War in the Gulf: War Budget; Bush to Ask Congress to Approve $15 Billion for Added War Costs

In: Business and Management

Submitted By arsenal12
Words 644
Pages 3
The gulf region & Gulf war
The Persian Gulf is located in Western Asia. The Arab states of the Persian Gulf consist of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain and Oman (Appendix 1a). The six nations are part of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The GCC aims to boost economic cooperation between members and to guard against any threat from neighbouring states and from Islamic extremism (BBC 2012). The EU has a strong relationship with the GCC, ever since they signed a Cooperation Agreement in 1988. Its objective is to contribute to strengthening stability in a region of strategic importance and to facilitate political and economic relations. It therefore aims at broadening the economic and technical cooperation including cooperation in energy, industry, trade and services, agriculture etc. (Europa, 2012)
Therefore when the Persian Gulf War took place on the 2nd August 1990 – 28th February 1991 the EU got involved, however they did not get involved until 17th January 1991. The War was an armed conflict between Iraq and a coalition of 34 nations which were assembled by the United States; including Britain, France, Egypt and Saudi Arabia (Full list Appendix 1B). Iraqi troops began the invasion of Kuwait). During the period of the Gulf War the European Economic Community (EEC) was in power, the majority of the aims and objectives where based on how they could improve the economy. The cost of the gulf war was calculated by the United States Congress to be $61.1 billion, about $52 billion of that amount was paid by other countries; $36 billion by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf;n$16 billion by Germany and japan (NY Times).
Shortly after the war was over Europe went into a recession whilst America went through recovery. Even Germany, Europe’s biggest economy, where going through a recession during that period (Time…...

Similar Documents

War in the Gulf: War Budget; Bush to Ask Congress to Approve $15 Billion for Added War Costs

... be $61.1 billion, about $52 billion of that amount was paid by other countries; $36 billion by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other Arab states of the Persian Gulf;n$16 billion by Germany and japan (NY Times). Shortly after the war was over Europe went into a recession whilst America went through recovery. Even Germany, Europe’s biggest economy, where going through a recession during that period (Time Magazine). This led to the citizens questioning EU’s policies, as they felt too much money was spent during the gulf war (Europa). This resulted to the entry of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the EEC was then renamed the European Community (EC) it covered a wider range of policies. This was also when the three European Communities, including EC, were collectively made to constitute the first of the three pillar of the European Union (EU) which the treaty also founded (Europa, 2010). Although the gulf war was bad for the economy, it managed to teach the EU a few lessons regarding security. ”Europe should indeed move toward a common foreign and security policy, as this would enable it to play a more effective role in maintaining global security” (NATO). Although war is never a good event, it helped the EU, as they were able to look back at the mistakes that were made, and figure a way of preventing those certain mistakes. As of lately the European Ambassador Adam Kulach had this to say “the European and prosperous region. With 27 countries, over 500million people, one of the largest...

Words: 644 - Pages: 3

Gulf War

... : Prelude 88. As it has been brought out some key steps of the war began long before G- day. These were as under:- (a) The Coalition had almost a decade to improve its intelligence and targeting in Iraq. (b) It had developed basing structure in several Gulf States improving air bases and capabality to handle additional troops and air crafts. (c) Sea lift had begun for necessary movement of heavy equipment and supplies nearly a year earlier. (d) It also transformed its patrol of the No-Fly Zone in Iraq into suppression of Iraqi air defence. e) Human intelligence had been established. 19/20 March: G-Day 89. Although some preliminary operations were conducted on 19 March against Iraqi air defence and missile system, that threatened Coalition forces in Kuwait, the main attacks began early on 20 March, about 20 minutes after the US ultimatum demanding that Saddam leave Iraq, expired. 90. The war began with President Bush giving a “go ahead” on confirmed reports of Saddam Hussein’s location. US launched bombs and missiles at targets aimed at ‘decapitating the Iraqi leadership’. These attacks were executed using more than 40 Tomahawk Land Attack Missile System (TLAMS) from six US war ships located in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. The F-117 Night Hawks and F-15 E Strike Eagles were extensively used in shaping the battle field. As the only means of retaliation, Iraq launched two surface to surface missiles which were...

Words: 16645 - Pages: 67

Environmental Impact of the Gulf War

... (1899 and 1907), the Geneva Conventions (1949), the World Cultural and Natural Heritage Convention (1972), the Bern Protocols to the Geneva Conventions (1977), and the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD) (1977)” (Loretz). Around 30% of the planets countries are party to many of these international protocols, including the United States. Iraq on the other hand is not, especially to the last convention ENMOD, which is directly correlated to the burning of Kuwaiti oil wells from the defeat of the Iraqi army. ENMOD is put into place to prevent the manipulation of natural resources for military ends, which is exactly what the Iraqi army committed towards Kuwait. The loophole comes from the fact that because the Iraq government is not party to the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques protocols they government cannot be held accountable for its actions (Loretz). Iraq is not the only villain when it came to the destruction of the Gulf region. The United States must also follow rules, regulations and protocols before a project is undertaken, in America’s case was the Gulf War. The National Environmental Protection Act requires that any environmental damage that may be caused from any operation must be reviewed and analyzed, and place under review before the operation may be carried on with. In the case of Operation Desert Storm, the Bush administration and Pentagon......

