Premium Essay

Wartime Diplomacy

In: Historical Events

Submitted By beanstly55
Words 471
Pages 2
There were many successes and failures in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's wartime diplomacy. His policies were successful in that they led to the end of the war with Germany and Japan. However, they failed in that his actions led to an overall mistrust of Russia and Stalin and the postwar conflict that followed known as the Cold War.
Roosevelt could see no way to prevent the Russians from dominating Europe. His 4 Policemen strategy would act as trustees for colonial societies not ready for full independence and that the great powers were the only ones who could "police" Europe after the war was over. FDR was determined that "something 'big' would come out of this war; a new heaven and a new earth." He was convinced that only the United States could offer any innovative thinking in intervention. He presumed that the Soviet Union's need for postwar economic aid would give the United States continued leverage. Although he didn't factor in the Soviet Union's industrial performance. Also, he could not find a way to prevent the Russians from dominating Eastern Europe after the war. One thing that was agreed on by all three powers was that they would only accept the unconditional surrender of Germany and of Japan. Roosevelt avoided the specifics about what reparations that would be applied to post war German because he was unsure of what to do. His strategy in dealing with Stalin was to avoid tension and confrontation. The resulting Yalta peace summit created an era of peace that lasted for the next 50 years. This is why his diplomacy is viewed as successful.
Many view Roosevelt's policies are a failure. His ideal post-war Europe was a fragmented continent divided between Great Britain and the Soviet Union. His secret dealings with Churchill demonstrated his lack of trust for Stalin. While in reality, Churchill and Roosevelt weren't as close as they appeared to be. In...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Effective Leaders

...The Sanctions Debate and the Logic of Choice David A. Baldwin debate over whether economic sanctions "work" is mired in a scholarly limbo. One writer contends that recent international relations scholarship has promoted optimism about the utility of such measures and sets out to challenge this trend} while another notes the pessimism that "pervades the sanctions literature" and proceeds to argue that it is unjustified. 2 A third scholar cites the sanctions literature as an example of fruitless academic debate with little policy relevance.3 Such divergent readings of the scholarly literature are often explained by differences in ideology or fundamentally different theoretical orientations. This does not seem to be the case with respect to the sanctions debate. Under appropriate circumstances, it is quite possible for liberals, neoliberals, realists, neorealists, or globalists to argue in favor of using economic sanctions. If the sanctions debate is bogged down, the explanation does not seem to lie in the essentially contested nature of the subject matter. A second potential explanation is that scholars are talking past one another because they ask different questions, use different concepts, and set the discussion in different analytical contexts. In short, they are talking about different things. This article explores the second explanation. The basic paradox at the heart of the sanctions debate is that policymakers continue to use sanctions with......

Words: 12612 - Pages: 51

Premium Essay

Community Development

...TEXT CRITIQUE OF THE ARTICLE: “MOMENTS OF OPPORTUNITY RECOGNISING CONDITIONS OF RIPENESS FOR INTERNATIONAL MEDIATION BETWEEN ENDURING _________________________________________________________________________ In this study, Creig (2001) investigates the role of mediation ripeness in securing mediation success between enduring rivals. In this study, Creig conceptualises ripeness in two broad categories: in terms of temporal factors related to when in the dispute lifecycle mediation is attempted, and in terms of contextual factors related to the dispute and the relationship between the disputants. In so doing, the study examines the role of mediation ripeness in the achievement of both short term and extended term mediation success. In this study, Creig, tests three logics and nine hypotheses about mediation ripeness using a database of 202 mediations. The study reveals three dominant patterns in the factors associated with ripeness for both short term and extended term processes. Firstly, the characteristics of previous disputes in the life of a rivalry provide a powerful influence on the prospects for both short term and extended term mediation success. Under this pattern, short term mediation success is most likely early in the life of a rivalry while extended term mediation success is most likely late in the lifetime of enduring rivalries. The second pattern highlights the difference in the degree to which both short term and extended term mediation success......

