flattened in the San Francisco _______________________________ of 1906.
A. earthquack
B. earthquake
C. earthquaik
2. The _______________________________ damaged properties all along the coast.
A. hurricane
B. hurriccane
C. huriccane
3. A _______________________________ struck the southern coast with tremendous force.
A. tornadoe
B. tornado
C. tornaddo
4. The _______________________________ caused immense damage in the regions along the coast.
A. taifun
B. typhone
C. typhoon
5. The _______________________________ has been dormant for years, but last month it showed signs of new life.
A. volcano
B. vulcano
C. volcanoe
6. Several _______________________________ were heard during the night as the army occupied the city.
A. explossions
B. explosiones
C. explosions
7. The American _______________________________ of 1861-1865 was fought between the south and the north. A. civil war
B. sivil war
C. civvil war
8. There has been a major _______________________________ on the motorway.
A. acident
B. accident
C. acciddent
9. _______________________________ rain has brought serious problems.
A. Torrential
B. Torential
C. Torrantial
10. The storm caused widespread _______________________________ along the coast.
A. devvastation
B. devustation
C. devastation
11. The _______________________________ were caused by heavy rain.
A. floodes
B. floods
C. flouds
12. Relief workers are bringing food to _______________________________-stricken areas.
A. draught
B. drought
C. drouhgt
13. _______________________________ is widespread in parts of Africa, with millions suffering from malnutrition. A. famine
B. fammine
C. faminne
14. The authorities are taking steps to prevent an _______________________________ of cholera.
A. epidemmic
B. epidemic
C. eppidemic
15. The _______________________________ was spread from rats to fleas and then on to humans.
A. plague
B. plaque
C. plaigue
B. Complete sentences 1-10 with an appropriate word or expression from the box. In some cases, more than one answer is possible. There are five words which do not fit into any of the sentences. disaster • survivors • spouted • suffering • ran • erupted • broke out shook • casualties • spread • refugees • relief • flamed • wobbled • swept
1. The disease _______________________________ rapidly, killing everybody in its path.
2. The fire _______________________________ through the slums, destroying everything.

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3. When the volcano _______________________________ , people panicked and tried to escape.
4. The ground _______________________________ violently when the earthquake began.
5. Fierce fighting _______________________________ between government soldiers and rebel forces.
6. A funeral was held for the _______________________________ of the fire.
7. An aid convoy was sent to help _______________________________ of the hurricane.
8. _______________________________ from the conflict in Mantagua have been fleeing across the border.
9. The poor people in the city have experienced terrible _______________________________ as a result of the disaster.
10. International aid agencies are trying to bring _______________________________ to the starving population. topic-specific vocabulary

Global problems

C. Now look at this report and fill in the gaps with one of the words or expressions from Tasks
A and B. In some cases, more than one answer may be possible. You may need to change some of the word forms.

REPORT FROM THE INTERNATIONAL CHARITIES SUPPORT FOUNDATION (ICSF)
The last year has been a particularly busy one for the ICSF. Outlined below are a few of the areas we have been busy in.
1. Following 1_______________________________ rain in eastern Mozamlumbi in January, millions were made homeless as 2_______________________________ waters rose. The water also became polluted and there was a cholera 3_______________________________ as people continued to use it for drinking and cooking. Furthermore, as the harvest had been destroyed and there was not enough food to go round, 4_______________________________ became a problem. Charities around the world worked particularly hard to bring 5_______________________________ to the area.
2. Mount Etsuvius, the 6_______________________________ which had been dormant since 1968,
7_______________________________ suddenly in April. Thousands had to be evacuated to camps thirty miles from the disaster area. They still have not been rehoused.
3. The 8_______________________________ in the Caribbean in July, which saw wind speeds of up to 180 miles per hour, caused immense 9_______________________________ on many islands. Islands off the
Japanese coast also suffered their worst 10_______________________________ in almost thirty years, with prolonged winds in excess of 150 miles per hour. There were many
11_______________________________ who had to be evacuated to hospitals which were not properly equipped to deal with the disasters.
4. The 12_______________________________ in the northern part of Somopia continued into its second year, with millions of acres of crops destroyed by lack of rain. Meanwhile, the
13_______________________________ between those loyal to the president and those supporting the rebel leader continued into its fifth year. 14_______________________________ from the conflict have been fleeing across the border, with stories of atrocities committed by both sides.
5. In October, a fire 15_______________________________ through Londum, the ancient capital of Perania.
The 16_______________________________ , which probably started in a bakery, destroyed thousands of homes. There were several 17_______________________________ when the fire reached a fireworks factory, and a number of people were killed.
6. An outbreak of bubonic 18_______________________________ was reported in the eastern provinces of
Indocuba in November. It is believed to have been caused by a sudden increase in the number of rats breeding in the sewers.
A full report will be available in February, and will be presented to the appropriate departments of the
United Nations shortly afterwards.

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answers

Answers
Page 1 Condition answers
A.
1. You can borrow my dictionary providing that you return it before you go home. (We can also say provided that)
2. You can’t go to university unless you have good grades. (Unless means the same as If you don’t)
3. Pollution will get worse as long as we continue to live in a throwaway society. (We can also say so long as, although this is slightly more formal)
4. Many developed countries are willing to waive the Third World debt on condition that the money is reinvested in education and medicine.
5. Some countries will never be able to rectify their deficits, no matter how hard they work. (Note word changes and sentence ending)
6. Computers are difficult things to understand, however many books you read about them. (However is used in the same way as no matter)
7. Crime is a problem, wherever you go.
On condition that is the most formal expression, and is generally stronger than the other words and expressions.
B.

5.
6.
7.

(We put the conditional clause at the beginning of a sentence if we consider it to be the most important part of the sentence)
Providing that you return it before you go home, you can borrow my dictionary.
Unless you have good grades, you can’t go to university.
As long as we continue to live in a throwaway society, pollution will get worse.
On condition that the money is reinvested in education and medicine, many developed countries are willing to waive the Third World debt.
No matter how hard they work, some countries will never be able to rectify their deficits.
However many books you read about them, computers are difficult things to understand.
Wherever you go, crime is a problem.

C.

From your own ideas.

1.
2.
3.
4.

D. 1. prerequisites

2. conditions 3. requirement

Page 2 Changes answers
1. adapt 2. adjust 3. transform 4. switch 5. alter 6. vary 7. exchange 8. expand 9. increase 10. dissolve
11. swell 12. disappear 13. renew 14. renovate 15. promote (in the second sentence, promote means to make sure people know about something by advertising it) 16. demote 17. fade 18. replace 19. cure (in the second sentence, cure means to preserve meat or fish by putting it in salt) 20. reduce
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: swap / shrink / melt / grow / heal / decline / enlarge / downsize / take to something

Page 4 Describing & analysing tables answers
A. 1. Cilicia + Cappadocia 2. Cappadocia 3. Lycia 4. Moesia 5. Cappadocia
9. Lycia + Moesia 10. Lycia 11. Lycia 12. Cilicia 13. Cappadocia

6. Moesia

7. Lycia

8. Moesia

The verbs rise and increase have the same meaning here. We can also say climb. These verbs can also be nouns. The verbs fall, drop and decline have the same meaning here. These verbs can also be nouns.
The adverbs steadily and noticeably can have the same meaning here. They can also be adjectives (steady, noticeable). The adverbs sharply, rapidly and dramatically can have the same meaning here. They can also be adjectives
(sharp, rapid, dramatic).

