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Well Integrity

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11/4/2013

Well Integrity: Hydraulic
Fracturing & Well ConstructionWhat are the Factual Risks?
George E. King
Apache Corporation
SPE Webinar
5 November 2013

History
• Invented in era of 1943 to 1947 by Standard Oil of
Indiana (Stanolin => Pan American => Amoco).
• Fully commercial by 1954.
• First multi-fractured deviated wells in 1975.
• Million pound sand jobs in mid 1970’s
• Million gallon fracs in mid 1980’s.
• Horizontal multi-fractured shale wells in 1988.
• Over 1 million jobs completed by mid 1990’s.
• About 2 million jobs completed by 2012.

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Oil and Gas Development – The Stages
1. Assessment – is it worth drilling?


Seismic, outcrops, lab work, etc.

2. Exploration - initial drill, well construction, limited fracs


Identify what cannot be assessed in laboratory.

3. Development / Construction / Stimulation


Main development – drill, construct, fracturing

4. Operations / Production – the work


Flow – maintenance, operation styles,

5. Reclamation – Restore surface & seal old well

Red Flags to the Community







Trucking – congestion, accidents, road damage.
Chemicals – unidentified, misidentified, no info.
Perception of high water usage
Influx of workers
Spills
Lack of contact from the developers!

• Hysteria Sources: Bloggers, slanted “university studies” “documentaries” some
“environmentalists”, media, rumor mills…..

Definitions
• Fracturing Operations







Transport / Storage water(s)
Transport / Storage of sand
Transport / Storage chemicals
Pumping fracture treatment
First two weeks production
Later production of fluid

• Risks?
Truck accidents, spills
Truck accidents, dust
Accidents, spills, toxins?
Pipe breaks, leaks
Transport, disposal
Leaks, storage, recycle

Definition Confusion:
To the oil industry, fracturing is the process of breaking rock.
To the public, fracturing is the entirety of well development.

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Slide 7

Risk = Frequency of
Occurrence vs. Impact
Risk exists in every action.
What is operationally safe?
Occurrence & impact create a threat level that we can understand & accept or reject based on what we believe: hopefully on assessment of facts.

What does the public think is safe?

Completed Well - How Many Barriers are Typical?

SPE 166142
SPE 166142, Barrier vs. Well Failure, King

How Much Cement is Needed for Isolation?
Every inch of cement is NOT required to be perfect.

Slide 9

Quality of cement
Over 10,000 psi can be held with less than 50 ft of more important than cement, but 200 to 300 ft is routinely used. volume. Isolation can only be measured with a pressure test.
Bond logs not always best tool
~10% channels
(smallest) missed.
Instances of false negatives. 3

11/4/2013

But Where You Put Cement is Even More Important!

Failure to seal off gas charged shales & coals creates high annular pressures.
Cement to Surface on all strings??
Poor Design

Better Design

Barrier Failure or Well Integrity Failure?



Single Barrier Failure => No Leak Path? => No Well Integrity Failure
Unless All Barriers Fail, A Leak Will Not Happen

Wells are Designed with Multiple Barriers.
Number of Barriers Depends on the Hazard Level.
ZONE

Groundwater Hazard If
Well Integrity Lost

Typical Number
Barriers

Above
Surface

Low

1 to 2

Fresh
Water

Low to Moderate

2 to 4

Very Low

1 to 2

Lowest

1

Mid Depth
Deep

SPE 166142

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11/4/2013

Frac to Surface?

Less than 1 chance in a million

Fracturing Risk Evaluation Frac Ruptures Surf Csg? Less than 1 chance in 100,000
Earth Quake > 5.0
Less than 1 chance in a million
=> Very Small Risks
Spills Diesel at surface
About 1 chance in 10,000?
To Groundwater Highest Risks are Transport, Some from Well Construction
1.Spill clean fresh or salt water
2.Spill biocide
3.Spill dry additives
4.Spill of diesel from truck wreck
5.Spill of diesel -wrecked re-fueler
6.Spill frac tank water, no adds
7.Spill frac tank water w/adds
8.Spill diesel fuel while re-fueling
9.Spill of frac tank -flowback water
10. Frac press ruptures surface casing
11. Cooling pulls tubing out of packer
(casing maintains integrity)
12. Mud channel, well < 2000 ft
13. Mud channel, well > 2000 ft
14. Intersects well in the pay zone
15. Intersect properly abandoned well
16. Intersects improper abandoned well
17. Frac to surface through rock, well greater than 2000 ft deep.
18. Earthquake, mag. >5.0
19. Frac intersects a natural seep
20. Emissions > background
21. Normal frac operation – no problems. Full Details in
SPE 152596

