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When automobiles industry popularizes a technique of producing vehicles, and falls its cost, nowadays, an increasing number of people can afford to purchase a private car. Consequently, a challenge of excess cars on roads ensues. In virtually all cities, traffic congestion occurs every single day at the peak time. However, it is generally believed that this problem can be managed through governmental policies as well as individual behavior. The following essay will firstly outline three viable solutions, namely developments from taxes and road infrastructure, improvements in public transport services, and a decrease in the use of private automobiles, to solve the impact of traffic jams in most cities. It, furthermore, will discuss the pros and cons of each countermeasure. Finally, the evaluation of every method will be demonstrated.

To begin with governmental policies, one possible method of reducing traffic congestion is to raise road pricing and to expand road infrastructure. Castle (1967) notes that charging fees on the main road at the rush hours can cut down a number of automobiles effectively because people do not want to spend extra money. Additionally, according to ideas of road pricing (Castle 1967) and park restrictions (Knoflacher 2006), it is believed that as long as governments impose road or parking fees, the usage of roads at the peak time can be reduced in metropolis, such as Singapore as well as London, and further authorities are able to spend the taxes from road pricing and parking fees on broadening highways, building roads and adding high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. By doing this, not only will individuals cut down the use of private conveyances, but governments can also increase the number of road-ways to alleviate the effect of traffic block.

Although this solution is considered that it may be basic and easier plan which is achieved by governments, it will result in some drawbacks. First of all, the policy of road pricing can be one reason of traffic jams in that when people drive on highways, cars have to slow speed to pass through toll stations. Moreover, building more roads may lead to a phenomenon which enlarges the number of private vehicles using roads. Apparently, this approach is inadequate for all cities unless all toll stations employ an automatic system, such as electronic toll collection (ETC).

Secondly, it could be argued that public transport services will mitigate a circumstance of traffic jams. Thus, there are several ways to achieve this goal. One of methods is that governments can use some means, such as subsidies, pricing strategies and bus lanes, to stimulate the use of public transport services instead of private automobiles (Hermann et al 2004). More specifically, if the cost and time consumption on taking public transportations are less than that of driving private conveyances, residents are likely to select to use the former ones. The number of vehicles will decrease on the roads. However, public transport are still restricted by road infrastructure, which means that when there are too many buses or trains on a bus lane or a rail way, the speed of public transport services cannot be maintained.

The other way is that encouraging people to use bikes can also reduce traffic congestion. Authorities can establish cycle facilities like cycle lanes as well as a public bicycle rental system to change a usage of custom from cars to bikes (Ogilvie et al 2004). In Holland, for instance, a condition of traffic congestion is combated successfully at rush hours, due to a quarter of citizens commuting to work made by bicycles. One advantage of this formula is that it can be accomplished in relative fewer budgets, compared with building bus lanes and rail ways; however, it is not capable of replacing buses as well as trains completely because individuals will not travel to work by cycling on rainy days. In general, the methods of governmental policies seem only to scratch the surface of the problem rather than cure for its radical cause.

Finally, in order to eradicate the issue of traffic congestion, its fountainhead must first be addressed. The heart of this challenge is the behavior of people. It is an indisputable fact that if residents willingly diminish the use of private vehicles, a frequency of traffic jams will significantly reduce as well. This can be achieved through several courses. According to Cairns et al (2007, p303), it is indicated that promoting on-line shopping can encourage shoppers to stay at home rather than going shopping by car, and further it will effectively manage the numbers of conveyances driving on the roads which are around shopping malls. In addition to this, car sharing is also a striking plan to settle traffic congestion (Cairns et al 2007, p220). For example, assuming that a person was to travel to work by a car, but now every automobile on roads is taken four people to work, then three-quarters of them will disappear at commuting-traffic time. Moreover, the most pivotal and efficient pattern is to use public transport services. If schools teach our next generation to form this habit, when they grow up, the rate of taking public transportations can soar in a foreseeable future even though taking buses or trains may spend (Simon, you said it is a wrong word, but I don’t know what’s wrong?) more time than driving private vehicles.

Aforementioned solutions can lead to some benefits and obstacles. Regarding the survey of home shopping, some people might concern for a quality of goods, particularly vegetables as well as fruit because they only see those pictures before get real ones. As for another measure of car sharing, while most individuals consider that it enables to shrink dramatically the number of vehicles on the roads at rush hours, few residents would argue that it is inconvenient because there are different areas between their occupational places and others’ who take the same car with them. Although, maybe, these arguments are true, it is by no means insurmountable. For example, countless on-line stores provide the guarantee which means that if customers are not satisfied with goods, the shops can offer services for exchange or refund. In addition, the contention of car sharing can also be overridden that people can share seats of a car with their colleges who live in the same suburb. Therefore, in contrast to governmental policies, personal behavior is the more valuable approach to completely deal with traffic block.

In conclusion, traffic congestion is one of serious urbanized problems and almost all main cities throughout the world are facing these difficulties. It may be reduced saliently in terms of the general aspects of governmental policies, imposing taxes, developing road as well as bicycle infrastructure and improving public transport services. However, if people intend to stem deterioration of traffic jams, the best countermeasure will be via control of personal behavior, such as on-line shopping, car sharing and education of taking public transport. All in all, whereas Above three solutions are suggested to enhance (intensify) traffic system, it is maintained that only by a decline in the amount of usage of private conveyances can this issue be dissolved perfectly.

Reference list

Cairns S, Sloman L, Newson C, Anable J, Kirkbride A and Goodwin P, 2004,
Smarter Choices – Changing the Way We Travel, London, the department for Transport.

Castle, B 1967, Ministry of Transport, Better Use of Town Roads, London, HMSO

Hermann, S and Robert J, 2004, "Price Customization". Marketing Management vol.7, no.3

Knoflacher, H 2006, "A new way to organize parking: the key to a successful sustainable transport system for the future", Environment and Urbanization (International Institute for Environment and Development), vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 387–400.

Ogilvie, D, Egan M, Hamilton V, Petticrew M, 2004, "Promoting walking and cycling as an alternative to using cars”, Systematic review, British Medical Journal BMJ Publishing Group, vol.329, no.7469, pp. 763

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