Words: 587 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...The success of Management by Objectives (MBO)I.  The appraisal system is one of the most important tools an employer has. At my job the best method to use is management by objectives. Management by objectives is best suited to my position because it helps guide employees by setting goals, allowing for objectives to be clearly established.II. My position is manager of the Department of Integral development for the Colombian Embassy. The key responsibilities for a manager in this department are to follow-up and participate in the political dialogue discussion. Additionally, one must negotiate important resolutions for the Colombian government in the area of integral development. Also important is coordinating and verifying the progress of different employees and their negotiations. One must also help the ambassador prepare for political dialogues with other embassies related to development. Having clear knowledge and understanding of all government interest and guidelines regarding Integral Development is crucial to success. III. The main purpose for a performance appraisal is setting goals to establish objectives for the organization as a whole, for each department, for each manager within each department, and for each employee. It is used as a measure of employee’s contribution to the success of the organization (Cascio 347). The appraisal system developed at the embassy is one that grades the success of goals established for each individual in the department. One......

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Best Practices in Negotiations, Article Review

...Article Review 7.1: Best Practices in Negotiations Article Review HR595 Negotiation Skills Course Instructor: Wendy Chung April 14, 2010 Week 7 Submitted by Bob Figone What is the problem or issue that necessitates such an article be written? This article comes directly out of both textbooks (Chapter 12 in Essentials of Negotiation, page 256 and Article 7.1 in Negotiation – Readings, Exercises and Cases, page 485) we have used for this course. It is a summary of what we have learned about the field of negotiation. It reminds us that negotiation is intrinsic in our lives and confronts us many times each day. This article is a reflection by the author’s using a broad view of best practices for negotiators to focus on in order to improve negotiation skills and techniques. What strategies or techniques are used to solve the problem or address the issue? The article lists Ten Best practices for Negotiators in a table and continues to explain the importance of each. The table from the text is as follows: |Ten Best Practices for Negotiators | |1. Be prepared | |2. Diagnose the fundamental structure of the negotiation | |3. Identify and work the BATNA ...

Words: 2145 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Natural Disasters and the Aftermath: Political Ambiguity in the Taiwan-Japan “Friendship

...Natural Disasters and the Aftermath: Political Ambiguity in the Taiwan-Japan “Friendship It seems natural that the emergency conditions in the wake of natural disasters compel the international community to take swift action to contribute humanitarian aid. However, in today’s East Asia, it is an area where nationalism is so heated and may work to oppose public sympathy. I n such a situation, how and what kind of rhetoric is used by people to appeal for public sympathy on an international scale? How disruptions in the ‘natural’ world are seen to reflect or reveal division in the social world? These questions intrigued me to look at the case of the “Taiwan-Japan Friendship” in the aftermath of the 311 Earthquake. Few would hesitate to characterize Taiwan’s status quo as a plight or a political ambiguity. Under pressure from China, international political correctness on the China-Taiwan issue has long inclined to overshadow and marginalize Taiwan. This kind of “normalization of abnormal status”, however, might be challenged or reconfigured by another “abnormal status”, such as a natural disaster. On March 11, 2011 a 9.0 earthquake struck Japan. The most powerful recorded earthquake in Japan’s history accompanied with the subsequent 10-metre-high tsunami and the following Fukushima nuclear leak accident eventually killed nearly 18000 people. In the aftermath of the 311 earthquake, Taiwan was the first nation to extend a helping hand to Japan and was also the biggest......