Frac height growth in four thousand jobs – not even close to water
(Reprinted from the July 2010 issue of The American Oil & Gas Reporter with permission from Pinnacle, A Halliburton Service)

Microseismic signal from top of fracs in relationship to bottom of fresh water.
>3800 fracs tracked in 4 shales

Table 5 – Fracture Height-Growth Limits in Four Major U.S. Shale Plays
(Fisher, 2011)
Shale
Number
Primary
Typical
Typical
Closest of fracs
Pay Zone
Water
Distance
Approach of with Depth
Depth
Between Top
Top of Frac in microRange and of Fracture
Shallowest Pay seismic (Deepest and Deepest to Deepest data )
Water
Water
Barnett
3000+
4700’ to
500’
4800’
2800’
(TX)
8000’
(1200’)
Eagle
300+
8000’ –
200’
7000’
6000’
Ford (TX)
13,000’
(400’)
Marcellus 300+
5000’ to
600
3800’
3800’
(PA)
8500’
(1000)
Woodford 200+
4400’ –
200
7500’
4000’
(OK)
10,000’
(600)

•Separation is 1 to 2 km.
•No breach of fresh water.
•The top-most microseismic signals are most likely stress transfer and do not represent fracture growth.

Vertical Fractures – where do they stop?
Fractures are naturally limited:
1. Natural formation barriers.
2. Stresses in the rock.
3. Leakoff limits height growth.
4. Natural fracture network.



Typical effective frac height 300 ft.
Microseismic can be a frac height indicator but also influenced by rock-to-rock stresses.

Two inch by 1.5” view from a downhole TV camera run in clear water. Amoco - Circa 1971.

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The Potential For Pollution is Reduced by Application of Technology.
ERA of Well Construction is More Important Than Age of the Well.
Technology is a driver for better well integrity
Time Era

Operation Norms - Level of Technology

Era Potential For Pollution

1830 to 1916 Cable Tool drilling, no cement, wells vented

High

1916 to 1970 Cementing isolation steadily improving.
1930’s
Rotary drilling replace cable tool, BOPs

Moderate
Moderate & Lower

1952

Fracs reduce # wells. Better pipe & cement

Lower from Frac aspects

1960
1970
1988

Gas tight couplings and joint make up
Cement improving, Horizontal Wells introduced
Multi-frac, horizontal wells, pad drilling reducing environmental land footprint 90%
Well integrity assessment, premium couplings, adding barriers & cementing full strings.
Chemical toxicity & endocrine disruptors sharply reduced. Real time well integrity needs studied - early warning & avoidance.

Moderate
Lower
Lower

2005
2008

Lower after 2008 to 2010
(STRONGER Reg Review)
Lowest yet, most states caught up with design and inspection requirements.

Distribution of Barrier Failures and Well Integrity Failures Showing
Improvement by Era (all land wells).
> 650,000 wells
Area /
Number of
Barrier Fail Freq.
Well Integrity
Number of construction Range (containment) Failure Range
Wells
failures
(containment lost)
Ohio /
74 fail initial 1983-2007 0.035% in 0.06% for all wells
64,830
cement test. 34,000 wells
39 failed in
0.1% in older wells – production. worst case.
TX / 253,090 10 fail initial 0.02% all wells.
0.02% for older era cement test. wells 56 failed in
0.004% for newer production. wells

TX / 16,000 horizontal multi-frac
MN / 671
Alberta /
316,000

No reported No failure reported failures – added barrier
Salt creep
5.5%
crush casing
Total vent flow No separation data data available