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B. Suggested answers.
1. The number of people employed in industry rose / increased steadily / noticeably between 1996 and 2000 / over the five year period.
Or
There was a steady / noticeable rise / increase in the number of people employed in industry between 1996 and
2000 / over the five-year period.
2. The number of people employed in retail rose / increased slightly between 1996 and 2000 / over the five-year period. Or
There was a slight rise / increase in the number of people employed in retail between 1996 and 2000 / over the five year period.
3. The number of people employed in public services remained constant between 1999 and 2000.
Or
There was a constant level of people employed in public services between 1999 and 2000.
4. The number of people employed in tourism fell / dropped / declined between 1996 and 1998, but rose / increased in 1999 and 2000.
Or
There was a fall / drop / decline in the number of people employed in tourism between 1996 and 1998, and then a rise / increase in 1999 and 2000.
5. The number of people unemployed between 1998 and 2000 remained constant.
Or
There was a constant level of unemployment between 1998 and 2000.
6. There was a considerable discrepancy between those working in industry and those working in retail in 1996.
7. The number of people employed in industry rose / increased slightly between 1998 and 1999.
Or
There was a slight rise / increase in the number of people employed in industry between 1998 and 1999.

answers

Answers

Other words and expressions which you might find useful include:
For things going up: rocket / jump / edge up / soar / creep up / peak (especially for numbers, prices, etc.)
For things going down: slump / plunge / slip back / slip down / plummet / drop / bottom out (especially when talking about prices)

Page 6 How something works answers
1. thermostat (a heat controlling device in, e.g., a kettle or electric heater)
4. aeroplane (USA = airplane) 5. camera 6. food processor 7. firework

2. compact disc player

3. aerosol

The other words in the grid are:
Kettle / computer / car engine / television / toaster / microwave oven / ballpoint pen / lightbulb / bicycle
Other words and expressions you might find useful include:
Reflects / turns / starts / stops / records / turns up / turns down / winds / unwinds / revolves / folds / unfolds / reverses
Note: When we describe how an object works and there is no person or other agent involved in our description, we use the active voice (‘Light enters the glass object and a small door opens up’), When there is a person involved in the process, we usually use the passive voice (‘This can be released...’ ‘...a button is pressed’). This is because the action or process is more important than the person doing it.

Page 7 Writing a letter answers
A.
1. B (the most acceptable beginning in British formal letters) 2. A 3. C (I would like to... is a common way of beginning a letter in many situations, e.g., complaining, applying for a job, asking for information. It is also possible to say I am writing to...) 4. C 5. A 6. C 7. A (we can also say Thank you for your attention to this matter)
8. C (we can also use I refer to letters and phone calls you have received: I refer to your call of 12 March) 9. B 10.
B (Best wishes is used with more informal letters) 11. A

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answers

Answers
B.
1. False. Formal letters should be as brief and to the point as possible. 2. False. 3. False 4. False. It is not necessary to include your name 5. True (In some countries, writing abbreviated dates could be confusing. In Britain, 1/4/00 is the 1 April. In the USA it is the 4 January). 6. True 7. False. (A letter which is not broken into paragraphs can be difficult and confusing to read. You should have at least three paragraphs: Paragraph 1: explaining why you are writing. Paragraph 2+: details. Final paragraph: action to be taken - e.g., ‘I look forward to hearing from you soon’)

Page 8 Presenting an argument answers
A.
The best order is:
1. A 2. H 3. K

4. M

5. E

6. G

7. B

8. J

9. F

10. O

11. C

12. N

13. L

14. D

15. I

16. P

When you are asked to present an argument, you should always look at it from two sides, giving reasons why you agree and disagree before reaching a conclusion. It is usually best to present your argument in favour of something just before the conclusion.
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include:
I believe that / despite this / in spite of this / also / thirdly / I think / finally / in conclusion / nonetheless / admittedly / on the contrary / at any rate / notwithstanding / for all that / even if

Page 9 Contrast & comparison answers
1. A
9. B

2. B
10. C

3. B 4. C (differentiate and distinguish have exactly the same meaning)
11. A 12. C 13. C 14. B 15. B

5. C

6. A

7. C

8. A

Page 10 Location answers
A.
1. parallel to / in close proximity to (we can also say near to / close to) 2. surrounded by 3. on the left-hand side of
4. in the bottom left-hand corner of 5. directly opposite 6. halfway between (we can also say midway between)
7. exactly in the middle of
8. roughly in the middle of
9. at the top of
10. in the top left-hand corner of
11. to the left of / in close proximity to 12. at right angles to / perpendicular to 13. to the left of / in close proximity to 14. in the top right-hand corner of 15. at the bottom of 16. in close proximity to 17. on the right-hand side of 18. in the bottom right-hand corner of 19. stands outside
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: in the north - south - east - west of / to the north - south - east - west of / on the corner (of a street) / on the other side of / approximately / in front of / behind / across from / above / below / beneath / beside

Page 12 Joining/becoming part of something bigger answers
Verbs
1. linked
2. amalgamated / merged
3. blended
4. merged / amalgamated
5. incorporated
6. integrated / assimilated
7. assimilated / integrated
8. swallowed up / took over
9. got together
10. took over / swallowed up (swallowed up is less formal than took over, we can also say acquired)
Nouns
1. alliance 2. union
10. merger

3. federation

4. alloy

5. compound

6. synthesis

7. unification

8. blend

9. coalition

Page 13 Reason & result answers
1. The police asked him his reason for speeding through the town. 2. He failed his exam due to / on account of / owing to (these expressions have the same meaning as because of) his lack of revision
3. A persistent cough prompted him to seek professional medical help 4. She started haranguing the crowd with the aim of starting a riot
5. He spent the whole weekend revising in order to pass his exams 6. They came in quietly so as not to wake anyone
7. He refused to lend anyone money on the grounds that people rarely repay a loan 8. The bank manager refused to lend the company more money on account of / due to / owing to its low turnover and poor sales history 9. The school was forced to close due to / on account of / owing to poor student attendance 10. What were your motives

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different people in different ways 13. The army attacked without considering the consequences of / effects of its action 14. He failed to send off his application form and as a consequence was unable to enrol for the course
15. Riots and street fighting ensued when the police officers on trial were acquitted.

answers

Answers

1. ensued 2. consequences of / effects of 3. in order to 4. with the aim of 5. on account of / due to / owing to
6. reason for 7. prompted him to 8. on the grounds that 9. so as not to 10. affect

Page 14 Generalisations & specifics answers
A.
1. D

2. A

3. B

4. H

5. L

6. E

7. O

8. F

9. I

10. J

11. N

12. M

13. G

14. C

15. K

B.
General things: outline / generalisations / gist / in general
Specific things: specifies / technicality / peculiar to / details / itemize / minutiae / characteristics / illustration / illustrate
/ exemplifies / peculiarity
Other words and expressions you might find useful include: on the whole / for the most part / generalities / general terms / to generalise / list (as a verb) / specify

Page 16 Focusing attention answers
A.
1. simply 2. largely 3. primarily
10. purely 11. chiefly

4. mainly

5. exclusively

6. particularly

7. specifically

8. notably

9. mostly

The word in the shaded vertical strip is principally
B.
Only or solely: simply / exclusively / specifically / purely
In most cases, normally or the main reason: largely / primarily / mainly / particularly / notably / mostly / chiefly
Other words and expressions you might find useful include: for the simple reason that / purely on account of

Page 17 Opinion, attitude & belief answers
A.
1. opinion 2. concerned 3. convinced 4. regarding 5. disapproval 6. maintains 7. reckon (an informal word which means think or believe)
8. suspect
9. doubt
10. disapprove
11. exception
12. fanatical
13. obsessive (Note: obsessive about / obsessed with)
14. moderates
15. conservative
16. committed
17. dedicated 18. traditional
B.
Political beliefs: a republican / a revolutionary / left-wing / right-wing / a socialist / a royalist / a conservative / a liberal
/ a communist / a fascist / middle-of-the-road / an anarchist
Personal convictions and philosophies: opinionated / pragmatic / a Muslim / an intellectual / tolerant / a moralist / narrow-minded / bigoted / open-minded / a vegan / a Buddhist / a vegetarian / dogmatic / moral / religious / a Hindu
/ a stoic
Other words and expressions you might find useful include: view ( as a verb) / attitude / protest / condemn / object to something / condemnation / denounce / revulsion / disparage
/ scornful / applaud / agree with / disagree with / disagreement / hold the view that / from my point of view / for and
- or against

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answers

Answers
Page 18 Stopping something answers
1. delete 2. repeal 3. deter 4. dissuade 5. rescind 6. suppress or quash 7. sever (we can also use the expression break off) 8. turn down (we can also say reject or decline) 9. back out (we can also say withdraw) 10. deny 11. cancel 12. quash 13. give up 14. put an end to 15. remove (less formally, we can also say strike, but only if we are referring to something on paper, e.g., ‘Strike his name from the list’)
Other words and expressions you might find useful include: discard / refuse / clamp down on somebody - something / delay (to stop something temporarily) / resign / quit