Words: 1166 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Media and Diplomacy

...Media and Diplomacy in International Relations Id number: 620071261 Course code: Govt 1008 Course name: Introduction to International Relations Date: 17/03/2015 Topic: Media and Diplomacy Media and Diplomacy in International Relations. In the period leading up to the overthrow of political authorities in the Middle East, young activists used social media to spread dissident discourse, organize protests and transmit live footage of revolutions across the world. Simultaneously, stubborn autocrats clung to political survival tactics by blocking their citizens’ access to social media sites like Twitter and Facebook in order to disrupt the gathering momentum of a networked people determined to change their governments. Communication is essential to diplomacy, it always has been. As Nicolson (1954:2) wrote “The origins of diplomacy lie buried in the darkness preceding what we call the dawn of history. There came a stage when the anthropoid apes inhabiting one group of caves realized that it might be profitable to reach some understanding with neighboring groups regarding the limits of their respective hunting territories”. Information gathering, reporting, and sharing have been across the centuries the staple diet of diplomats. Communication is so crucial to diplomatic activity that, over history, virtually any advance in communication technology has affected the practice of diplomacy. Nickles (2003) in Under the Wire specifically examines the impact......

Words: 1010 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Training and Development

...Running head: - TITLE The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy The Cold War and U.S. Diplomacy Claudette E. Washington Professor Dr. Michael Simms POL 300 – International Problems May 5, 2016 Summarize a situation that required U.S diplomatic efforts during the president’s time in office. The patronizing presidency for Jimmy Carter obligated a one-term governor of a southern state with no coast-to-coast or global involvement. His individual foreign policy goals were understood in the statute of law as well as global matters and in the belief of independence for all people. Furthermore, he required the United States to yield the main indorsing surrounding widespread human rights. Mr. Carter said that the American power must be trained sparingly and that the United States would avoid military involvements as much as possible. Through my research Carter opinions were to help the American families, during the eras of the Soviet Union and to undergo recovery of two state financially control settlements that would relax Cold War strains. Carter's supporters requested his desired of the govern in a diverse way, he wanted not to appoint the Washington insiders to top overseas program locations. After the election Carter accepted the needs of professionals nearby him to deportment for his foreign policy. Carter was impressed with professor Zbigniew Brzezinski of Columbia University, asked him to be his national security adviser......

Words: 1702 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Viena Convention

...UNITED NATIONS United States of America Vienna Convention on Relations and Optional Protocol on Disputes Multilateral—Diplomatic Relations—Apr. 18,1961 UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON DIPLOMATIC INTERCOURSE AND IMMUNITIES VIENNA CONVENTION ON DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS UNITED NATIONS 1961 MULTILATERAL Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and Optional Protocol on Disputes Done at Vienna April 18, 1961; Ratification advised by the Senate of the United States of America September 14, 1965; Ratified by the President of the United States of America November 8, 1972 Ratification of the United States of America deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations November 13, 1972; Proclaimed by the President of the United States of America November 24, 1972; Entered into force with respect to the United States of America December 13, 1972. BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA A PROCLAMATION CONSIDERING THAT: The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and the Optional Protocol Concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes were opened for signature on April 18, 1961 and were signed on behalf of the United States of America on June 29, 1961, certified copies of which are hereto annexed; The Senate of the United States of America by its resolution of September 14, 1965, two-thirds of the Senators present concurring therein, gave its advise and consent to ratification of the Convention and the Optional Protocol; On November 8, 1972 the President of the......

Words: 16844 - Pages: 68

Premium Essay

Scholiarship Eassy

...On one hot late-summer day when I was in high school, my parents came back from a shopping trip with a surprise present for me: the legendary board game, Diplomacy. At first I scoffed at such an old-fashioned game. Who would want to waste glorious sunny days moving armies around a map of pre-World War I Europe, pretending to be Bismarck or Disraeli? But after playing the game once, I became absolutely riveted by the nuances of statecraft, and soon began losing sleep as I tried to craft clever diplomatic gambits, hatch devious schemes, and better understand the game's ever-changing dynamics. As my friends and I spent the second half of the summer absorbed by the game, my parents grinned knowingly. How could I resist being fascinated with Diplomacy, they asked me, when I incessantly read about international affairs, and liked nothing more than debating politics over dinner? How could I resist being fascinated, when I had spent most of my summers in Greece (and, much more briefly, France and England), witnessing first-hand the ways in which countries differ socially, culturally, and politically? Though my passion for foreign policy and international affairs undoubtedly dates back to high school, I never had the chance to fully develop this interest before college. Once I arrived at Harvard, however, I discovered that I could learn about international relations through both my academics and my extracurricular activities. Academically, I decided to concentrate in Government, and,...