Leaks to GW Data by sampling Sources
Detailed not Kell, 2011 available 0.005% to
0.01% for producers 0.03% to
0.07% for injectors No failure data or No well pollution reports associated pollution Unknown
None
reported
4.6% taken as
No data – worst case. mostly gas

Kell, 2011
TGPC data
1997 to
2011
Kell, 2011

Clegg, 1971
Watson &
Bachu, 2009

Distribution of Barrier Failures and Well Integrity Failures Showing
Improvement by Era (all land wells).
> 650,000 wells
Area /
Number of
Barrier Fail Freq.
Well Integrity
Leaks to
Data
Number of construction Range (containment) Failure Range
GW by
Sources
Wells failures (containment lost) sampling
Ohio /
74 fail initial 1983-2007 0.035% in 0.06% for all wells Detailed not Kell, 2011
64,830
cement test. 34,000 wells available 39 failed in
0.1% in older wells – production. worst case.
TX /
10 fail initial 0.02% all wells.
0.02% for older era 0.005% to Kell, 2011
253,090
cement test. wells 0.01% for
56 failed in
0.004% for newer producers TGPC data production. wells
0.03% to
1997 to
0.07% for 2011 injectors TX / 16,000 horizontal multi-frac
MN / 671
Alberta /
316,000

No reported failures – added barrier
Salt creep crush casing
Total vent flow data

No failure reported No failure data or No well pollution reports associated pollution 5.5%
Unknown
None reported No separation data 4.6% taken as
No data – available worst case. mostly gas escape Kell, 2011

Clegg,
1971
Watson &
Bachu,
2009

6

11/4/2013

Distribution of Barrier Failures and Well Integrity Failures Showing
Improvement by Era (all land wells).
> 650,000 wells
Area /
Number of
Barrier Fail Freq.
Well Integrity
Leaks to
Data
Number of construction Range (containment) Failure Range
GW by
Sources
Wells failures (containment lost) sampling
Ohio /
74 fail initial 1983-2007 0.035% in 0.06% for all wells Detailed not Kell, 2011
64,830
cement test. 34,000 wells available 39 failed in
0.1% in older wells – production. worst case.
TX /
10 fail initial 0.02% all wells.
0.02% for older era 0.005% to Kell, 2011
253,090
cement test. wells 0.01% for
56 failed in
0.004% for newer producers TGPC data production. wells
0.03% to
1997 to
0.07% for 2011 injectors TX / 16,000 horizontal multi-frac
MN / 671
Alberta /
316,000

No reported failures – added barrier
Salt creep crush casing
Total vent flow data

No failure reported No failure data or No well pollution reports associated pollution 5.5%
Unknown
None reported No separation data 4.6% taken as
No data – available worst case. mostly gas escape Kell, 2011

Clegg,
1971
Watson &
Bachu,
2009

Distribution of Barrier Failures and Well Integrity Failures Showing
Improvement by Era (all land wells).
> 650,000 wells
Area /
Number of
Barrier Fail Freq.
Well Integrity
Leaks to
Data
Number of construction Range (containment) Failure Range
GW by
Sources
Wells failures (containment lost) sampling
Ohio /
74 fail initial 1983-2007 0.035% in 0.06% for all wells Detailed not Kell, 2011
64,830
cement test. 34,000 wells available 39 failed in
0.1% in older wells – production. worst case.
TX /
10 fail initial 0.02% all wells.
0.02% for older era 0.005% to Kell, 2011
253,090
cement test. wells 0.01% for
56 failed in
0.004% for newer producers TGPC data production. wells
0.03% to
1997 to
0.07% for 2011 injectors TX / 16,000 horizontal multi-frac
MN / 671
Alberta /
316,000

No reported failures – added barrier
Salt creep crush casing
Total vent flow data

No failure reported No failure data or No well pollution reports associated

Kell, 2011

GW pollution

5.5%

Unknown

No separation data 4.6% taken as available worst case.