Page 19 Time answers
A.
Part 1:
1. Prior to (this expression is usually followed by a noun or by an -ing verb: For example: Prior to visiting the country, he had to study the language) 2. By the time 3. Formerly / Previously 4. precede 5. Previously 6. Previously / Earlier
Part 2:
1. While / As / Just as (While is usually used to talk about long actions. When is usually used to talk about short actions)
2. During / Throughout (During must always be followed by a noun. Throughout can be used on its own. For example:
The concert was boring and I slept throughout)
3. In the meantime / Meanwhile (If these words are followed by another word, that word must be a noun) 4. At that very moment
Part 3.
1. Following (This word is always followed by a noun. We can also say after ) 2. As soon as / Once / The minute that
(these words and expressions are always followed by an action) 3. Afterwards
B.
(1 - the past): in medieval times / back in the 1990s / in those days / a few decades ago / at the turn of the century / in my childhood / youth / last century / from 1996 to 1998
(2 - the past leading to the present): ever since / over the past six weeks / lately / for the past few months
(3 - the present): as things stand / nowadays / at this moment in time / at this point in history / these days
(4 - the future): for the next few weeks / one day / from now on / over the coming weeks and months / in another five years’ time / by the end of this year / for the foreseeable future / sooner or later

Page 20 Objects & actions answers
A.
1. rotate 2. spin 3. revolve 4. slide 5. subside 6. evaporate 7. congeal (for blood, we use the word clot)
8. flow 9. freeze 10. melt 11. wobble 12. escape (we can also say leak) 13. bounce 14. vibrate 15. grow
16. fade 17. rise 18. set 19. turn 20. change 21. erode 22. spread 23. meander 24. burn 25. smoulder
26. crumble 27. expand 28. contract 29. stretch 30. crack 31. spill 32. explode 33. ring 34. sink 35. float
36. erupt 37. trickle
Note: Several of these verbs can also be nouns, and in many cases the meaning of the word changes. Compare, for example, a contract and to contract.
B.
1. stretched

2. exploded

3. float

4. rising

5. fade

6. cracked

7. subsided

8. revolved

9. set

10. slid

Other words and expressions you might find useful include: move / run / stop / fall down / come in / get up / break / bend / dance / cool / solidify / thaw / trickle / drench.
(Also see page 6: How something works)

Page 22 Likes & dislikes answers
A.
Positive connotations: yearn for / passionate about / fond of / captivated by / fancy / keen on / look forward to / long for / appeal to / attracted to / fascinated by / tempted by
Negative connotations: loathe / dread / detest / cannot stand / repel / disgust / revolt / cannot bear

106
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B.
1. A + B = ✔
6. A = ✘ B = ✔
11. A = ✘ B = ✔
16. A + B = ✔

2. A = ✔ B = ✘
7. A = ✘ B = ✔
12. A = ✘ B = ✔
17. A + B = ✔

3. A = ✘ B = ✔
8. A = ✔ B = ✘
13. A = ✔ B = ✘
18. A + B = ✔

4. A = ✘ B = ✔
9. A + B = ✔
14. A + B = ✔
19. A + B = ✔

5. A + B = ✔
10. A = ✔ B = ✘
15. A + B = ✔
20. A = ✘ B = ✔

answers

Answers

Page 24 Obligation & option answers
A.
1. False (you must take your own pencil and eraser) 2. True 3. False (he had to pay the money back) 4. False (they don’t have to pay any income tax at all) 5. True 6. False (the doctors made him stop smoking) 7. True 8. False
(you can attend the classes if you want to)
9. False (you must wear a crash helmet. We can also use the word obligatory) 10. True
B.
1. obliged / required 2. no alternative
8. forced 9. optional 10. exempt

3. liable for

4. compulsory

5. voluntary

6. mandatory

7. required

Page 25 Success & failure answers
A.
1. The two warring countries managed to reach / achieve a compromise over the terms for peace.
2. During his first year as President he managed to achieve / accomplish / fulfil a lot more than his predecessor had in the previous five.
3. The company couldn’t aford to move to new premises but were able to reach / secure an agreement for a new lease. 4. He worked hard at his job and was soon able to achieve / realize / fulfil his ambitions of being promoted to marketing manager. (Note: realize can also be written realise)
5. The country badly needed to increase its overall standard of living and attempted to achieve / reach / attain its targets - those of free education and healthcare - within eight years.
6. After four years of hard work, the motor racing team managed to achieve / realise their dreams of winning the
Monaco Grand Prix.
7. He desperately wanted to start a new job, but first of all he had to fulfil his obligations to his current employer.
8. Many people want to be rich, but few achieve / realize / fulfil their goal of becoming millionaires.
9. I have a lot of plans, and one of them is to achieve / realize / fulfil my aims of doing well at school and then going to university.
Note: Instead of manage to (+ the infinitive form of the verb), we can say succeed in (+ the -ing form of the verb.
Example: He managed to pass his exam / He succeeded in passing his exam)
B.
1. B 2. A 3. B 4. C 5. B 6. C (we can also say backfired, when a plan turns out exactly the opposite to what was expected. For example: All their holiday plans backfired when the children got chicken pox)
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: come off (an informal expression meaning to succeed) / fail / come to nothing

Page 26 Ownership, giving, lending & borrowing answers
A.
1. landlords (landlady = female. We can also use the word landowner)
2. owners / proprietors
3. owners
4. property 5. estate 6. possessions 7. belongings (possessions usually refers to everything we own - for example, our homes, furniture, etc. Belongings usually refers to smaller things - for example, a coat, a briefcase, etc.) 8. lease
9. loan 10. mortgage 11. tenants 12. rent / mortgage 13. donation (we can also say contribution)
Note: These words can be either nouns or verbs:: lease / rent / mortgage / loan.
Loan can also be used as an adjective, e.g., a loan shark

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answers

Answers
B.
1. lend
2. rent
8. allocate / provide

3. hire
4. borrow
9. provide

5. contribute (we can also say donate)

6. provide for

7. leave

Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: supply (somebody) with (something) / cater for / present (somebody) with (something)

Page 27 Groups answers
A.
People in general huddle throng gang crowd group People working together company team platoon staff crew cast

Animals litter swarm flock herd pack shoal / school

Objects batch heap / pile stack bundle bunch set

B.
1. crowd / throng
2. huddle / group
3. set
4. staff
5. company
6. herd
7. batch
8. gang / crowd
9. cast 10. heap / pile 11. group 12. shoal 13. litter 14. crew 15. flock 16. team 17. throng / crowd
18. platoon 19. bundle 20. bunch 21. stack 22. pack 23. swarm
C.
A. lecture

B. delegation

C. tutorial

D. symposium

E. seminar

F. tribunal

Page 28 Around the world answers
A.
1. C
2. B (Antarctica is the name of the continent and is not preceded by the)
3. B
4. A
5. C (countries between North and South America, i.e., south of Mexico and north of Colombia)
6. A (all countries south of the
USA where Spanish or Portuguese is widely spoken as a first language)
7. C
8. C
9. C (Mainland Europe and
Continental Europe have the same meaning. British and Irish people often refer to Continental Europe as the
Continent) 10. B 11. C
B.
-ese
(e.g., China =
Chinese)
Portuguese
Lebanese
Japanese
Burmese
Maltese

-(i)an
(e.g.,Brazil =
Brazilian)
Belgian
Malaysian (we can also say
Malay)
Norwegian
Peruvian
Russian
Iranian
American
Canadian
Australian

-ish
(e.g., Britain =
British)
Irish
Finnish
English
Scottish
Swedish
Spanish
Turkish
Danish
Polish

-i
(e.g., Pakistan =
Pakistani)
Bangladeshi
Israeli
Kuwaiti
Yemeni
Iraqi

-ic
(e.g., Iceland =
Icelandic)
Arabic
(Adjectives with
-ic are usually used to talk about racial groups rather than nationalities.
For example,
Slavic, Nordic, etc.) Others
(e.g., France =
French)
Greek
Welsh
Dutch
Thai
Swiss
Filipino

C.
1. a dialect 2. Your mother tongue is the language you first learned to speak as a child and which you continue to use at home, with your friends, your family, etc. 3. bilingual / multilingual 4. The seven continents are: Europe /
North America / South America / Asia / Australasia / Africa / Antarctica. In some countries, more than one language is officially spoken (for example, in Belgium some people speak French and some speak Flemish).

