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The effects of music on children and young people.

1. The effect of music on IQ

Campabello, Nicolette; De Carlo, Mary Jane; O'Neil, Jean; Vacek, Mary Jill
Music Enhances Learning.
Dissertations/Theses; Tests/Questionnaires. 2002
An action research project implemented musical strategies to affect and enhance student recall and memory. The target population was three suburban elementary schools near a major midwestern city: (1) a kindergarten classroom contained 32-38 students; (2) a second grade classroom contained 23 students and five Individualized Education Program (IEP) students; and (3) a fifth grade classroom. Students exhibited difficulty recalling facts and information in a variety of subject areas evidenced through an inability to gain mastery of grade level skill areas. Research suggests that young students have difficulty understanding concepts and lack the ability and desire to learn. A successful program needs to be developed to teach these concepts. A review of solution strategies suggests that the following musical techniques proved to be helpful for increasing student recall because the songs helped with phonemic training, mnemonics, setting desired skills to familiar tunes, and linking connection to cultural themes. Research has shown that preschool children taught with an early exposure to music through games and songs showed an IQ advantage of 10 to 20 points over those children taught without exposure to the songs. In the same study, students at age 15, had higher reading and mathematics scores in comparison to children without musical experiences. Brain studies indicate that exposure to music alters and increases brain function to make the necessary connections for higher order thinking. Post-intervention data indicated an increase in students' memory recall and emotional involvement. All these increases promoted the motivational connection, which encouraged additional success. Post-intervention data also indicated that the students learned the material so well that they were able to transfer skills across the curriculum into other subject areas, and into their personal lives.

The effect of piano and music instruction on intelligence of monozygotic twins.
Dissertation-Abstracts-International-Section-A:-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences. Sep 2002; Vol 63 (3-A): 812
A great deal of research indicates a strong relationship between music instruction and increased intelligence in extra-musical areas. Most of these studies show correlation and not causation. Correlational evidence does not prove that music training caused the increase in intelligence or other abilities; other factors may have been involved. This experimental pretest -posttest study attempted to approach the causation issue more directly through special sample design. To determine the effects of piano and music instruction on intelligence, a sample of preschool and primary-aged monozygotic twins was used. The sample consisted of ten sets of monozygotic twins, ages three to seven, with one of each set being the experimental subject who received private piano instruction and the other the control subject who received no training. Monozygotic twins are genetically identical and have been shown to be at least twice alike as the next nearest population-dizygotic twins, who in turn are more alike than siblings, followed by unrelated individuals. Because of the high equivalence of monozygotic twins, extraneous variables that may affect one twin also affect the cotwin, thus the threat of confounding variables on the treatment is reduced or eliminated, enabling the causation issue to be approached more directly. The duration of the experiment was from the beginning of November 2000, until the end of May 2001. Each experimental twin received two private forty-five-minute piano lessons per week, for seven months, for a total of fifty-two lessons each. Twins were pretested and posttested with complete Wechsler standardized intelligence tests (either the WPPSI-R or WISC -111). Pretests determined the equivalence of both groups. Experimental subjects showed statistically significant improvement in composite Verbal Scaled scores (p = .02) and Verbal IQ scores (p = .03), as well as total Full Scale IQ scores (p < .05). Subtests that showed significant improvement were Arithmetic (p = .004), Information (p < .05), and Mazes (p = .03). Control subjects did not show significant improvement. This research indicates that music instruction through individual piano lessons increases intelligence in extra-musical areas, and that monozygotic twins appear to provide a more absolute design for approaching causation.

Music Lessons Enhance IQ.
Psychological-Science. Aug 2004; Vol 15 (8): 511-514
The idea that music makes you smarter has received considerable attention from scholars and the media. The present report is the first to test this hypothesis directly with random assignment of a large sample of children (N = 144) to two different types of music lessons (keyboard or voice) or to control groups that received drama lessons or no lessons. IQ was measured before and after the lessons. Compared with children in the control groups, children in the music groups exhibited greater increases in full-scale IQ. The effect was relatively small, but it generalized across IQ subtests, index scores, and a standardized measure of academic achievement. Unexpectedly, children in the drama group exhibited substantial pre- to posttest improvements in adaptive social behaviour that were not evident in the music groups.

Music in the Classroom: Its Influence on Children's Brain Development, Academic Performance, and Practical Life Skills.
M.A. Thesis, Biola University, 2000
Child-Development; Developmental-Stages; Elementary-Secondary-Education; Literature-Reviews
A growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects of music on education performance. Research indicates that music plays an important role in the brain development of a child. Furthermore, researchers believe that children who have more exposure to music and music training benefit from enhanced brain activity which has been shown to increase students' abilities to perform certain academic tasks. In addition, many practical life skills are acquired through music learning and music training. Music education is believed to deserve the status as an equally significant core subject. A review of the literature demonstrates the benefits of music education, discussing the influence of music on the child's brain development, academic performance, and practical life skills.