Words: 2764 - Pages: 12

Is War Worth the Cost?

... the roof of the ammo hooch.” This paragraph tells us of the enemy combatant dying alongside a mountain and all the men on Restrepo cheering when the enemy was pronounced dead. Junger was disturbed and didn’t understand why they would cheer over a human being vulnerable to their attack and eventually dying a slow and painful death alongside the mountain. This reaction seems to suggest that he cares when he states, “Imagine a whole company’s worth of firepower directed at you. I got the necessity for that kind of overkill, but I didn’t get the joy. It seemed like I had to radically re-understand the men on this hilltop, or I had to acknowledge the power of a place like this to change them” (1). This argument provides an example of his main point; the cost of war and the effects it has on the young American soldiers. You can see his compassion and concern for what he has witnessed with the soldiers deployed. It gives the readers an indication of his own values and ethics. The fact that Junger spent a portion of fourteen months with the platoon speaks volumes of his credibility and character. His experience strengthens his ethical argument and the points he trying to make about the effects of war. From a logical standpoint, in Junger’s essay he questions the costs of war and society’s lack of acknowledgement on effects the war has on soldiers. The soldiers themselves are reluctant to see it as well. “Nearly 50 American soldiers have died carrying out these orders. I’m not...

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Korean War

...THE KOREAN WAR * The Korean War lasted from 1950-1953. * The peninsula was divided after World War Two into a Russian-backed north (The People’s Democratic Republic) and the American-backed south (the Republic of Korea). Each claimed the right to the other half in an effort to unify both. The division was the result of the occupation of Korea by the communists after the end of the war with the country eventually being divided at the 38th parallel. * In June 1950, the North Koreans launched a surprise attack against the south and the capital Seoul fell in just three days. * The United Nations Security Council (which was being boycotted by Russia at this time) asked for UN states to send troops to the region under a UN flag. The huge bulk of the troops sent were American (15 nations sent troops) and command of them was given to Gen. Douglas MacArthur. * By the end of August 1950 only Pusan in the south-east corner of South Korea had not fallen to the North. * In September, MacArthur took the huge risk of launching an amphibious landing at Inchon 200 miles behind enemy lines and from here he launched an attack against the North Koreans at Pusan. * The North Koreans had no choice but to retreat as they faced being cut in two. * MacArthur chose to ignore his orders and advanced north towards the Chinese border at the Yalu River. This provoked the Chinese to launch a massive attack against the UN forces and South Korea. A Chinese army of 180,000 men...

Words: 1132 - Pages: 5

Cost of War

...Wars are constantly being fought in the world. Bloodshed had taken place as top leaders ponder their every move in their game of victories and conquests. Behind each and every war that has taken place, there will always be a reason for it. The most predominant causes are greed and rising ambitions. Greed is inborn and present in the character of every human being. Hence we can see unscrupulous leaders, at the expense of the people, go to wars as a result of their quest for power and territorial gains. One example will be the recent internal strife in Angola, Africa. Foday Sankoh exploited the country's natural resources---diamonds for his personal wealth, which resulted in the deaths of many innocent parties. World War II was also started by Hitler's rising demands for territorial gains, conquering states after states. Hence wars that were fought for personal gains are the most common. The World Trade Organisation (WTO) can step in here. In face of such unscrupulous leaders, the countries in the organisation can stop trading with them and place an international boycott on such countries. For example, Iraq was slapped with an international boycott whereby countries such as Britian, France and America refused to buy oil ffom them during the invasion of Kuwait in the nineties. Next the fight for basic human rights is also one of the main reasons as to why wars were fought. In some countries, citizens do not enjoy equal rights. Widespread discrimination of minority can easily...

Words: 1093 - Pages: 5

The Persian Gulf War

...The Persian Gulf War Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. Alarmed by actions, fellow Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called on the United States and other Western nations to interfere. Hussein refused United Nations Security Council demands removed from Kuwait by January 1991, and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S. led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm. After 42 days of constant attacks by the allied coalition in the air and on the ground. U.S. President George H.W. Bush declared a cease-fire on February 28. By that time, most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled. Even though the Persian Gulf War was initially considered an unqualified success for the international coalition, firing conflict in that region led to a second Gulf War known as the Iraq War, that began in 2003. Adding to Hussein’s speech, Iraq had begun amassing troops on Kuwait’s border. Surprised by these actions, President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt initiated negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait in an effort to avoid intervention by the United States or other powers from outside the Gulf region. Hussein broke off the negotiations after only two hours. On August 2, 1990 he ordered the invasion of Kuwait. Hussein’s assumption that his fellow Arab states would stand by in the face of his invasion of Kuwait, and by not calling in outside help to stop it. Two-thirds of the 21 members of the Arab...