108
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Page 30 Size, quantity & dimension answers
A.
Big: 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25
Small: 1 (note the pronunciation: /maI’nju:t/ ) 2 8 13 21

answers

Answers

B.
1. a long-distance journey 2. a great deal of time 3. dozens of times 4. A minute amount of dust 5. a gigantic wave 6. a huge waste of time 7. a colossal statue 8. plenty of food 9. A broad river 10. A vast crowd of supporters 11. a gargantuan meal / plenty of food 12. a giant building / a vast room 13. a mammoth job / tons of work (both these expressions are informal) 14. a deep lake 15. a minuscule piece of cloth 16. an enormous book 17. a mammoth job / tons of work
18. a high mountain
19. a monumental error
20. a tiny car
21. a giant building 22. wide avenue 23. a shallow pool 24. a tall man 25. A narrow alleyway

Page 32 Shape & features answers
A.
1. E

2. D

3. J

4. F

B.
1. B

2. A

3. C

4. C

5. A

C.
1. D

2. F

3. H

4. G

5. I

5. A

6. L

7. G

6. C

6. B

7. A

7. E

8. H

9. I

10. K

11. B

12. C

8. C

8. A

9. C

Page 33 Emphasis & misunderstanding answers
A. 1. F

2. B

3. E

4. C

5. A

6. D

B.

1. emphasise / accentuate 2. prominent 3. emphasis / accent / stress 4. emphasised / accentuated / stressed
5. put great stress 6. of crucial importance / extremely important 7. emphasis

C.

1. confused
2. confusion
3. mix-up (informal. It can also be a verb: to mix up)
4. obscure
6. impression / misapprehension 7. assumed 8. mistaken 9. impression / misapprehension

5. distorted

Note: Word forms.
Verb
confuse distort misapprehend mistake assume

Noun confusion distortion misapprehension mistake assumption Adjective confusing / confused distorted Adverb confusingly mistaken

mistakenly

Page 34 Changes answers
A.
1. True 2. True 3. False: there has been an improvement 4. False: there has been an increase 5. False: there has been a strengthening of the dollar
6. False: there has been a relaxation of border controls
7. False: we’re increasing or building up our stocks of coal 8. True 9. False: there has been a slight fall 10. False: they’re going to decrease the number 11. False: there has been a decline 12. False: there has been a tightening up of the rules
13. False: there has been a widening of the gap 14. True 15. False: there has been a downward trend 16. True
17. True 18. True 19. True 20. False: British people want to broaden their horizons
Most of the words in this task can be verbs as well as nouns. Use a dictionary to check which ones.
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: raise / lower / shrink / extend / introduce / enlarge / drop in ability / open / close / lessen / heighten / lower / deepen / stretch / extend / spread / widen / shorten
See also Page 4: Describing & Analysing Tables

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answers

Answers
Page 36 Opposites answers
Verbs: 1. rejected
2. denied
3. retreated abandoned 9. withdrew 10. deteriorated fell (we can also say dropped) 16. loosened

4. refused
5. defended
6. demolished
7. simplified
11. refused (to let) 12. rewarded
13. lowered 14. set

8.
15.

Adjectives: 1. clear 2. easy 3. graceful 4. detrimental (we can also say harmful) 5. approximate 6. innocent
7. even 8. scarce 9. flexible 10. marked 11. crude (we can also say primitive) 12. delicate (we can also say mild) 13. dim 14. compulsory (we can also say obligatory) 15. reluctant
Note: A lot of words have more than one opposite, depending on their meaning (for example, the opposites of strong are weak / feeble (if you are talking about physical strength), delicate / mild (if you are talking about taste), dim / faint (if you are talking about light) or just weak (if you are talking about the strength of a drink). Use a dictionary to check if you are not sure.

Page 38 Addition, equation & conclusion answers
A.
Addition
(For example: and) along with as well as also too in addition besides what’s more furthermore moreover along with (this could also go into the next box -> )

Equation
(For example: equally) likewise similarly in the same way correspondingly Conclusion
(For example: in conclusion) to sum up briefly it can be concluded that to conclude in brief thus to summarise therefore B.
1. Furthermore / Moreover / In addition / What’s more (this is less formal than the other expressions) 2. As well as
/ Besides 3. Likewise / Similarly / In the same way (the verbs in both sentences (i.e., respect) are the same and refer to the same thing, so we can use a word of equation here) 4. As well as / Along with 5. In addition 6. Likewise
/ Similarly 7. Likewise / In the same way / Correspondingly 8. In brief 9. It can be concluded that 10. Therefore
(To sum up, to conclude and to summarise are usually used to conclude longer pieces of writing. Thus is slightly more formal than therefore, but has the same meaning)
Note: It is important that you are familiar with the way these words and expressions are used, including the other words in a sentence that they ‘work’ with. Use a dictionary to look up examples of these words and expressions, and keep a record of them that you can refer to the next time you use them.

Page 39 Task commands answers
1. N
14. C

2. I 3. R 4. L 5. E
15. O 16. H 17. B

6. P
18. A

7. F 8. K 9. G
19. M 20. D

10. R

11. J

12. N

13. Q

Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: give an account of / calculate / characterise / classify / comment on / consider / contrast / criticize / deduce / describe determine / differentiate between / distinguish between / elucidate / enumerate / express / list / mention / relate show / speculate / state

Page 40 Confusing words & false friends answers
1. action / activity 2. advise / advice 3. effect / affect 4. appreciable / appreciative 5. assumption / presumption
6. prevent / avoid
7. beside / besides
8. shortly / briefly
9. channel / canal
10. conscious / conscientious
11. continuous / continual 12. inspect / control
13. objections / criticism 14. injury / damage / harm

110
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15. invent / discover
16. for / during / while
17. However / Moreover
18. inconsiderable / inconsiderate
19. intolerable / intolerant
20. job / work
21. lies / lay
22. watch / look at
23. permit / permission
24. possibility / chance
25. practise / practice
26. priceless / worthless (we can also say valueless)
27. principle / principal / principal / principle 28. procession / process 29. rise / raise 30. respectful / respectable
31. treat / cure

answers

Answers

Note: some of these words have more than one meaning. For example, a television channel and a channel of water between two land masses. Use a dictionary to check for other meanings.
Other confusing words / false friends include: actually - now / already - yet / afraid of - worried about / bring - fetch / conduct - direct / consequences - sequences driver - chauffeur / formidable - wonderful / fun - funny / go - play (for sports and games) / come along with - follow kind - sympathetic / lend - borrow / nature - countryside / overcome - overtake / pass - take (an exam) / recipe - receipt remember - remind / scenery - view / sensible - sensitive / special - especially / take - bring

Page 44 Useful interview expressions answers
Agreeing with somebody:
Disagreeing with somebody:
Interrupting:
Asking for clarification or repetition:
Asking somebody for their opinion:
Saying something in another way:
Giving yourself time to think:
Summing up:

13 17 18 23 26 30
10 (followed by your opinion)
11
16
19
24 (followed by your opinion) 29 33 (slightly more forceful)
9 28 35 (You shouldn’t interrupt too often. In any case, during the interview the examiner will leave you to do most of the talking)
6 12 22 32 36 (Don’t just say What? Or Eh? )
5 14 37
3 8 20 21 25 27 (this can also be used for summing up)
1 7 21 34
2 4 15 31

Page 45 Phrasal Verbs 1 answers
1. up 2. out 3. up to 4. off 5. on 6. up with 7. down up with 14. out 15. out
16. into 17. on 18. behind forward 24. back on

8. out of 9. out 10. out 11. up 12. in
19. down on 20. out 21. over 22. with

13.
23.