2. The effect of music on memory and learning

Barr, Lori; Dittmar, Maureen; Roberts, Emily; Sheraden, Marie
Enhancing Student Achievement through the Improvement of Listening Skills
Dissertations/Theses. 2002
This report describes a program for the improvement of listening skills in order to increase academic performance. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in a middle class community located in western Illinois. The problem of ineffective listening skills was documented through data revealing the number of students whose lowered academic performance may be due to a deficiency of listening skills. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that many students are unable to concentrate on auditory input, or to combine the processes needed for effective listening, are not exposed to formal instruction in listening skills, are lacking sufficient concept imagery skills, and exhibit an absence of internal motivation and the physical preparation necessary for effective listening. Faculty reported students' weaknesses in effective listening skills negatively impacted academic performance. Reviews of curricula content and instructional strategies revealed a lack of curricular value and time, insufficient quality instructional materials, and most importantly a deficiency in teacher preparedness. A review of solution strategies suggested by knowledgeable others, combined with an analysis of the problem setting, resulted in the selection of three major categories of intervention: the direct teaching of effective listening skills, student ownership of self-monitoring, and the positive effects of using music in the classroom. Based on the presentation and analysis of the data on the improvement of listening skills, the students showed a notable improvement in academic achievement. The listening skills learned during the 16 week intervention period appeared to have transferred to students' academic growth and progress across the curriculum, and to have had a positive impact on their social interaction.

Bastian, H.G.
Musik(erziehung) und ihre Wirkung: eine Langzeitstudie an Berliner Grundschulen
Schott, Mainz [etc.] 2002. 3. Auflage
Unter der Leitung des Frankfurter Musikpädagogen Hans Günther Bastian wurde zwischen 1992 und 1998 an Berliner Grundschulen eine Langzeitstudie 'Zum Einfluss von erweiterter Musikerziehung auf die allgemeine und individuelle Entwicklung von Kindern' durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse: erweiterte Musikerziehung beeinflusst die Persönlichkeitsentwicklung von Grundschulkindern äußerst positiv. Im Einzelnen bewirkt sie eine Verbesserung der sozialen Kompetenz, eine Steigerung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation, einen IQ-Zugewinn, eine Kompensation von Konzentrationsschwächen, eine Förderung musikalischer Leistung und Kreativität, gute schulische leistungen u.a.m. Die Studie bietet wichtige Argumente für die Forderung nach einem zentralen Platz von Musikerziehung in der allgemein bildenden Schule. Die beiliegende CD-ROM bietet Datenmaterial, Statistiken, Grafiken, Testverfahren, Korrespondenzen etc.

Hallam, Susan; Price, John; Katsarou, Georgia
The Effects of Background Music on Primary School Pupils' Task Performance.
Educational Studies. v28 n2 p111-22 Jun 2002
Presents two studies that explored the effects of music perceived as calming and relaxing on arithmetic and memory performance tasks of 10- to 12-year-old children. Reports that the calming music led to better performance on both tasks when compared with the non-music condition.

The Music in Our Minds.
Educational Leadership. v56 n3 p36-40 Nov 1998
New brain research shows that music improves our brain development and even enhances skills in other subjects such as reading and math. Music enhances creativity and promotes social development, personality adjustment, and self -worth. Music making provides the most extensive exercise for brain cells and their synaptic interconnections.

3. The effect of music on spatial insight and mathematical performances

Bodner M, Muftuler LT, Nalcioglu O, Shaw GL.
FMRI study relevant to the Mozart effect: brain areas involved in spatial-temporal reasoning.
Neurol Res. 2001 Oct;23(7):683-90.
Behavioural studies, motivated by columnar cortical model predictions, have given evidence for music causally enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. A wide range of behavioural experiments showed that listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) gave subsequent enhancements. An EEG coherence study gave evidence for a carryover from that Mozart Sonata listening condition to the subsequent spatial-temporal task in specific cortical regions. The article presents fMRI studies comparing cortical blood flow activation by the Mozart Sonata vs. other music. In addition to expected temporal cortex activation, it reports dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 1930s piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatial-temporal reasoning.

Bryant-Jones,-Marian; Shimmins,-Kymberley-J; Vega,-Jill-D
Increasing Math Achievement through Use of Music.
Master of Arts, St. Xavier Univ., Skylight Professional Development.
This report describes a program for increasing math achievement through the use of musical interventions including repeated exposure to Mozart classical music and School House Rock, and introduction to teacher-made songs that introduce mathematical concepts in the music classroom. The students of the targeted second and fourth grade classes exhibited low levels of achievement according to local and national standards. Evidence for the existence of the problem included teacher- made pre-tests, parent questionnaires, and student questionnaires. Probable causes for low levels of student mathematical achievement were identified through a review of the literature and analysis of the setting and can be divided into student, home, school, teacher, and district influences. The following probable causes were cited: disabilities, classroom climate, motivation, problem behaviours, lack of homework support due to lack of math competency, home-based factors, lack of professional training and frequent staff turnover, and low contact time in the arts due to funding problems. The solution strategy involved a review of current educational literature with analysis of problem setting, resulting in exposure to music of Mozart, School House Rock, and teacher-made songs that prepared and motivated students while implementing mathematical concepts. Post intervention data indicated a significant increase in students' mathematics achievement in the targeted skills for both second and fourth grades, including students with disabilities. Motivation and classroom climate were also noted.

