Vroom's Model of Expectancy Theory

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Vroom’s Model of Expectancy Theory
Expectancy Theory is a mental form of motivation. It is based how employee makes their decisions and why they are motivated to perform the task. It identifies the motivational force behind the decision (Van Eerde & Thierry, 1996). Motivation is predetermined before an employee will complete an assignment (Kopp, 2014). The components that contribute an employee’s motivation are a positive link between their effort and performance; the performance leads to the reward and the reward satisfies an important need of the employee (Kopp, 2014). Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is based on three components these are Valence, Expectancy, and Instrumentality. These components are directly linked to effort-performance expectancy and performance-outcome expectancy (Kopp, 2014).
Valence
Valence refers to the preference for one outcome over another. A positive valence would be when the employee prefers achieving the outcome; it would be negative if the employee does not want to accomplish it, however if the employee is unconcerned about the reward, valence is zero. The valence of a behavior is directly related to its value for the employee’s needs such as pay increase, promotion, and the employer’s recognition ( Van Eerde & Thierry, 1996). Valence provides a link the needs theories of motivation. The manager has to determine what employees’ value.
Expectancy
Expectancy refers to the effort-performance relation (Snead, 1991). The perception of the employee is that the effort she puts forward will result in the completion of the performance. Managers determine what resources, training, and supervision employees need to accomplish the task (Snead, 1991).
Instrumentality
Instrumentality is the perception of the employee as to whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager. Managers…...

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