Page 46 Phrasal verbs 2 answers
1. broke down
2. work out
3. wear off
4. wear themselves out
5. pull through
6. sort out
7. split up
8. showed up 9. pulled out of
10. letting off 11. let you down 12. carry on
13. held up 14. fell through
15. ended up 16. carried out 17. cutting back on
18. cut off
19. did away with 20. do up

Page 48 Phrasal verbs 3 answers
1. get 2. came 3. getting 4. get 5. came 6. get 7. came 8. get 9. came 10. get 11. come get 13. came 14. came 15. getting 16. comes 17. come 18. came / got 19. got 20. get

12.

Page 49 Phrasal verbs 4 answers
1. look over 2.
3. look after look down on 12.
13. go off

4. give in 5.
14.
15.

6.
16.

7. look forward to
17. give off 18.

8.
9. go over 10.
11.
19. look up to 20. go into

Page 50 Phrasal Verbs 5 answers
Clues across ( )
1. put down
4. talk them round
5. take after opt out 16. turned up 19. set off
20. run up

6. running up against
21. made up

8. turned out

11. picked on

12.

111
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answers

Answers
Clues down ( )
1. put aside (this has the same meaning as set aside) 2. take in 3. taken in 5. turned down
7. put up with
9. stand in (also used with 'for': I was asked to stand in for her) 10. put off 13. sets in 14. make out 15. made up 17. ran for 18. pick up

Page 52 Spelling answers
A.
Apart from condemning tobacco companies and raising the price of cigarettes, the government's anti-smoking campaign has failed to have any long-term effects, and the only people benefiting from it are the Inland Revenue department. Meanwhile, persistent smokers are being denied treatment by the NHS.
B.
It is arguable whether good pronunciation is more important than good grammar and vocabulary. Conscientious students balance their acquisition of these skills, hoping to achieve both fluency and accuracy. Teachers should encourage their students to practise all the relevant language skills.
C.
It is becoming increasingly difficult for many to find decent accommodation in London at a price they can afford. To put it simply, most people just don't have the necessary funds. Organisations such as Home Front can offer advice, but it widely agreed that the situation is no longer manageable. The fact that city councils are building cheap, temporary housing for lower-paid professionals is the only official acknowledgement of this problem.

Page 54 Education answers
A.
1. A (we can also use the word retake) 2. B, 3. B, 4. C, 5. C, 6. A, 7. C, 8. B, 9. B, 10. C 11. B, 12. A
The British higher education system is formed of universities and colleges, where students can take degrees in various specialized subjects. Students need a certain level of passes at ‘A’ level to enter a university, and most universities ask students to come for special entrance exams and interviews. Fees in higher education are in some cases met by grants, but many students are required to pay for their tuition fees and take out loans to do this.
B.
1. kindergarten ( we can also use the words nursery or playschool) 2. primary 3. skills / literacy / numeracy
4. secondary 5. discipline (this can also be a verb) / pass (the opposite of this is fail) 6. course (we can also use the word programme) 7. enrol 8. graduated (this can also be a noun - a graduate; a student who has finished a course at university. A student who is still at university is called an undergraduate) / degree 9. correspondence (we can also use the expression distance learning) 10. qualifications 11. evening class / day release
C.
1. skills, 2 + 3. literacy / numeracy (in either order), 4. kindergarten, 5. primary, 6. secondary, 7. discipline, 8. pass,
9. qualifications, 10. acquire, 11. health, 12. further, 13. enrol, 14. higher, 15. graduate,
16. degree,
17. higher, 18. evening class, 19. day release, 20. correspondence, 21. mature, 22. opportunity
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: pupil power (a relatively new expression suggesting a school or college where the students are partly responsible for choosing what and how they learn) / faculty / subject / resources / campus / adult education / infant school / junior school / comprehensive school / take or sit an exam / private education / co-educational / lecture / seminar / tutorial

Page 56 The media answers
A.
1. E

2. H

3. C

4. B

5. A

6. D

7. L

8. F

9. I

10. M

11. J

12. K

13. G

112
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In Britain, the most popular broadsheets include : The Guardian, The Independent, The Times, The Daily
Telegraph and the Financial Times. The most popular tabloids include: The Sun, The Mirror, The Daily Mail and The Daily Express

answers

Answers
B.
1. freedom of the press 2. media tycoon (we can also use the expression media mogul) 3. censorship 4. unscrupulous
5. exploiting
6. invasion of privacy
7. paparazzi,
8 / 9. information / entertainment (in either order)
10. chequebook journalism 11. libel 12. readership 13. gutter press
C.
1. broadsheets 2. coverage 3. current affairs 4. reporters 5. journalists 6. tabloids 7. broadcasts 8. Internet
9. websites 10. download 11/12. information / entertainment (in either order) 13. gutter press 14. invasion of privacy / chequebook journalism
15. paparazzi
16. libel
17. chequebook journalism
18. unscrupulous
19. Internet / web 20. information overload 21. logging on 22. censorship 23. freedom of the press
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include:
Types of television programme: documentary / soap opera / quiz show / sitcom / drama / weather forecast / game show
/ variety show / commercial / chat show
Parts of a newspaper: headline / editorial / advertisement / what’s on / entertainment / colour supplement / fashion
/ business / financial / sport / horoscope /
Others: state-controlled / journal / slander / tune in / read between the lines/ downmarket / upmarket / upbeat

Page 58 Work answers
A.
1.
2.
3.
15.
16.
17.
demanding job)

4.

5.
18.

6.
19.

7.
20.

8.
21.

9.
22.

10.
23.

11.
12.
13.
14.
(although some people enjoy a very

‘Sick Building Syndrome’ is a recently discovered problem in which the design of a building adversely affects the people working in it. For example, in buildings with poor ventilation the employees often suffer from headaches or breathing problems.
‘Repetitive strain injury’ (R.S.I.) is a pain in the arm or some other part of the body felt by someone who performs the same movement many times, such as when operating a computer keyboard.
B.
1. E 2. A 3. B 4. F 5. C 6. D
C.
1. employees 2. unskilled 3. semi-skilled 4. blue-collar 5. manufacturing industries 6. white-collar 7. service industries 8. job security 9. steady job 10. hiring 11. firing 12. stress 13. demanding 14. unsociable hours
15. repetitive strain injury 16. salary (a salary is paid monthly. We also use it to describe the amount of money an employee receives over a year: ‘What is your salary?’ ‘£24,000 a year / per annum.’ We use the word wage or wages to describe money which is paid daily or weekly) 17. promotion 18. perks 19. incentive 20. increment (we can also use the expression pay rise) 21. sickness benefit 22. pension 23. self-employed
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: employer / manual worker / profession / dismiss / dismissal / recruitment drive (when a company tries to employ a lot of new people) / overtime / fixed income / candidate / interview / interviewer / interviewee / leave (a formal word meaning holiday)

Page 61 Money & finance answers
A.
1. Profit is money you gain from selling something, which is more than the money you paid for it. Loss is money you have spent and not got back.
2. Extravagant describes somebody who spends a lot of money. Frugal or economical describes somebody who is careful with money.

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answers

Answers
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.

11.

12.
13.

14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

A current account is a bank account from which you can take money at any time. A deposit account is a bank account which pays you interest if you leave money in it for some time (we can also use the expression savings account or notice account).
A loan is money which you borrow to buy something. A mortgage is a special kind of loan used to buy a house over a period of time.
To deposit money is to put money into a bank account. To withdraw money is to take money out of a bank account (deposit can be a noun or a verb. The noun form of withdraw is withdrawal).
A wage and a salary are money you receive for doing a job, but a wage is usually paid daily or weekly and a salary is usually paid monthly.
If you are broke, you have no money. It is an informal expression. If you are bankrupt, you are not able to pay back money you have borrowed. It is a very serious financial situation for somebody to be in.
In the UK, shares are one of the many equal parts into which a company’s capital is divided. People who buy them are called shareholders. Stocks are shares which are issued by the government. Dividends are parts of a company’s profits shared out among the shareholders.
Income tax is a tax on money earned as wages or salary. Excise duty is a tax on certain goods produced in a country, such as cigarettes or alcohol.
To credit somebody’s bank account is to put money into the account. To debit somebody’s bank account is to take money out. In the UK, many people pay for bills etc. using a system called direct debit, where money is taken directly from their account by the company providing the goods or service.
Traditionally a bank is a business organization which keeps money for customers and pays it out on demand or lends them money, and a building society is more usually associated with saving money or lending people money to buy houses.
A discount is the percentage by which a full price is reduced to a buyer by the seller. A refund is money paid back when, for example, returning something to a shop (It can also be a verb: to refund)
A bargain is something bought more cheaply than usual (the word can have other meanings - check your dictionary). Something which is overpriced is too expensive. Something which is exorbitant costs much more than its true value.
A worthless object is something which has no value. A priceless object is an extremely valuable object.
If you save money, you put it to one side so that you can use it later. If you invest money, you put it into property, shares etc. so that it will increase in value.
Inflation is a state of economy where prices and wages increase. Deflation is a reduction of economic activity.
Income is the money you receive. Expenditure is the money you spend.
If you lend money, you let someone use your money for a certain period of time. If you borrow money from someone, you take money for a time, usually paying interest.