Listening to Music Enhances Spatial-Temporal Reasoning: Evidence for the "Mozart Effect."
Journal of Aesthetic Education. v34 n3-4 p105-48 Fall-Win 2000
Presents the results from two meta-analyses of the Mozart Effect studies. Explains that in Christopher Chabris' meta-analyses, 16 studies with subjects (n=714) and 12 studies with subjects (n=522) were analyzed; while in the author's meta-analysis 36 studies with subjects (n=2,465) and 31 studies with subjects (n=2,089) were analyzed.

Rideout BE, Taylor J.
Enhanced spatial performance following 10 minutes exposure to music: a replication.
Perceptual and motor skills. 1997 Aug;85(1):112-4.
Previous research has demonstrated that 10 min. exposure to classical music can influence performance on a spatial task. The effect, however, has not been robust, suggesting a sensitivity to individual differences and task operationalization. The present study involved a further replication of this effect. 16 female and 16 male undergraduates completed two equivalent spatial tests, one following a control procedure and one following the presentation of Mozart's Sonata for two pianos in D major. Performance showed a small but significant improvement immediately following presentation of the music.

4. The effect of music on writing, spelling and (pre)reading skills

Anderson,-Scheree; Henke,-Jeanette; McLaughlin,-Maureen; Ripp,-Mary; Tuffs, -Patricia
Using Background Music To Enhance Memory and Improve Learning.
Master's Action Research Project, Saint Xavier University/IRI Skylight.
This report describes a program to enhance spelling word retention through the use of background music. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in three middle class communities located in the southwestern suburbs of Chicago. The problems for poor spelling retention were documented through data revealing the number of students needing an enhanced/alternative method of teaching spelling. Analysis of probable cause data supported the hypothesis that students are not as successful using traditional spelling methods. Review of student test scores, anecdotal records, and observation checklists revealed that students could improve their spelling scores through modifying the learning environment. A review of solution strategies documented in research literature together with an analysis of the problem setting resulted in the selection of possible interventions. Teachers employed background music in order to promote higher student achievement in spelling. Post intervention data indicated an improvement in students' spelling word retention. Spelling test scores and report card grades indicated a positive academic growth. Music enabled the students to concentrate, relax and revisualize spelling words.

Can Music Be Used To Teach Reading?
Journal of Aesthetic Education. v34 n3-4 p167-78 Fall-Win 2000
Presents two meta-analyses of empirical literature focusing on the relationship between music instruction and reading performance, using reading test scores or general tests of verbal aptitude. States that the meta-analysis of correlational studies reflected music students have higher scores on standardized reading tests; while experimental studies did not show any reliable effect.

Does Listening to Slow Tempo Classical Music During Independent Writing Affect Children's On-Task Performance?
This project explored the effects of slow tempo classical music on children's on-task performance during independent writing. The project sample consisted of 24 students from a first grade classroom in the New York City Public School System. The students' on-task behaviour was observed with and without use of slow tempo classical music playing, and writing samples were collected. The results indicated that slow tempo classical music had a positive effect on children's on-task behaviour.

Standley,-Jayne-M; Hughes,-Jane-E
Evaluation of an early intervention music curriculum for enhancing prereading/writing skills.
Music-Therapy-Perspectives. 1997; Vol 15 (2): 79-85
Evaluated the effects of music sessions designed to enhance prereading and writing skills of 24 children (aged 4-5 yrs) who were enrolled in Early Intervention and Exceptional Student Education (ESE) programs. The design utilized 2 groups of matched participants with repeated measures and counterbalanced treatment/control conditions. Each treatment condition lasted 7.5 wks and included two 30-min music lessons per wk for a total of 15 lessons. In the fall, music was designed to teach writing skills and, in the spring, to teach reading skills. The music treatment was provided in addition to the regular prekindergarten curriculum. The control condition was instruction in the regular prekindergarten curriculum without music involvement. All participants were pretested and posttested at the end of fall, and again at the end of the spring music lessons. Results demonstrate that music significantly enhanced print concepts and prewriting skills of the children as intended. Implications for academic, social, and motivational applications of music in early intervention programs are discussed.