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Civil War

...Civil War Trista Kolb HIS/110 August 18th, 2014 Thomas Ward Civil War Shelby Foote’s passage means that the Civil War paved a path for the United States and what we have become. The events that occurred during the civil war proved that the United States would allow all men to be created equal. The Civil War shows the pain and suffering that some Americans went through to fight for freedom and what they thought was right. The Civil War was a major battle that helped push to the end of slavery. The Civil War brought the country together, we live as one country and not individual states. The Civil War is what made the United States into what it was. The Civil War made the United States into an indivisible nation with a sovereign national government. The Civil War also paved the way for all men to be created with an equal right to liberty. For the first time, the federal government started to tax a person's income. This came to light as an effort to pay for the cost of war. The federal government ended wildcat banking and consolidated the nation's money supply. The federal governments budget was also expanded to over one billion dollars (Schultz, 2014). Congress passed the Homestead Act in order to stimulate growth in the west. This Act offered 160 acres of free land to anyone including slaves to anyone that never took up arms against the federal government. The federal government also gave 100 million acres to the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroad (Schultz...

Words: 718 - Pages: 3

Vietnam War

... Offensive failed in its goal of overthrowing the South Vietnamese government but became the turning point in the war, as it persuaded a large segment of the United States population that its government's claims of progress toward winning the war were illusory despite many years of massive U.S. military aid to South Vietnam. Disillusionment with the war by the U.S. led to the gradual withdrawal of U.S. ground forces as part of a policy known as Vietnamization, which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the Communists to the South Vietnamese themselves. Despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. In the U.S. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed. This movement was part of a larger Counterculture of the 1960s. Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress.[41] The capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the number of Vietnamese service members and civilians killed vary from 800,000[42] to 3.1 million.[24][43][44] Some 200,000–300,000 Cambodians,[29][30][31] 20,000–200,000 Laotians,...

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Korean War

... his commitment to containing Communism at almost any cost. This demonstration of massive U.S. military force in East Asia forced the Soviets to rethink postwar policy in Eastern Europe and the rest of Asia. Truman also set a precedent during the war of avoiding the use of nuclear weapons, despite the fact that MacArthur advocated using them against North Koreans and the Chinese. Although the American public vilified Truman for this decision and for firing his insubordinate general, the decision proved to be prudent. The president knew that using nuclear weapons would only drag the Soviet Union and China fully into the conflict, which would destabilize Europe and initiate a third world war—one that might even lead to all-out nuclear war. By refusing to use nuclear weapons, Truman kept the war confined to the Korean Peninsula. The decision would later have an enormous impact on future presidents making similar decisions in Vietnam. Truman’s actions in Korea therefore demonstrated not only American resolve to contain Communism but also a desire to keep the Cold War from devolving into an open war. The Korean War also boosted American military spending, as a result of a memorandum issued by the National Security Council, known as NSC-68. The memo recommended that Congress quadruple military and defense spending in order to contain the Soviet Union. As a result, the percentage of Congress’s annual budget spent on defense soared throughout the following years,......

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Vietname War

... guerrilla war. This tactic placed the United States at a disadvantage because the U.S was not familiar with the terrain of Vietnam or the will of their opponent. The United States tried to combat this strategy by using conventional military tactics. President Johnson, after he received congressional consent with the use of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, believed he could bomb the north into submission. They started off with Operation Rolling Thunder. It is considered that Operation Rolling Thunder dropped more bombs on North Vietnam then the United States dropped on Germany during World War II. The Vietnam conflict began long before the U.S. became directly involved. Indochina, which includes Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, was under French colonial rule. The Vietnam communist-nationalist, also known as the Vietminh, fought for their freedom from the French. The French were being slaughtered, and were doing little to keep the communist North Vietnamese out of South Vietnam. The U.S. sent financial aid to France to help them eliminate the communist threat. At the Geneva Conference in 1954, the major powers tried to come to an agreement on Indochina. There would be a temporary division on the 17th parallel in Vietnam. The Vietminh would control North Vietnam, and South Vietnam would be ruled under the emperor Bao Dai. There was to be an election held in two years to set up the permanent government and the U.S. did not agree to these terms. After the conference, the U.S. moved to...

