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DNA Worksheet

Casey Goodfellow

1/25/13

Answer the following in at least 100 words:

1. Describe the structure of DNA.

2. How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype?

3. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait. DNA is something that makes up who and what we are. It’s our genetic makeup inside nearly every cell in a person’s body. DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). This paper will describe the structure of DNA, share how an organism’s genotype determines its phenotype, and in closing, the stages of the flow of information starting with DNA will be discussed.

Well, DNA is made up of atoms bonded together. It is also a three dimensional structure which has been described as a double helix. According to Campbell, Essential Biology with Physiology, A molecule of DNA contains two polynucleotides, each a chain of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group. Nucleotides are joined together by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next. This results in a sugar-phosphate backbone, a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar phosphate. The name, DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, with nucleic referring to DNA’s location in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells.

How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype? Genotype is an organism’s full hereditary information and Phenotype is an organism’s actual observed properties. Phenotypes are dependent on the genes they inherit. However their expression is also influenced by environmental factors. The influence of the environment modifies the role that the genes play to a certain...

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