B.
1. F 2. I 3. L 4. E 5. J 6. K (the Inland Revenue is a British government department dealing with tax) 7. C 8. H
9. G 10. A 11. B 12. D
C.
1. borrow 2. loan 3. income 4. expenditure 5. overdraft 6. cost of living 7. Inflation 8. economise 9. building society 10. Interest 11. on credit 12. exorbitant 13. save 14. reductions 15. bargain 16. discount 17. invest
18. stocks 19. shares
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include:
Cash / cheque / credit card / statement / overdrawn / receipt / customs / inheritance tax / corporation tax / disability allowance / social security / currency / rate of exchange / investment / wealthy / debt / upwardly or downwardly mobile equity / negative equity

Page 63 Politics answers
A.
1. democracy 2. independence (the adjective is independent) 3. candidate 4. totalitarian
6. technocrats 7. opposition 8. republic 9. sanctions 10. House 11. ideology 12. Parliament

5. authoritarian

The word in the shaded vertical strip is ‘dictatorship’
The British Parliament is divided into two houses. These are:
1. The House of Commons. This is the lower house, which is made up of 659 elected members who are known

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as Members of Parliament, or MPs.
2. The House of Lords. This is the upper chamber, which is made up of hereditary peers or specially appointed men and women.
The House of Commons is the most important house. Many people in Britain want the House of Lords abolished because they see it as an outdated institution.

answers

Answers

B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

False. It is a system of government with an hereditary king or queen.
False. A politician is a person who works for the government.
False. A statesman or stateswoman is an important political leader or representative of a country.
True
True.
False. A ministry is a government department.
True.
False. A policy is a decision on the general way of doing something. ‘People voted for the Labour Party because they liked their policies’
9. False. A referendum is a vote where all the people of a country are asked to vote on a single question. ‘We want a referendum on the issue of European Monetary Union’
10. False. An election is the process of choosing by voting (The verb is elect)
In Britain, a general election (in which all voters can vote for a government) is held every five years. when a
Member of Parliament dies or retires, there is a by-election to choose a new MP.
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: vote / elect / revolution / scandal / stand for - run for Parliament / seat / marginal seat / chamber / Vice-President mayor / ambassador / embassy / party / representative / proportional representation / bureaucracy / bureaucrat
The three largest political parties in Britain are the Labour Party, the Conservative Party and the
Liberal Democrats.

Page 65 The environment answers
A.
1. F (The opposite of battery farming is free range farming) 2. L 3. J (Some of these animals are called protected species, which means that it is illegal to kill them) 4. E
5. B
6. C
7. D
8. K
9. I
10. G
11. H
12. A (we can also use the word hunting, although there are some differences. Poaching means to hunt illegally)
B.
1. Green Belt 2. biodegradable packaging 3. greenhouse 4. rain forest 5. erosion
6. recycle 7. organic
8. genetically modified (we can also use the abbreviation GM)
9. unleaded petrol 10. Acid rain 11. ecosystem
12. emissions / fossil fuels
13. contaminated (we can also use the word polluted)
14. environmentalists
15. Global warming
Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace are two organizations which campaign to protect the environment. A third organization, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), protects endangered species of animals and plants and their habitats. They are also involved in projects to control pollution.
C.
1. fossil fuels 2. acid rain 3. greenhouse 4. global warming 5. rain forest 6. contaminated 7. emissions / gases
8. Poaching 9. endangered species 10. ecosystem 11. recycle 12. biodegradable 13. genetically modified
14. organic 15. unleaded petrol 16. environmentalists 17. conservation programmes 18. battery farming
19. Green Belts
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: degradation / legislation / overfishing / greenhouse effect / ozone layer / destruction / waste disposal / overpopulation bottle bank / carbon dioxide / climatic change / sea level / re-use / energy efficiency / radioactive waste / toxic waste
CFC gases

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answers

Answers
Page 67 Healthcare answers
A.
1. D 2. G (a combination of 1 and 2 is called rheumatoid arthritis) 3. C 4. A 5. J 6. B 7. E 8. K 9. F (we can also say that their bodies lack resistance to illnesses) 10. H (The National Health Service is a system of free doctors, nurses, hospitals and clinics run by the government in Britain. Many people in Britain prefer private healthcare because this is generally considered to be more efficient) 11. I
B.
1. therapeutic (the noun is therapy. A person who provides a therapeutic service is called a therapist) 2. a diet (this refers to the food we eat. If you go on a diet, you eat less in order to lose weight)
3. conventional medicine
4. traditional medicines
5. holistic medicine (an example of this is aromatherapy)
6. consultant 7. surgeon (surgery is the treatment of disease which requires an operation to cut into or remove part of the body. Do not confuse this with a surgery, which is a room where a normal doctor, sometimes called a family doctor or general practitioner - a GP - sees their patients) 8. protein 9. vitamins 10. minerals 11. active (the opposite of this is sedentary - see Task 1) 12. welfare state (other features of a welfare state include providing citizens with adequate housing, education and public transport)
C.
1. welfare state 2 / 3. cutbacks / underfunding (in either order) 4. conventional medicine 5. traditional medicine
6. arthritis 7. consultant ( we can also use the word specialist)
8. surgery 9. therapeutic 10. stress-related
11. holistic medicine 12. diet 13 / 14. vitamins / minerals (in either order) 15. active 16. sedentary 17. cancer
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: prescription / mental health / physical health / blood system / National Insurance / research / the World Health
Organization (the WHO) / blood pressure / cure / curable / incurable / remedy / prevention / operating theatre

Page 69 Travel answers
A.
1. False. A travel agency (we sometimes use the expression travel agent’s) is a shop where you go to buy a holiday or a ticket. A tour operator is the company which sells the holiday to you via the travel agent.
2. True.
3. True.
4. False. They get on an aeroplane or ship.
5. False. They get off an aeroplane or ship.
6. True.
7. True
8. True (We can also use the word backpacker, describing somebody who carries a rucksack)
9. True.
10. False. Eco-tourism is supposed to be tourism that helps the environment.
11. False. They are all slightly different. Use a dictionary to check these differences.
12. False. It depends from which country you come and where you are going. Citizens of the EU, for example, do not need visas if they are flying to another EU country.
13. False. It is a short-haul flight.
14. False. It is cheaper. (We can also use the expression tourist class instead of economy class)
15. True. But see 12 above.
B.
1. refugees
2. internally displaced
3. emigration
4. immigration
5. culture shock
6. expatriates (often shortened to expats)
7. UNHCR (the United Nations High Commission for Refugees)
8. deported
9. persona non grata (a Latin expression which describes a foreign person, usually a diplomat, who is not acceptable to a government) 10. economic migrants 11. repatriated / deported
C.
1. travel agency 2. package tour 3. independent travellers 4. visas 5. check in 6. economy class 7. disembark
8. mass tourism 9. all-inclusive 10. eco-tourism 11. refugees 12. internally displaced 13. economic migrants
14. expatriates 15. culture shock 16. immigration 17. persona non grata 18. deported 19. checking in