Words: 970 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Africas Contribution to the Development of Diplomacy

...Introduction The neglect, for a long time, of African contribution to modern diplomacy, by scholars and the failure to forcefully project the history and image of Africa, exposed the continent to uncharitable, disparaging and judgemental comments by Eurocentric historians who denied African history. However, the notion in certain quarters that Africans were not capable of engaging in any systematic and sophisticated art of diplomacy is to a large extent not true. (Adegbulu, 2011) Foreign Relations in Global Perspective. Diplomacy is the fundamental means by which foreign relations are conducted and a foreign policy implemented, far from being the invention of capitalism or of the modern nation state, is found in some of the most primitive communities and seems to have evolved independently by peoples in all parts of the world. The basic object of diplomacy is to enable men to live with their neighbours, a feat which requires a measure of accommodation to the interests of others. Above all, they are the questions of peace and war, and then such matters as the conclusion and observance of treatise, the making, maintenance and breaking of alliances, the establishment of boundaries, the development and protection of trade and the payment of tribute. The means by which these are pursued need to be adjusted to changing circumstances, but the employment of accredited agents (diplomatists) to represent and to negotiate on behalf of a state or society seems to be...

Words: 1897 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Senkaku Island Dispute

...UNDERLYING INTERESTS ARISING FROM THE SUBSTANCES OF THE NEGOTIATION / POSSIBLE ROOTS CAUSES THE PROBLEMS AND NEGOTIATION SOLUTIONS * China and Japan use a lingering conflict for their own domestic political interests. * Presenting Problem: a longstanding territorial dispute over who has sovereignty over the Senkaku islands. * Chinese believe the islands were unlawfully seized by Japan in the war 1895. * Japan argues that possession is nine-tenths of the law and that there can be no dispute since they have occupied the Senkakus for the past over 100 years. For the past 40 years Japan has managed to avoid the conflict over the islands by not raising questions of sovereignty and not engaging in any economic development. * China fully expected that the islands would be returned to them in 1972 when the United States gave up its occupation of the Okinawan chain. * As Japan’s Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda purchased the islands by buying them for Japan , the Japanese illusion that “ no territorial dispute exists” was undermined. * This offended China and immediately made violent protests for the purchase of the islands. * The Noda-decision and the Chinese protesting response mean that Japan can no longer adhere to the view that the islands are not dispute. * The challenge facing both countries is what to do about this, so they requested negotiated solutions to the dispute. * The questions now are whether or not both countries are hostage to......

Words: 998 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

International Politics

...Eugene Addo Tristan Volpe Wednesdays, 9:35am 4) “To understand decisions for war, we must understand the men who make them.” Do you agree or disagree with this statement? I partially agree with this statement because individuals, or more specifically political leaders make decisions for war. However, to understand why war happens we have to analyze not just the political leaders, but also the external circumstances that cause war; because it is in these times where a decision to go to war must be made. Some of these include problems in the country, misperceptions about another country’s intentions, an attack on an ally, failure to bargain effectively, or circumstances where national security is at stake. I believe the decisions made for war are found in the individual and the external circumstances that make war more or less likely. When evaluating decisions for war, we must analyze the political leader’s personality. Some leaders are known to be impulsive or stubborn and often yield too little in bargaining, while others are cautious and willing to compromise. In this case, the leader’s personality can determine if bargaining will or will not lead to war. Some leaders are also rational and take into account all their possible gains and losses from going to war. Other leaders are irrational either because it is their personality or it is basic human nature. War is costly and can bring any nation into some serious debt. Therefore in hopes of avoiding certain losses,......

