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Western Medicine

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Refer to: Tsuei JJ: Eastern and Western approaches to medicine. West J Med 128:551-557, Jun 1978

Special Article

Eastern and Western Approaches to Medicine
JULIA J. TSUEI, MD, Honolulu

An objective comparison of Eastern and Western approaches to medicine is necessary to further evaluate the validity of Oriental medical techniques such as acupuncture. The development of medicine in Western nations follows the way of hypothetical deduction and the Eastern approach uses the inductive method. The Western approach clearly divides the health from the disease, yet the Eastern approach considers health as a balanced state versus disease as an unbalanced state. The Western approach tends to change the environment and the Eastern way is to prefer to adapt to the environment. There are numerous difficulties in comparing these two approaches. The same terminology may apply to entirely different facts, the teaching and learning methods are quite different, and the evaluation of the treatment is almost not comparable. In order to help understand the Eastern approach better, an understanding is needed of the basic Chinese concepts: the concept of a small universe living in a large universe; the duality concept of yin and yang; the concept of anatomy; the concept of physiology in Chinese medicine-the state of equilibrium expressed by the five elements; the concept of pathophysiology expressed by the external and internal insults; the concept of maintaining and promoting health expressed by the circulation of chi and hsieh; the therapeutic concept in Chinese medicine-the normalization or reestablishment of balance of the body function; the concept of preventive medicine.
Two WESTERN STATES in the United States, Nevada and Hawaii, have regulated acupuncture as an independent practice not requiring medical referral or supervision.' Two other states have ruled that acupuncture can be practiced under the supervision of a licensed physician as in Oregon' or by physician's referral as in California.2 This seems to indicate that the possibility of acceptance of the practice of Oriental medical
The author is Associate Professor of Public Health, School of Public Health, and Associate Professor of Obstetrics-Gynecology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Kapiolani-Children's Medical Center, Honolulu. Reprint requests to: Julia J. Tsuei, MD, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, 1319 Punahou St., Honolulu, HI 96826.

techniques by the profession and the general public in this region is promising. There is, however, a great variety of contrary opinions about acupuncture within the medical profession which is reflected by the diverse legislations in many states. An objective comparison of Eastern and Western approaches to medicine may well shed some light on the true value of Oriental medicine and help to integrate this approach into our modern medical practice. Western medicine has developed through hypothetical deduction. Every statement in Western medicine is a result of a series of fact probings.



The hypothesis is usually derived from general observations of a phenomenon and a research plan is carefully designed. When enough data are collected, conclusions are drawn as a result of critical statistical evaluations. In contrast, Eastern medicine uses the inductive method. Oriental medical literature in general is a record of practical experience accumulated from millions of practitioners throughout thousands of years. The format of recording is a result of direct observation. This makes it difficult to compare the results of the two different approaches to medicine. The Western approach to medicine clearly divides health from disease, and the main emphasis is on the individual body. The environment is considered as only one factor that affects the body. Responsibility for various phases of health and disease care is shared by professionals in several disciplines. Physicians are trained mainly for the care of acute phases of disease, that is, disease detection and therapy. The areas of health promotion, disease prevention and rehabilitation are taken care of largely by other trained professions.3 This team approach gives the impression of being more community-minded than individual-based, yet the objective is still individual well-being. The Eastern idea of health and disease is looked upon as the two sides of a coin. In other words, every individual person is in a state of balance between external insults and internal defensive mechanisms. If the insults are greater than one's defenses, one is ill; if not, one maintains good health. Since the individual person is considered merely a microcosm existing in a macrocosm, there are changes every minute, with constant readjustments. The duty of a physician is to strengthen the internal defensive power and power of adaptation of each individual person and enable him to fight the environmental insults, or to adapt to external changes so that he can live in peaceful balance within himself and with his environment, thereby maintaining good health. The responsibility of a physician is, in fact, to promote health and treat diseases when they occur.4 The Western approach to health care involves, among other things, changing the environment in which we live. For example, if the weather is not ideal for the body, a shelter is built with temperature control; if the atmosphere and humidity are not comfortable, other controls are added. Antibiotics are developed to counteract bacteria harmful to the body. Sterilization techniques are prac552
JUNE 1978 * 128 * 6