Words: 642 - Pages: 3

Realism and the Persian Gulf War of 1990-91

...Realism and the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991 In the Persian Gulf War of 1991, Saddam Hussein’s quest for regional hegemony pitted his country against the forces of international law. A prime example of where realist theory falls short, Hussein’s forces were trumped by a multilateral coalition of international peacekeeping institutions in one of history’s most lopsided wars. Hussein sought power, and was willing to sacrifice his country’s foreign relations, as well as the health of his own people, to obtain it. In Gulf War I, Saddam Hussein’s Iraq was quickly dismantled in a conflict instigated by its own realist intentions. The theory of realism is based on the three factors of statism, survival, and self-help of the sovereign state. The survival of the state as a whole, rather than its citizens themselves, is the main focus of realism. The realist state is expected to enhance its national power by any means necessary; “A POLICY MAKER’S PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY IS TO CREATE, MAINTAIN, AND INCREASE NATIONAL POWER – THE MEANS AVAILABLE TO A STATE TO SECURE ITS NATIONAL INTERESTS – AT ALL COSTS” (Lamy 71). Oftentimes, this comes at the expense of surrounding states. A realist state is concerned with its own security first and foremost; “THE FIRST MOVE…FOR THE REALSIST IS TO ORGANIZE OWER DOMESTICALLY. ONLY AFTER POWER HAS BEEN ORGANIZED CAN COMMUNITY BEGIN” (Lamy 72). However, once domestic security has been established, the realist state will look to pursue its self...

Words: 1768 - Pages: 8

Gulf War

...The gulf war also known as the desert strom began on august 2nd, 1990 and ended February 20,1991. The war involved the united states, Egypt, saudai Arabia and many others. The united states started the war with Iraq when they were notified that Hassam Husain had weapons mass destruction. President George bush gave a speech on why we should go to war with Iraq. President Bush often compared suddam Hussein to adolf hitler. Bush became aggressive when he heard suddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. President bush thought if he had military force on suddam he would pull back. “Bush saw the invasion as a chance to strengthen the international community. Soon after iraqs action became known. Bush drew on a lifetime of international contacts to begin putting together an international coalition. Within hours the united nations security council had condenbed the invasion and within days it had imposed sanctions on Iraq. The unanimous actions by the security council were the international bodys strongest show of unanimity since its inception. Only a day after the invasion, the united states and the soviet union stood together in condemming the attack and cutting off the supply of arms to Baghdad. In all, the security council would approve 12 resolutions on Iraq.” On January 17, 1991, American and allied forces began launching air attacks on Iraqi forces and on February 24 the ground campaign began. By February 27, the coalition had achieved their stated mission of ejecting...

Words: 840 - Pages: 4

Vetnam War

...The role of the media in the Vietnam War Media brought the horrors of the Vietnam War into everyone’s house. It showed people the sensational news that were going on in Vietnam during the war. This caused people to have a wrong opinion about the war, soldiers, and what their country was fighting for. For example, Richard M. Nixon said “No event in American history is more misunderstood than the Vietnam War. It was misreported then, and it is misremembered now”. Even though, the media was broadcasting some parts of the war instead of the whole picture, it was better than it used to be. During fifties, people were able to get visual information about the war only in theaters; therefore, it was mostly based on propaganda and not truth. In early sixties, 90 percent of the United States population had TV in their house and they were able to get information about the war. This caused people to create some effective anti- war movements that helped to bring this horrifying war to an end. Television coverage of the war was not balanced and objective. It was not showing the big picture of the war and the truth about it. Television was broadcasting only some sensational news about the war and that influenced American citizens in a bad way. Media almost never mentioned what communism was; therefore, people did not know what their country was fighting for and why so many innocent people were dying. Moreover, American people did not know what...

Words: 934 - Pages: 4

Korean War

...1 Korean Conflict (1950-1953) Stephanie Nash U.S. History Individual Project 2 Abstract The Korean War made many differences in the world. Korea wanted to be unified instead of being separated into North and South Korea. After doing research on the Korean War I believe that the war was more beneficial for the United States of America. The United States aided with South Korea by providing them soldiers to repel the invasion with North Korea. The Korean War did not have a winner, because there was a signing of the armistice in July of 1953. 3 There were many different consequences of the Korean War on the United States society. The defense budget was raised to fifty-billion dollars. The army and air groups doubled there size. United States deployed soldiers outside American territory in Europe, the Middle East, and elsewhere in Asia. After the Korean War was over the United States became aware of the “falling domino” effect of communism. The United States rearmed and they became a world power. The Korean War affected American sensibility in many ways. The war confirmed that the United States would do any and everything possible to prevent the expansion of communism. The war also created more contention between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. The United States gained knowledge and awareness from the Korean War. Did the Korean War change America’s role in the world? Yes, the war did...

Words: 422 - Pages: 2