Words: 514 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...Creative analysis on the basis of question - can be dissenting opinion as long as based on facts - 4 to 5 questions, answer all - TIME MANAGEMENT, answer according to marks - topic-centric focus on exams - can argue from two different angles, but WRITE FROM THE POSITION/PERSPECTIVE REQUIRED - OPEN BOOK - bigger topics on diplomatic immunity, human rights situations, sanctions, mixed situations --> CREATIVE ANSWERS Modern Foreign Relations Law and Diplomacy SAMPLE EXAM Question 1 20 points Mr. and Mrs. Egleen Wasterdeen, the ambassador of Westland in Eastland and his wife, hire Happy Face, Inc. to cater their daughter’s wedding reception. Emily, their daughter, is getting married to the older son of ambassador Turgis Maturgis of Northland, Macklem. The costs are estimated at approximately CHF 150,000, and ambassador Wasterdeen signs the estimate, with the handwritten addendum: “If it is a little more, that’s fine.” Some 250 guests attend the reception at a lovely resort by a lake in Eastland’s lake district, 80% of them members of the diplomatic corps. Ambassador Wasterdeen uses the opportunity for a lot of talks with his colleagues, including preliminary negotiations on a trade agreement with Northland. After the event, Happy Face, Inc. presents ambassador Wasterdeed with a bill totaling CHF 189,000. The cover letter states that “consumption of alcoholic beverages has exceeded estimates, and several expensive pieces of china have been damaged.” Ambassador Wasterdeen calls......

Words: 1549 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Digital Logic

...Georgetown, Saudi international relations For many years, I have been interested in studying international relations. My interest in pursuing this field stems from several factors which have affected me. First, I have been exposed to international affairs throughout my life. With my father and two of my brothers in the Saudi Foreign Service, I have grown up under the shadow of inter-national affairs. Second, I am fascinated by history, economics, and diplomacy. I believe, through the study of international relations, I can effectively satisfy my curiosity in these fields. A third factor which has affected my interest in international relations is patriotism. Through the Foreign Service, I would not only have the opportunity to serve my country, but also have the chance to help bridge gaps between my country and others. Finally, as a Saudi living abroad, I have been bridging cultures throughout my life. This experience has taught me to look for differences to compromise and similarities to synthesize in order to balance different cultures. In short, I believe that my experiences in life, combined with a rigorous academic education, will enable me to pursue a successful career in the Saudi Foreign Service. Georgetown, Favorite class At St. Albans, especially in our later years, we are given the freedom to choose from a vast array of classes. Using this freedom, I have selected classes which have personal significance to me, regardless of difficulty or appearance on my......

Words: 368 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...China: Business Do’s and Don’ts Introduction In business, knowing traditions and customs of host countries is paramount when beginning or carrying out negotiations. I find one of our most consistent and influential competitors and business allies to be China. China has for many years been a major contributor in the role of technology. Chinese technology and manufacturers are a huge part of the international trading system in America. In this paper I will discuss cultural differences, negotiation tactics, traditional and non-traditional customs, and attempt to explain effective methods of communication in the business sector of Chinese culture. I will begin by comparing and contrasting the cultures of China and America, and continue, by implementing ideas for effective communication and ways of successfully conducting business with China. China has recently had an economic spike, and was reported in an article in the Huffington Post as doing better now than ever before: “China is still faced with many daunting challenges ranging from corruption to regional income gaps and environmental degradation. But China is indeed better than at any time in its modern history. The country is now the world's largest laboratory for economic, social and political experimentation. There is every reason to believe that China, which has a continuously adaptive political system, will reach its objective of becoming the world's largest economy in a decade's time -- with all the......

Words: 1882 - Pages: 8