5. The effect of music on self-esteem

Effects of three years of piano instruction on children's academic achievement, school performance and self-esteem.
Psychology-of-Music. Apr 2004; Vol 32 (2): 139-152
This study of the effects of three years of piano instruction is based on a sample of 117 fourth-grade children attending public schools in Montreal. The children had never participated in formal music instruction, did not have a piano at home, and their annual family income was below $40,000 Can. Children in the experimental group (n = 63) received individual piano lessons weekly for three years and were given an acoustic piano at no cost to their families. Children in the control group (n = 54) did not participate in formal music instruction. Participants were administered tests of self-esteem, academic achievement, cognitive abilities, musical abilities, and motor proficiency at the beginning of the project and throughout the three years of piano instruction. The results indicated that piano instruction had a positive effect on children's self-esteem and school music marks but did not affect their academic achievement in math and language as measured by standardized tests and school report cards.

A study of the use of music therapy techniques in a group for the treatment of adolescent depression.
Dissertation-Abstracts-International-Section-A:-Humanities-and-Social-Sciences. Aug 2001; Vol 62 (2-A): 472
During the ages of 12-18, depression affects one in five adolescents. Depression contributes to poor academic performance, adolescent pregnancy, anorexia nervosa, and substance abuse. Furthermore, depression is also linked with adolescent suicide. Given the impact of depression, a salient question arises: How can counseling reduce the effects of adolescent depression? Since music is an integral part of the adolescent's life and since most adolescents listen to music on a daily basis, music is a viable source for alleviation of adolescent depression. Although music has been used to treat adult depression in a group setting, the use of music in a school setting for the treatment of adolescent depression has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of adding music therapy techniques to cognitive behavioural group treatment for depressed adolescents. The research questions were: (1) Does the use of music therapy techniques decrease depression when the techniques are used in conjunction with cognitive behavioural group techniques? (2) Does the use of music therapy techniques increase self concept when used in conjunction with cognitive behavioural techniques? and (3) Does the use of music therapy techniques increase achieved grades when combined with cognitive behavioural techniques? The participants in the study were 63 junior and senior high school students from two schools in a mid-size city in the South-western United States. The participants ranged in age from 13 to 18 years. The participants were randomly assigned to four groups. Group I (junior high) utilized cognitive behavioural therapy techniques. Group II (junior high) utilized cognitive behavioural techniques with the addition of music therapy. Group III (high school) utilized cognitive behavioural techniques, and Group IV (high school) utilized cognitive behavioural techniques with the addition of music therapy techniques. The length of treatment was 12 weeks. The design was a 2 x 2 quasi-experimental factorial design in which the dependent variables of depression, self-concept, and grade point average were compared by treatment and grade. The participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory and the Piers-Harris Self Concept Scale. The results indicated a significant difference (p < .0001) between the groups which utilized music therapy techniques and groups which did not use music therapy techniques. Results indicated that the use of music therapy techniques was positively correlated with reduced posttest depression scores and increased posttest self-concept scores for both junior high and senior high participants.

Songs of healing: Song writing with an abused adolescent.
Music-Therapy. 1995; Vol 13 (1): 93-108
Survivors of childhood sexual abuse are often left to deal with a variety of mixed emotions and in need of a means for self-expression. This article discusses the use of song writing with an abused adolescent female to increase expression of feelings and build self-esteem. A review of the effects of sexual abuse and the use of song writing in the literature is given, followed by a brief client case history, music therapy assessment results and goals, and a description of the author's procedure for songwriting sessions. Finally, client progress is shared through a number of original song lyrics.

Unspoken stories: Music therapy with abused children.
Canadian-Journal-of-Music-Therapy. Fal 2002; Vol 9 (1): 10-29
Music therapy literature and research has paid little attention to the application of music therapy in the treatment of abused clients. This article presents the findings of a 1-yr qualitative research project funded by the Canadian Music Therapy Trust Fund and the Children's Aid Society of Owen Sound and the County of Grey that examined the specific dynamics and outcomes of music therapy interventions with abused children. It is intended to foster discussion about the role and potential of music therapy as a valid treatment form for abused children. In the project 8 children (aged 6-12 yrs), referred by the Children's Aid Society, participated in weekly music therapy sessions where their music and behavioural changes were documented. The outcomes from this study show that music therapy can play a very important role in the change process of abused children, particularly in addressing emotional and relationship issues which are difficult to address with cognitive or behavioural treatment models. The article focuses on the unique experiences and benefits of music therapy for abused children and emphasizes the need for a well co-ordinated community response to violence against children that includes work with care givers.

Music therapy for adolescents.
Clinical-Child-Psychology-and-Psychiatry. Jan 2001; Vol 6 (1): 79-91
Describes 20 yrs of clinical music therapy work with adolescents in co-operation with psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. Music, and in particular rock music, can give adolescents the possibility to express, be in contact with and share among themselves feelings of anger, rage, grief, longing and psychological disintegration. Music also provides adolescents with opportunities to experience closeness and isolation and to explore their sexual fantasies and feelings.