None reported No data – mostly gas escape Clegg,
1971
Watson &
Bachu,
2009

Barrier and Integrity Failures: >330,000 US wells
Barrier or Integrity Fail Texas Horizontal…
Integrity Failure Texas Newer Wells
Barrier Failure Texas Newer Wells
Integrity Failure Texas Old Wells
Barrier Failure Texas Old Wells
Integrity Failure Ohio Newer Wells
Barrier Failure Ohio Newer Wells
Integrity Failure Ohio Old Wells
Barrier Failure Ohio Old Wells
0.000%

16,000 horizontal multi-frac wells – no subsurface leaks reported or found.
Older well data often skewed by lack of barrier
& integrity differentiation. 0.020%

0.040%

0.060%

0.080%

0.100%

Things That Keep Real Integrity Failures Very Low
1. Pressure inside the wells is lower than outside in hydrostatic of water table.
2. Modern wells are built with multiple barriers.
3. Cement reinforces and protects the casing.
4. Regulations are tighter now than 3 years ago.
5. Multi-Fractured horizontal wells replace 5 to 10 vertical wells in shale. Less pollution potential with fewer water table penetrations.

What Proves it? – rankings of proven groundwater pollutants.

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11/4/2013

Slide 22

Proven Another Way - % of Produced Fluids Leaked
From Production Leaks and Spills
Area

Number of Wells

US Gulf of
Mexico

US Gulf of
Mexico

11,498
(3542 active

4,099

Norway

406

GOM
/Trinidad

2,120

Type of Wells

Barrier Failure Freq. Range (w/ containment) Integrity Failure (leak path – in or out)

Platform based wells Shoe test failures required repair

30% overall first annulus SCP 50% of cases.
90% of strings w/ SCP have less than 1000 psi.
10% are more serious form of SCP
(Wojtanowicz, 2012)
12% to 18% require cement repair to continue drilling

0.01% to 0.05% of wells leaked ---------0.00005% to 0.0003% based on produced oil spilled 1980 thru 2009.
0 (all repaired before resuming drilling)

offshore

18%

0

Sand Control

0.5 to 1%

0% subterranean
~0.0001% via surface erosion potential

80% to 100% - the high number is due to high pressure and formation compaction.
43%

Wells routinely shut-in and repaired prior to restart. 1 to 4%

Matagorda
Island 623

17

Compaction failures; casing shear & sand fail

Sumatera

175

without maintenance Slide 23

Proven Another Way - % of Produced Fluids Leaked
From Production Leaks and Spills
Area
US Gulf of
Mexico

US Gulf of
Mexico

Number of Wells
11,498
(3542 active

4,099

Norway

406

GOM
/Trinidad

2,120

Matagorda
Island 623

17

Sumatera

175

Type of Wells

Shoe test failures required repair offshore Barrier Failure Freq. Range (w/ containment) 30% overall first annulus SCP 50% of cases.
90% of strings w/ SCP have less than 1000 psi.
10% are more serious form of SCP
(Wojtanowicz, 2012)
12% to 18% require cement repair to continue drilling
18%

Integrity Failure (leak path – in or out)
0.01% to 0.05% of wells leaked ---------0.00005% to 0.0003% based on produced oil spilled 1980 thru 2009.
0 (all repaired before resuming drilling)
0

Sand Control

0.5 to 1%

0% subterranean
~0.0001% via surface erosion potential

Compaction failures; casing shear & sand fail w/o maintenance

80% to 100% - the high number is due to high pressure and formation compaction.
43%

Wells routinely shut-in and repaired prior to restart. 1 to 4%

Platform based wells Slide 24

So – What are Actual Groundwater Pollutants?
UST – Gas & Diesel
Septic Systems
Landfills
Spills
Fertilizer
Large Industrial Facilities
Hazardous Waste Sites
Animal Feedlots
Pesticides
Surface Impoundments
Storage Tanks – surface
Urban Runoff
Salt Water Intrusion
Mine Drainage
Agriculture Chem. Facilities
Pipelines & Sewer
Shallow Inj. Wells
Salt Storage & Road Salting
Land application of Waste
Irrigation Practices

EPA, 2000

Oil and Gas Wells Didn’t Make the List.