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20. excursion

answers

Answers
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: acclimatise / embassy / alien / illegal alien / check out / insurance / first class / cruise / sightseeing holiday / safari / adventure holiday / skiing holiday / hotel / guest house / full-board / half-board / bed and breakfast / self-catering / suitcase / overnight bag

Page 71 Crime & the law answers
A.
1. judge
2. jury
3. witness
8. barrister 9. law-abiding

4. defendant

5. victim

6. solicitor (an attorney in the USA)

7. offender

B.
Part 1: (In order) A, F, D, B, C, E
Part 2: (In order) A, E, F, C, B, D
Part 3: (In order) A, D, F, C, E (we can also use the expression state punishment), B
C.
1. committed
2. arrested / charged
3. court
4. pleaded
5. guilty
6. sentenced
7. misdeeds
8. law-abiding / innocent 9. retribution 10. rehabilitate / reform 11. reform 12. released 13. deterrent
14. parole 15. victim 16. offender 17. community service 18. fine 19 / 20. corporal punishment / capital punishment (in either order) 21 / 22. judges / barristers / solicitors / juries (any of these in any order)
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: lawyer / accuse / pass a verdict / send to prison / convict (noun + verb) / conviction / statement / wrongdoer / punish / punishment / revenge / admit / deny
Different types of crime and criminal: burglary - burglar / robbery - robber / shoplifting - shoplifter / vandalism - vandal / rape - rapist / hooliganism - hooligan / murder - murderer / hijack - hijacker / forgery - forger / espionage - spy / piracy - pirate / terrorism - terrorist etc...
For more information, see the Dictionary of Law (ISBN 1-901659-43-7), published by Peter Collin Publishing.

Page 73 Social tensions answers
A.
A. 10

B. 7

C. 1

D. 5

E. 3

F. 6

G. 8

H. 9

I. 2

J. 4

B. ethnic cleansing - racial purging prejudice - discrimination civil rights - human rights harassment - intimidation rebel - non-conformist (the opposite of this is a conformist) picket line - blackleg poverty-stricken - destitute refugee - displaced person outcast - reject
C.
1. extremists
2. ethnic cleansing / genocide
3. Dissidents / Refugees
4. (political) asylum
5. illegal aliens
6. (institutional) racism 7. harassment / intimidation 8. Civil rights / Human rights
9. human rights / civil rights
10. Rebels 11. power struggle 12. homeless 13. poverty
14. squatters 15 / 16. discrimination / exploitation
(in either order) 17. blacklegs 18. riots / unrest
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: discrimination / sectarian / multi-racial / multi-cultural / unorthodox / disparate / itinerant / community

Page 75 Science & technology answers
A.
1. research 2. development 3. innovations 4. react 5. invented 6. discovered 7. analysed 8. combined
9. a technophobe 10. a technophile 11. safeguards 12. an experiment 13. genetic engineering 14. molecular biology 15. cybernetics 16. nuclear engineering 17. breakthrough 18. life expectancy

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answers

Answers
B.
1. base unit / disk drive 2. hardware 3. load (we can also say install) 4. software 5. monitor 6. printer 7. keyboard 8. mouse 9. scanner 10. log on 11. the Internet 12. web site 13. download 14. e-mail
15.
crashed 16. virus
C.
1. discovered 2. life expectancy 3. innovations 4. breakthrough 5. invented 6. Internet (we can also use the expression world wide web)
7. e-mail
8. research
9. technophiles
10. technophobes
11. cybernetics
12. nuclear engineering 13. safeguards 14. genetic engineering 15. analysed 16. experiment
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: information technology / bioclimatology / geopolitics / chemistry / physics / cryogenics + other specialized scientific or technological fields.

Page 78 Food and diet answers
A.
1. calories 2. protein 3. carbohydrate 4. fat 5. fibre (we can also use the word roughage)
6. cholesterol
7. vitamin 8. mineral (we often talk about the vitamin or mineral content of a food) 9. overweight (if somebody is very overweight, we can say they are obese) 10. malnourished 11. nutrition (we often talk about the nutritional value of a food. The adjective is nutritious. A person who specializes in the study of nutrition and advises on diets is called a nutritionist)
Note: Fats in food come under four categories: saturated fat (which contains the largest amount of hydrogen possible); unsaturated fat; polyunsaturated fat (which is less likely to be converted into cholesterol in the body); and monounsaturated fat
B.
1. H

2. C

3. A

4. I

5. D

6. E

7. B

8. F

9. J

10. G

C.
1. fast food 2 / 3. minerals / vitamins (in either order) 4 / 5. fat / carbohydrates (in either order) 6. malnutrition
(the adjective is malnourished) 7. scarcity 8. harvest 9. balanced diet 10. fibre 11. fat / cholesterol 12. calories
13. Genetically modified 14. organic 15 / 16. salmonella / listeria (in either order) 17. food poisoning
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: consume / consumption / underweight / eating disorder / anorexia / anorexic / bulimia / bulimic / vegetarian / vegan health foods

Page 80 Children & the family answers
A.
1. nuclear 2. extended 3. single-parent 4. bring up (we can also use the words raise or rear)
5. upbringing
6. divorced 7. childcare 8. adolescence (the noun is adolescent) 9. formative 10. birth rate 11. dependant (the adjective is dependant) 12. juvenile delinquency (in Britain, a juvenile is anybody below the age of 18, which is the age at which somebody becomes legally responsible for their own actions)
B.
1. H (authoritarian can be a noun and an adjective) 2. C 3. G 4. K 5. A 6. D 7. J (we can also use the expression over-caring) 8. B 9. E 10. F 11. I 12. L
C.
1. formative 2. divorced 3. brought up 4. foster family (a child who is raised by a foster family is called a foster child. The verb is to foster)
5. authoritarian
6. upbringing
7. running wild
8. adolescence
9. juvenile delinquency
10. responsible
11. siblings
12. well-adjusted
13. lenient
14. over-protective
15. nuclear 16. single-parent 17. dependants 18. extended

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Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: abuse / rebelliousness / relationship / supervision / minor / relatives / nurture / kin / family life / split up / broken home/ divorce rate

answers

Answers

Page 82 On the road answers
A.
1. A

2. B

3. B

4. A

5. A

6. B

7. A

B.
1. D

2. H

3. F

4. A

5. J

6. G

7. C

8. A

8. I

9. A

9. E

10. A

11. A

12. A

10. B

Note:
Most large towns and cities in Britain have ‘Park and Ride’ schemes. These are large car parks outside city centres where drivers can park their car, usually for free. They can then take a bus into the city centre.
Distances and speed limits in Britain are in miles or miles per hour (1 mile = 1.6 kilometres). The maximum speed limit in Britain is 60mph on single-lane roads outside towns, or 70mph on dual-carriageways or motorways. In most towns and cities, the maximum speed limit is usually 20 or 30 mph. Drivers who are caught speeding can face penalties ranging from a fine to imprisonment, depending on how fast they are driving and where. They can also have their driving licence suspended.
Drink driving is considered a very serious offence. Offenders automatically have their driving licence suspended for at least a year, will normally receive a fine and may go to prison.
C.
1 / 2. injuries / fatalities (in either order) 3. speeding 4. drink-driving 5. pedestrians 6. pedestrian crossings
7. Highway Code
8 / 9. congestion / pollution (in either order)
10. black spot
11. transport strategy
12. Traffic calming 13. Park and Ride 14. traffic-free zone 15. cycle lanes 16. subsidised 17. fines 18. dominate
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include:
Objects in the street: zebra crossing / pelican crossing / traffic island / pavement / bollard / kerb / junction / crossroads
/ traffic cones
Motorway / highway / carriageway / slip road / hard shoulder / central reservation / overtake / cut in / swerve / skid / brake / accelerate / lorry / articulated lorry / van / diesel

Page 84 The arts answers
A.
1. a ballet 2. a play 3. a biography (if somebody writes a book about themselves, we call it an autobiography)
4. a sculpture 5. a portrait 6. an opera 7. a concert 8. a novel 9. poetry 10. a still life 11. photography
12. a film
B.
1. C 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. C 6. B (we can also use the word grant) 7. C
9. B (impressionism is the name we give to this genre of painting) 10. A