6. The effect of music on pain or emotional disturbance

The effects of music entrainment on postoperative pain perception in pediatric patients.
Dissertation-Abstracts-International:-Section-B:-The-Sciences-and-Engineering. Jun 2002; Vol 62 (11-B): 5073
Because of the continuing tendency to undermedicate children postoperatively it is of utmost importance that the effectiveness of nonpharmacological pain management interventions be investigated in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music entrainment, an improvisational music therapy intervention, on postoperative pain perception in pediatric patients. Since pain perception is influenced by emotional state and perceived level of control, the effects of music entrainment on these variables were also evaluated. Thirty-two recovering orthopedic patients, ages 8 to 19, participated in two music entrainment conditions and one control condition over two consecutive days. These three conditions were sequenced according to a Latin Square design to control for order and time as confounding variables. During the music entrainment condition, live music was created by the music therapist to match the child's pain. Once resonance was achieved between the pain and the music, the music slowly progressed into music predetermined by the child as healing. During the control condition, daily routine activities continued as usual. However, the subject was asked not to listen to any music during this time. Measurements of the dependent variables were taken just prior to and immediately following each condition by means of a pain questionnaire. The results of the present study overwhelmingly support the effectiveness of music entrainment as a postoperative pain management technique for children. Large decreases in pain intensity (p = .000) were found for both music entrainment sessions. In contrast, a small increase in pain, although insignificant (p = .144), was identified for the control condition. The pain -reducing effects of the music entrainment session were the largest as long as the music was present, and decreased after the music had stopped. Furthermore, data indicated that music entrainment was effective in enhancing the patients' mood (p = .000): the children showed significantly higher levels of happiness, peacefulness, relaxation, comfort and calmness during both sessions. Finally, results suggested that music entrainment moderately increased patients' perceived level of control during the first session (p = .014) as well as the second session (p = .005), but not during the control condition (p = .573).

Fratianne RB, Prensner JD, Huston MJ, Super DM, Yowler CJ, Standley JM.
The effect of music-based imagery and musical alternate engagement on the burn debridement process.
J Burn Care Rehabil. 2001 Jan-Feb;22(1):47-53.
Management of pain is a primary concern in the treatment of burn patients. The intent of this study was to test the efficacy of music-based imagery and musical alternate engagement in assisting burn patients in managing their pain and anxiety during debridement. Twenty-five patients, 7 years of age and older, who were admitted to the Comprehensive Burn Care Center were enrolled in the study, which used a repeated measures design with subjects serving as their own control. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Those placed in Group A received music therapy intervention during their first dressing change, and no music therapy on the following day. Group B received no music therapy intervention during their first dressing change and music therapy during their next dressing, on the following day. Data were collected at 4 intervals in the medical procedure; in the patient's room before transfer to the treatment room, in the treatment room during debridement, in the treatment room after debridement, and upon returning to the patient's room. The measurements taken were pulse, patients' self-report of pain, patients' self-report of anxiety, and the nurse's observation of patients' tension. There was a significant reduction in the self-reporting of pain in those who received music therapy in contrast to those who did not receive music therapy (P < .03). music therapy is a valuable noninvasive intervention for the treatment of pain after burn injury.

Songwriting as a way to decrease anxiety and distress in traumatized children.
Arts-in-Psychotherapy. 1995; Vol 22 (5): 495-498
Describes a song production technique that can be used with traumatized children. The technique involves children and therapists working together to produce a song. The children use the song to calm and reassure themselves by singing the song in a repetitive fashion as a therapeutic ritual, with the goal of decreasing anxiety and distress. Four cases are described of children (aged 4-7 yrs) traumatized by sexual abuse or by a hostile custody battle. The Ss were able to deal with many of their anxious feelings by creating and singing their own songs. The technique can also be used in group therapy.

Prensner JD, Yowler CJ, Smith LF, Steele AL, Fratianne RB.
Music therapy for assistance with pain and anxiety management in burn treatment.
J Burn Care Rehabil. 2001 Jan-Feb;22(1):83-8; discussion 82-3.
The management of pain is one of the primary issues in burn care. Pain is not only a physiologic experience, but a psychological one as well. With this in mind, the treatment of burned patients must incorporate a holistic view of pain management and healing. Cognitive, behavioural, and pharmacologic interventions all have a role in pain management. Studies, as well as clinical experience, have shown that musical intervention has been helpful in assisting patients with pain management in a variety of medical settings. music is an element of normal life that can be easily adapted for the needs of individual patients and their current environment while providing a means for self expression and for normalizing the environment. This article examines the rationale for using music therapy with burned patients, describes several protocols that have been adapted to meet the specific needs of burned patients, and summarizes our preliminary findings, which demonstrate significant response to music therapy protocols employed on our patients.