8

11/4/2013

Slide 25

What are Groundwater Pollutants Today & Where do Oil & Gas Wells Rank?
Used Texas as a Study Case.
Over a million penetrations through the 29 major & minor aquifers in Texas.
Texas is #2 in total
Groundwater withdrawals with
~ 80% going to Agriculture &
Municipalities.
If the water was really polluted by O&G wells, we’d see it quickly in Municipal & Ag.

Slide 26

Last 12 years of Pollution Reports in Texas – Top
20 Listed - TCEQ & TGPC Database

SPE 166142
Number of New Reports Per Year

Allocation of Texas TCEQ Pollution Claim Frequency

Producing Wells are less than 1% of total for most years.

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11/4/2013

Allocation of Texas TCEQ Pollution Claim Frequency

Legacy Issues: tank batteries, truck loading terminals, compressors & gas plants – small spills & leaks – cumulative, but preventable & can be remediated.

So – What are risks to groundwater by oil & gas activities?
• Major Risk
– Poor performance by the few.
– Lack of effective maintenance.

• Moderate Risk
– Transport & on-site storage

• Minor Risks





Drilling phases (generally not on shales: low perm)
Well construction (early) & older era or vintage wells.
Thread leaks (connections)
Poor cementing practices

• Near zero risks
– Cement in producing wells
– The specific act of fracturing rock

So – What are risks to groundwater by oil & gas activities?
• Major Risk
– Poor performance by the few.
– Lack of effective maintenance.

• Moderate Risk
– Transport & on-site storage

Effective, Local Regulations +
Inspection and Enforcement
Permitting Based on
Technology Uptake

• Minor Risks





Drilling phases (generally not on shales: low perm)
Well construction (early) & older era or vintage wells.
Thread leaks (connections)
Poor cementing practices

• Near zero risks
– Cement problems in monitored producing wells
– The specific act of fracturing rock

Education & permitting based on technology uptake if education doesn’t work. 10

11/4/2013

Well Study Review >650,000 wells
Failure Factors Recognized:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.



Type of Well
Maintenance Culture
Era of Construction
Geographical Location
Age of Well
Specifics of Design & Construction
Usage Change

Single barrier compromised by tubing leaks.

Gas migration in water wells >>200+ yrs, highly regional, many causes, 1000’s of seeps, 15 million US water wells – most water well construction guidelines not enforced

Methane Seepage from Soils
Oil & Gas seeps are indicators of oil & gas beneath surface.
First shale gas well ~28 ft deep, First US oil well 69.5ft.
Natural seeps diminish as near-by gas wells drilled & produced.

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11/4/2013

Comparing
Spills &
Seeps
The most serious spills are from transport, seeps and in drilling before producing operations begin.

Single Estimate
High Value Range

10,000,000

1,000,000

BARRELS

100,000

10,000

1,000

Various sources – data & references in SPE
166142

Lakeview Gusher,
CA Onshore, 1910
Santa Barbara
Blowout, CA, 1969
Tanker Grounding,
MA, 1976
Tanker Grounding,
AK, 1989
Tanker Grounding,
TX, 1990
Sabotage, Kuwait,
1992
Tanker Grounding,
LA, 2000
Pipelines Ruptured by Hurricanes,…
Barge Collision, LA,
2008
Tanker Collision, TX,
2010
Pipeline Corrosion,
MI, 2010
Macondo Blowout,
GOM, 2010
Natural Seeps,
Coal Point, CA, Yearly
Natural Seeps,
GOM, Yearly

Water Produced After a Fracture
Treatment

Regulations
Effective or Development Preventers?
Effective & Development
Encouragers with technical limits

Development Preventers

• Standards reduce real risks

• Prevents Any Development

– Consistent operations by all operators in an area
– Encourages produced water reuse instead of disposal.
– Responsibly handles issues of chemical & water usage.
– Requires reporting of all fracs to public available site
(www.fracfocus.com)
– Regulations fit the geology, geography and specific local needs and challenges.

– Every well a target for environmental impact and endless public challenge.
– Creates unachievable goals or excessive cost to comply.
– Continues to make companies prove a negative – regardless of a individual performance record.