8. C (we can also use the word writers)

C.
1. ballet 2. performance 3. reviews 4. exhibition 5. Gallery 6. portraits 7. still life
10. works / novels 11. published 12. biography 13. concert 14. opera 15. sculpture

8. subsidy

9. novelist

Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: a musical / produce / production / exhibit / artist / actor / author / sculptor / collection / pop art

Page 87 Town and country answers
A.
1. N

2. M

3. G

4. A

5. I

6. B

7. C

8. F

9. H

10. E

11. K

12. D

13. L (we can also say CBD) 14. J

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answers

Answers
B.
1. H

2. B

3. G

4. F

5. A

6. C

7. E

8. D

C.
1. metropolis 2. cosmopolitan 3. urban 4. amenities 5. cultural events 6. infrastructure 7. commuters
8. Central Business District
9. rush hour / peak periods
10. congestion
11. pollution
12. cost of living
13. building sites
14. population explosion
15. drug abuse
16. inner-city
17. rural
18. prospects
19. productive land / cultivation / arable land 20. urban sprawl 21. environment
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: suburbs / facilities / employment / unemployment / resident / residential / outskirts / property prices / development

Page 89 Architecture answers
A.
Building materials: timber / stone / steel / glass / concrete / reinforced concrete
Aesthetic perception: well-designed / an eyesore / elegant / ugly / controversial / pleasing geometric forms
Types of building: skyscraper / low-rise apartments / high-rise apartments (in Britain, the word flat is usually used instead of apartment) / multi-storey car park
Architectural style: modernist / post-modern / standardised / traditional / international style / art deco (high-tech could also be included here)
Parts of a building: porch / façade / walls / foundations
Features: practical / functional / high-tech / energy-efficient
B.
1. B

2. A

3. C

4. C

5. A

6. A

7. C

8. C

9. A

10. A

C.
1. planning 2. preservation 3. renovate 4. architects 5. glass 6. façade 7. foundations 8. social
10. estate 11. an eyesore 12. traditional 13. slums 14. high-rise /low-rise 15. energy-efficient

9. derelict

Other words and expressions which you might find useful include:
Other types of building: detached house / semi-detached house / terraced house / mansion / cottage / manor house bungalow / maisonette / castle / palace / shopping centre (in the USA - shopping mall)
Other parts of a building: roof / ground floor (in the USA = first floor) / first floor (in the USA = second floor) basement (cellar) / attic / staircase
Verbs: construct / design / plan / modernise
Others: standardised / prefabricated / development / mass-produced / low-cost

Page 92 Men & women answers
A.
These words and expressions generally have positive connotations: astute multi-faceted egalitarian equality
These words and expressions generally have negative connotations: power struggle ruthless weaker sex (a derogatory, slightly old-fashioned expression referring to women) male chauvinist (the expression male chauvinist pig can also be used, although it is considered insulting) sex objects male-dominated militant feminists (although some women would argue that this has positive connotations)
B.
1. household management (we also use the expressions domestic chores or housework)
2. Sex Discrimination Act
(a British law which states that men and women should be treated equally, with equal pay, terms and conditions for doing the same job etc) 3. male counterparts 4. child rearing 5. role division (we sometimes write role as rôle)
6. breadwinner (we can also use the expression financial provider)
7. social convention
8. gender roles
9. stereotypes 10. battle of the sexes
C.
1. egalitarian

2. equality 3. breadwinner 4. weaker sex 5. stereotypes 6. gender roles

7. male-dominated

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8. ruthless
9. astute 10. multi-faceted 11. Sex Discrimination Act
12. male chauvinist 13. role division
14. child rearing 15. household management 16. Social convention 17. militant feminists 18. sex objects
19. power struggle / battle of the sexes 20. male counterparts 21. battle of the sexes / power struggle

answers

Answers
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: discriminate / second class citizens / unisex / sexist / exploitation / cohabit / masculine - feminine qualities / modern man (a relatively new expression describing a man who believes in total equality between men and women and is happy to do tasks previously considered only suitable for a woman)

Page 95 Geography answers
A.
1. tree
2. footpath
3. hillock
4. hollow
5. inlet
6. brook
7. city
8. puddle

copse track hill gorge cove stream county pond wood lane mountain valley bay river country lake forest road mountain range plain gulf estuary continent sea (beach does not belong here)
(peak does not belong here)
(shore does not belong here)
(waterfall does not belong here)
(ridge does not belong here)
(cliff does not belong here)
(tributary does not belong here) ocean (cape does not belong here)

B.
Geographical features associated with water and the sea: coast peninsula shore beach cape source coastline tributary waterfall
Geographical features associated with land, hills and mountains: mountainous ridge cliff summit glacier plateau peak highlands
Words associated with agriculture and rural land: depopulation fertile under-developed vegetation irrigation
Words associated with towns and cities: urban sprawl densely populated industrialised conurbation overcrowding

mouth

cliff

C.
1. densely populated
2. industrialised
3. urban sprawl
4. city
5. irrigation
6. source
8. mountain range 9. depopulation 10. Valley 11. waterfalls 12. streams 13. lane 14. track
16. cape / peninsula 17. hills 18. plain 19. delta 20. fertile 21. shore / beach 22. country

7. peaks
15. Ocean

Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: lowlands / mountainous / hilly / flat / climate / diverse

Page 97 Business & industry answers
A.
1. demand for 2. loss
3. net
4. lending
5. credit
6. retail
7. private
8. State-owned industries
9. Unskilled labourers
10. take on (we can also use the word employ)
11. White-collar
12. exports
13. bust / recession 14. employees / workers / staff 15. expenditure 16. shop floor
B.
1. F 2. L 3. O 4. H 5. M 6. C (GNP = Gross National Product. Compare this with GDP - Gross Domestic Product)
7. A 8. E 9. B 10. G 11. K 12. J 13. D 14. P 15. Q (VAT = Value Added Tax) 16. I 17. N
C.
1. Interest
2. borrowing 3. lay off 4. unemployment
5. Inflation
6. exports
8. Blue-collar / White-collar 9. state-owned / nationalised 10. salaries 11. management
14. supply 15. revenue / income 16. nationalised 17. deficit 18. automation

7. secondary industries
12. public 13. Demand

Other words and expressions which you might find useful include:
See pages 53 (Work) and 56 (Money & finance) in this book

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answers

Answers
Page 100 Global problems answers
A.
1. B

2. A

3. B

4. C

5. A

6. C

7. A

8. B

9. A

10. C

11. B

12. B

13. A

14. B

15. A

Note: A hurricane is the name we give to a tropical storm with strong winds and rain in the Caribbean or
Eastern Pacific. In the Far East it is called a typhoon. In the Indian Ocean it is called a cyclone)
B.
1. spread
2. spread / swept
3. erupted
4. shook
5. broke out
6. casualties
8. Refugees / Survivors 9. suffering 10. relief
(These words do not belong anywhere: disaster / spouted / ran / flamed / wobbled)

7. survivors / casualties

C.
1. torrential 2. flood 3. epidemic 4. famine 5. relief 6. volcano 7. erupted 8. hurricane 9. devastation
10. typhoon 11. casualties 12. drought 13. civil war 14. Refugees / Survivors 15. swept / spread 16. accident
17. explosions 18. plague
Other words and expressions which you might find useful include: major (accident) / disease / illness / hardship / dead / wounded / injured / homeless / victim / aid convoy
See also page 68 (Social tensions)

122
For reference, see the Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 0 7475 6624 3)

Vocabulary record sheet
Photocopy this sheet as many times as you like, and use it to keep a record of new words and expressions that you learn. Try to build your own vocabulary bank of useful words and expressions.
Keep this in a file in alphabetical order for quick reference. Review the words and expressions that you have recorded on a regular basis.

Language area (eg,
Work, Education, Idioms,
Phrasal verbs, etc):

1. Word or expression
2. Definition
3. Equivalent in my language
4. Sample sentence

1. Word or expression
2. Definition
3. Equivalent in my language
4. Sample sentence

1. Word or expression
2. Definition
3. Equivalent in my language
4. Sample sentence

1. Word or expression
2. Definition
3. Equivalent in my language
4. Sample sentence

You may photocopy this page

elts

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