Surgery Buddies: A Music Therapy Program for Pediatric Surgical Patients.
Music-Therapy-Perspectives. 2003; Vol 21 (2): 77-83
Surgical experiences often produce anxiety in pediatric patients and their families that can last throughout hospitalization and sometimes longer. Much of this anxiety develops immediately prior to the surgical procedure when the children and their families are required to wait for extended periods of time before being taken to surgery. Consequently, a music therapy program entitled Surgery Buddies was developed to involve children, their families, and hospital staff in music activities immediately prior to surgery, in order to decrease the opportunities for anxiety to develop. Through program development and implementation, it was discovered that the Surgery Buddies program may not only assist the pediatric patient in coping with hospitalization, but also the patient's family in managing their own anxiety, and hospital staff in carrying out necessary surgical preparation procedures. This program description includes an explanation of the needs of presurgical pediatric patients, logistical challenges of program implementation and possible solutions, and types of activities used within sessions, as well as anecdotal evidence of the program's benefits.

7. The effect of music on social interaction

Duffy,-Barbara; Fuller,-Ray
Role of music therapy in social skills development in children with moderate intellectual disability.
Journal-of-Applied-Research-in-Intellectual-Disabilities. 2000; Vol 13 (2): 77-89
Investigated the effectiveness of a music therapy program in the enhancement of the social skills of children with moderate intellectual disability. 32 children (aged 5-10 yrs) from 4 intellectual disability centers participated. At each center, 4 children were randomly selected to participate in the music therapy program, while 4 children were assigned to a non-music control group program. One staff member was trained in each group procedure at each center, and requested to run 30-min group sessions twice weekly over an 8-wk intervention period. Five social skills were targeted for intervention: turn -taking, imitation, vocalization, initiation and eye contact. Measures of effectiveness involved comparison of pre- and postintervention scores on 5 target skills using a brief social skills test specifically designed for the study. Evaluation forms completed by teachers also provided feedback on the effectiveness of the intervention. The results reflect significant improvements in the 5 target social skills across both conditions following the 8-wk intervention. However, this difference was found to be independent of the music/non-music intervention. The operational definitions of the skills constituting the social skills test are appended.

Music Therapy in the Treatment of Social Isolation in Visually Impaired Children.
RE:view. v29 n4 p157-62 Win 1998
Reviews the literature on the use of music therapy with visually impaired and socially isolated children. Describes ways that music therapy can help the child explore his environment, modify blindisms (stereotypic, autistic-like behaviours), and encourage social awareness and interaction with other children.
Discusses music therapy in the treatment of children with significant visual impairments. Observations strongly suggest a pattern of social isolation and withdrawal related to the visual disability. This pattern may be understood as a continuum: at the high end the child possesses a full capacity for relatedness to others but tends to be alone and withdrawn; in the most severe case, the child may appear to be autistic. Modification of blindisms and socialization in music therapy can address problems of social isolation on many levels. Music evokes deep responses without depending on words; therefore, music therapy can reach children with the severest disabilities.

Montello,-Louise; Coons,-Edgar-E
Effects of active versus passive group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioural disorders.
Journal-of-Music-Therapy. Spr 1998; Vol 35 (1): 49-67
Compared the behavioural effects of active, rhythm-based group music therapy vs those of passive, listening-based group music therapy on 11-14 yrs olds with emotional, learning, and behavioural disorders enrolled in a special education program in public middle school. It was hypothesized that Ss who participated in active music therapy would more significantly improve target behaviours than those involved in passive music therapy. Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF) was used to confirm changes among Ss in attention, motivation, and hostility as rated by homeroom teachers. Results indicate that Ss improved significantly after receiving both music therapy interventions. The most significant change in Ss was found on the aggression/hostility scale. These results suggest that group music therapy can facilitate the process of self-expression in emotionally disturbed/learning disabled adolescents and provide a channel for transforming frustration, anger, and aggression into the experience of creativity and self-mastery. Recommendations for choosing 1 music therapy approach over another based on personality types and/or clinical diagnoses of Ss are included.

Ulfarsdottir,-Lilja-O; Erwin,-Philip-G
The influence of music on social cognitive skills.
Arts-in-Psychotherapy. 1999; Vol 26 (2): 81-84
Investigated the social cognitive efficacy of music therapy (MT), particularly the effects of MT on Alternative Solutions Thinking (AST) and Consequential Thinking (CT), 2 skills in cognitive problem solving that underpin social adjustment. Experimental Ss were 27 preschoolers receiving a short-term MT intervention; there were 2 control groups: (1) 33 preschoolers receiving no treatment, and (2) 16 preschoolers in an institution with an established musical enrichment program. All Ss completed the Pre-school Interpersonal Problem Solving Test. Results showed no significant differences in the control or intervention groups between pre- and post-intervention assessments. However, a 7-mo follow-up showed significant differences. The children who had participated in the MT program showed significantly greater improvements in AST and CT scores than non-treated controls. For children in condition 3, who were attending the musically enriched preschool, there was a highly significant difference in the improvement of their AST and CT scores compared to non -treated controls and MT-intervention Ss.

