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Water Pollution Case Study

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1.1. Background and motivation
Water and drinking water in particular cannot be dispensed with, so must be clean, free of pollution and available all the time to preserve life{1}. However, an estimated 1.2 billion people around the world lack access to safe water and close to 2.5 billion are not provided with adequate sanitation {2}. Consequently, more than half the population of the world is exposed to different types of water borne and water related diseases. Poor sanitation causing major problems in developing countries, leads to water pollution by disease-causing organisms such as salmonella, cholera, shigella, E. coli, and most waterborne diseases. feces and ultimately allowed to find their way into water supplies through seepage
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Indicator bacteria such as total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, heterotrophic microorganisms are thus tested from water samples to evaluate quality of water from the source (reservoir) and tap water distribution system and efficiency of water treatment systems. The quality of water is dependent upon the different water treatment methods that include chlorination, ozonation, filtration etc. However, many works showed that the bacteriological quality of distribution systems are not free from indicator organisms because of the poor treatment, old and leaking pipe systems in different sites, particularly in developing countries. The public concern about the quality and safety of tap water has attracted a lot of interest in the consumption

of bottled water because of the stringent quality control and the presumed safety of the products {8}. It is also believed that safe packaging of drinking water in bottles can reduce contamination and water borne disease {9}. Bottled water is any potable water that is manufactured, distributed or offered for sale, which is sealed in food-grade bottles or other containers and intended for human consumption {10}. Bottled water is generally perceived as pure, clean, of good quality and ‘protected’ {11}. Sales of bottled water have increased dramatically in recent years, with worldwide sales of more than 35 billion United States dollars, largely because of the public perception of purity and safety and public concern about the quality of tap water

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