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11/4/2013

Some questions I would ask.
• Will all chemicals, water volumes and water sources be listed on the www.fracfocus.org?
• Is minimum distance between designed top of fracture & deepest fresh water greater than
1500 ft or a specific local need?
• Will “green completions” or the regional specific equivalent, or better alternative, be used?
• Can multi-well pads be used in the development phase instead of single well pads?
• Is it possible to limit busy development activity to a certain season, time or remote area?

Some questions I would ask.
• Will basic site investigation be done (abandoned wells, seeps, mines or potential problem area near the well site and path)?
• Is methane migration a potential problem? Gas migration is strongly linked to specific geologic regions. What controls are needed? • Will fresh water wells be tested, where permitted, within at least a quarter mile of the proposed well site prior to drilling?
• Will quick lay pipelines with leak-tight connections, be considered to reduce truck traffic?
• Is water supply sustainability a consideration in development?
• How will recycled water for fracturing be stored?
• Does the company have a list of chemicals they will not use?

Problems?
• Transport spills – same frequency as other chemical transport options (rail, barge, truck).
• Technology eras define the leak rates.
– Well leaks dropped steadily from 1916 to year 2000.

• Leakage rates of modern wells often low. In
GOM producing wells, leaks are 0.0003%
0.00005% of volumes produced.
• Safest is horizontal, multi-fractured well.
–Replaces 5 to 10 vertical wells
–Can reduce development footprint by >90%.
–Over 1 million fracs from horizontal wells.

13

11/4/2013

Slide 40

Other Conclusions
1. Risk of GW pollution from producing well is low and
Barrier failure rates and well failure rates vary widely.
2. Failure of wells of a specific time era are artifacts of that era; not reflective of wells completed today.
3. Methane gas migration from deep drilling doesn’t appear connected to properly designed wells.
4. Improperly plugged old wells & water wells may be conduits for methane migration.
See SPE 133456, 152596 and 166142 for more information

14

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...to prove the production satisfies the specific standardization. Unfortunately, the design of Goodrich was denied by the LTV due to failure testing, and then the company comprised and replaced by the five-disk brake in the end. Based on the analyzing the A7D affair, the main issue addressed in the case is “what can a worker choose between individual integrity and loyalty to the company”. In other words, when the officials require the profit seems to be immoral or even illegal, as a worker, could he tell the truth or comply with the decision made by the director of the company. Through the different attitudes and responses to the unqualified brake by different person within the company, the author brought the business issue into discussion. Furthermore, same person also have the different attitudes for the unqualified brake. For example, Vanivier wanted to preserve his individual integrity at first and changed his attitude in order to save his job eventually. Therefore, the issue could be addressed. Eventually, Goodrich changed the original design and replaced by five-disk brake. However, it is difficult to retain personal integrity when the company requires meeting the demand for a goal or sales. Moreover, although the worker shows his loyalty to the company, he still has the possibility to be blamed by the director. Sometimes, the worker could be a scapegoat in a crucial default. Therefore, how people...

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...CORE VALUES ESSAY: Verizon ------------------------------------------------- Paul Scott ------------------------------------------------- HRA-340 Organizational Training & Development ------------------------------------------------- August 30, 2014 Saint Leo University ABSTRACT This core values essay is about how Verizon’s integrity and ethics play a role on its training program. Verizon is a Dow 30 company with a workforce of over 180,000 diverse employees worldwide. Customer satisfaction is what Verizon depends on for it success. Verizon believes in providing quality, reliable, and innovative products to its customers along with outstanding customer service to ensure their customers are satisfied. I will be addressing the following five questions in this essay to further inform you about how Verizon’s integrity and ethics play a role on its training program. How does the training function support organizational strategy at Verizon? How does training provide a competitive advantage to Verizon? What role do ethics and integrity play in training Verizon? What does Verizon do differently that makes it one of the top 12 training companies in the U.S.? What do you think Verizon could do to improve its training function further? I will begin with how does the training function support the organizational strategy at Verizon. How does the training function support organizational strategy at Verizon? Verizon training function supports its......

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