Wimpory,-Dawn; Chadwick,-Paul; Nash,-Susan
Brief report: Musical interaction therapy for children with autism: An evaluative case study with two-year follow-up.
Journal-of-Autism-and-Developmental-Disorders. Oct 1995; Vol 25 (5): 541-552
Explored the effects of a therapeutic approach on the social and symbolic development of an autistic child. The S was 3.3 yrs old and noncommunicative when introduced to Musical Interactive Therapy (MIT). Treatment consisted of a musician accompanying the S's mood, timing, and meaning of activities, such as varied runs of mother-child games of swinging, patting tickling, blowing, stroking, vocalizing, action-rhymes, and singing. Onset of MIT was followed by improvements in the child's use of social acknowledgement, eye contact, and initiations of interactive involvement. Creative child contributions to interaction (including teasing) and symbolic play emerged later as predicted. Two-yr followup confirmed that these positive changes were sustained. The S no longer showed frequent social withdrawal.

8. The effect of music in classroom management

Chalmers,-Lynne; Olson,-Myrna-R; Zurkowski,-Joyce-K
Music as a Classroom Tool.
Intervention in School and Clinic. v35 n1 p43-45,52 Sep 1999
A study examined the effect of music on lunchroom noise level and on the behaviours of children requiring intervention. When classical music was played, the noise level dropped an average of six decibels. Popular music decreased the noise level by 10 decibels. Both types of music decreased behavioural interventions.

Godeli,-Maria-Regina-CS; Santana,-Paulo-R; Souza,-Vera-HP; Marquetti,-Gisele-P
Influence of background music on preschoolers' behaviour: A naturalistic approach.
Perceptual-and-Motor-Skills. Jun 1996; Vol 82 (3, Pt 2): 1123-1129
This study investigated possible influences of background music on preschoolers' behaviour in the classroom. A total sample of 27 preschool children (aged 4-6 yrs) were observed naturally during classroom activities. Observations of social interaction, spatial localization, and posture categories were made under music (folk or rock-n-roll) and no music conditions. A strong influence of both types of music occurred on targets of social interactions; during and after music presentations the frequencies of child-to- child social interactions increased significantly over the baseline and frequencies of interaction with the teacher as the target diminished.

Hallam,-Susan; Price,-John
Can the Use of Background Music Improve the Behaviour and Academic Performance of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties?
British Journal of Special Education. v25 n2 p88-91 Jun 1998
This study examined effects of providing "mood calming" background music in a special class for children with emotional and behavioural difficulties. Findings indicated a significant improvement in behaviour and mathematics performance for all 10 of the children, with effects most noticeable for children with problems related to constant stimulus seeking and over activity. Improved cooperation and reduced aggression were also found.

Jackson,-Mary-F; Joyce,-Donna-M
The Role of Music in Classroom Management.
Several studies have demonstrated that music has many uses in today's classroom. In addition to a positive classroom environment, stronger curriculum content, and effective teaching strategies, research indicates that music is also an effective management strategy. A musical program was designed for third and fourth grade teachers to achieve classroom management. Music reduces stress, improves behaviour, enhances learning, and provides an appreciation for various cultures. A well-managed classroom celebrates learning and facilitates a rapport between teacher and students.

9. The effect of music on brain injuries

Formisano R, Vinicola V, Penta F, Matteis M, Brunelli S, Weckel JW.
Active music therapy in the rehabilitation of severe Brain injuried patients during coma recovery.
Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2001;37(4):627-30.
Active improvised music therapy may offer an adjuvant from of treatment in the early rehabilitation of severe brain-injured patients. Active music therapy consists of musical improvisation between patient and therapist by singing or by playing different musical instruments, according to the vital functions, the neurological conditions and the motor abilities of the patients. We studied 34 severe brain-injured patients with a mean coma duration of 52 days +/- 37.21 and a mean interval from coma onset to the beginning of rehabilitation of 154 days on average. Our preliminary results show a significant improvement of the collaboration of the severe brain-injured patients and a reduction of undesired behaviours such as inertia (reduced psychomotor initiative) or psychomotor agitation.

Noda,-Ryo; Maeda,-Yukio; Yoshino,-Atsuo
Therapeutic time window for musicokinetic therapy in a persistent vegetative state after severe brain damage.
Brain-Injury. May 2004; Vol 18 (5): 509-515
To determine the therapeutic time window in which musicokinetic therapy (MKT) could be of potential benefit for a persistent vegetative state (PVS), this study analysed the relationship between the timing of MKT and changes in PVS score following MKT. Twenty-six patients who fulfilled the definition of PVS were treated consecutively by MKT employing a trampoline with live music performance for 3 months. The PVS score ranges from 0-30 and the condition which meets the definition of PVS is never scored greater than 20. As compared to patients with brain damage caused by trauma (n=12) or subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH; n=9), those caused by other cerebrovascular accidents (n=3) or anoxic encephalopathy (n=2) appeared to demonstrate a much smaller improvement in their PVS score. When the patients caused by trauma or SAH were analysed in isolation, the effects of MKT were clearly better in those patients in whom the MKT was initiated within 6 months after brain damage. These findings suggest that, contrary to the commonly held belief, the therapeutic time window for MKT is far greater than 6 months, insofar as patients with brain damage caused by trauma or SAH are concerned.

10. The effect of music on prematures, neonates or early childhood

Butt ML, Kisilevsky BS.
Music modulates behaviour of premature infants following heel lance.
Can The journal of nursing research. 2000 Mar;31(4):17-39.
The physiological and behavioural effects of music during recovery from heel lance were examined in 14 preterm infants at 29 to 36 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). Infants were tested on 2 occasions: during a music condition and during a no-music control condition. Each condition was videotaped during 3 periods: baseline, heel lance, and recovery. Infants were divided into 2 age groups for data analyses: less than and greater than 31 weeks PCA. Mixed model ANOVAs showed that heel lance elicited a stress response (i.e., increased heart rate, decreased oxygen saturation, increased state-of-arousal, and increased facial actions indicative of pain) in both age groups. The stress response was greater in the older group. During recovery, the older group had a more rapid return of heart rate, behavioural state, and facial expressions of pain to baseline levels in the presence of compared to the absence of music. It was concluded that music is an effective NICU intervention following a stress-provoking stimulus in infants older than 31 weeks PCA.

Cassidy,-Jane-W; Standley,-Jayne-M
The effect of music listening on physiological responses of premature infants in the NICU.
Journal-of-Music-Therapy. Win 1995; Vol 32 (4): 208-227
Examined the effect of music listening on the physiological responses of 20 low birthweight infants with normal hearing in the 1st wk of life. 10 infants listened to lullabies, and 10 infants did not. Oxygen saturation levels, heart rate, respiratory rate, and number of apnea/bradycardia episodes were recorded once per minute for the duration of baseline and treatment conditions. Results indicate that music was not contraindicated in the 1st wk of life for these Ss for whom sensory stimulation is usually restricted. Music had noticeably positive effects on oxygen saturation levels, heart rate, and respiratory rate. No increase in apnea/bradycardia episodes following music treatment was observed.

Schmidt,-Louis-A; Trainor,-Laurel-J; Santesso,-Diane-L
Development of frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 months of post-natal life.
Brain-and-Cognition. Jun 2003; Vol 52 (1): 27-32
Examined the development of infants' regional electrocortical (EEG) and heart rate (ECG) responses to affective musical stimuli during the first 12 mo of life. Separate groups of infants were seen at 3 (n=33), 6 (n=42), 9 (n=52), and 12 (n=40) months at which time regional EEG and ECG responses were continuously recorded during a baseline condition and during the presentation of 3 orchestral pieces that were known to vary in affective valence and intensity. There were 2 important findings. We found that although the overall amount of EEG 4-8 Hz power increased between 3 and 12 mo, the distribution of EEG power changed across age, with the younger Ss showing no difference between frontal and parietal regions, but the older Ss showing relatively more activation at frontal than at parietal sites. This development likely reflects the maturation of frontal lobe function. Secondly, we found that the presentation of affective music significantly increased brain activity at 3 mo, had seemingly little effect at 6 and 9 mo, and significantly attenuated brain activity at 12 mo. Findings suggest that there is a clear developmental change in the effect of music on brain activity in the first year, with music having a "calming" influence on infants by the end of the first year of life.

Standley JM.
The effect of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking on feeding rate of premature infants.
J Pediatr Nurs. 2003 Jun;18(3):169-73.
Premature infants are fed by gavage tube before 34 weeks adjusted gestational age and when nipple feeding results in detrimental changes in respiration and heart rate. Nipple feeding skill must be developed and correlates with length of hospitalization and neurobehavioural development. This study provided music reinforcement for nonnutritive sucking and assessed nipple feeding rates pre- and posttreatment for 32 infants referred as poor feeders. A pacifier fitted with a pressure transducer activated 10 seconds of recorded music in a one-trial, 15-minute intervention given to experimental infants (n = 16) 30 to 60 minutes before the late afternoon bottle feeding. Feeding rates were collected for bottle feedings pre- and postintervention and for a similar interval for a no-contact control group (n = 16). Results showed that the intervention significantly increased feeding rates. music functioned as reinforcement and the sucking behaviour transferred from a nonnutritive to a nutritive event.

Standley JM.
A meta-analysis of the efficacy of music therapy for premature infants.
J Pediatr Nurs. 2002 Apr;17(2):107-13.
This meta-analysis on music research with premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) showed an overall large, significant, consistent effect size of almost a standard deviation (d =.83) (Cohen, 1998). Effects were not mediated by infants' gestational age at the time of study, birthweight, or type of music delivery nor by physiologic, behavioural, or developmental measures of benefit. The homogeneity of findings suggests that music has statistically significant and clinically important benefits for premature infants in the NICU. The unique acoustic properties that differentiate music from all other sounds are discussed and clinical implications for research-based music therapy procedures cited.

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