ticed to shelter from the bacterias. In therapy, the same principles apply. Artificial limbs and organs are used to replace diseased or injured body parts. Synthetic hormones and vitamins are used for impaired bodily functions. These achievements mark the victory of science and wisdom of mankind. However, in spite of the fact that human life is being prolonged, and the handicapped and retarded are functioning, the majority of people may be free from serious disease but not from discomfort or pain, either physical or mental. In other words, people are still suffering and unhappy. The Eastern approach may be passive toward, or may simply ignore, the idea of converting the environment. Its emphasis is from the "within" to strengthen the enormous defensive and adaptive powers of one's body so that the latter may accommodate physical or mental stress. It may work slowly and appear to be less effective; but, if successful, the result usually is a balanced, comfortable body and a happy person. With all the dichotomies mentioned above, it follows naturally that the learning systems and the terminologies used must be different. Even if the same terms are used, they may, perhaps, have quite different meanings. The Western approach looks into every aspect of a person with great detail, from a microscopic to a macroscopic view of biology, embryology, histology and microbiology, studies the cellular level of chemistry and physics, then looks to the basic anatomy and physiology, and finally moves to the clinical practical aspects of internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry and public health. With this large field in such minute detail, no one can master everything; therefore, training and practice tend to be segmented. In the Eastern approach, the learning process begins with the universe. The laws of nature find a parallel in bodily phenomena; the Eastern medical student must, therefore, learn astronomy and geography: "If in curing the sick you do not observe the records of heaven nor use the principle of earth, the result will be calamity."5 "if you understand the period above; the writing of heaven (astronomy) below; the principles of earth (geography) and in between earth and heaven; the affair of man, then may you live a long life."6 The system of the body is classified in a way quite different from that of Western medicine. So too, are the other aspects of medicine. For


instance, the body is divided into 12 anatomical, physiological and psychological units. The causes of disease are divided into six environmental insults and seven internal insults. All the diseases are represented by symptom groups or syndromes. This approach may appear oversimplified in matter. In addition, the much smaller volume of written statements and literature, the writing mostly in the form of inductive recording, may appear easier to learn and largely philosophical in approach. However, this leads to the necessity for more clinical observations and practice and longer periods of individual teaching on a one-toone basis. Even with all the differences, Westerntrained physicians can clearly see that the Eastern approach emphasizes knowledge in terms of environmental health, surface anatomy, functional physiology, neurophysiology and the psychosomatic aspects of medicine, although different terms are being used. After learning the differences, students may be able to make a fair judgment of the validity of either the Eastern or Western approach to medicine and take advantage of knowing both.

The Chinese Concept Since the readers are largely Western-trained professionals who are familiar with the Western approach in medicine, this section will only categorize the Eastern concepts.

The Microcosm Living Within the Macrocosm In Chinese medicine a human being is looked upon as a small universe. The anatomical structures and the physiological functions of the body are correlated with one another. They also correspond and react to the outside environmentthe large universe. When everything coexists in perfect harmony, a person is in excellent health. Since the physiological process is in continual change and balance, as are the environmental conditions, this delicate change and balance between the small and the large universe are constantly being readjusted in every respect. Once the balance is disturbed, illness sets in. In one chapter of Ling-Shu in the ancient Nei Chinig (or Canon of Medicine),* it says:7
*Huang-Ti Nei Ching (The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine) was originally published in two volumes, in which the Ling-Shu describes the theory and the Su-Wen discusses the practical aspects of acupuncture and moxibustion. Chi-Bai is thought to be HuangTi's medical officer. From the geographical names, literary construction and historical allusions, it may be assumed that the Nei Ching was published about the end of the Chou dynasty (1121-249 BC) or the beginning of the Chin dynasty (221-207 BC). The contents are naturally much older. Evidently it is not the work of a single person but a compilation of various writers.

"Mantis nothing but a creature living between the heaven and the earth." "Atmosphere is what Heaven bestows on us; Produce is what Earth bestows on us. Life is a product of the interaction between the atmosphere of Heaven and the produce of Earth; and reproductive energy is the source of life. The spirit comes about as a result of a struggle between the two reproductive energies (the beginning of life); the physical strength (the body) is the element that is responsible for the performance of activities. Sentiment (the soul) is the element that directs the mind to perform activities. "Therefore, a man of wisdom will live his life in accord with the four seasons and in line with cold and hot climates keeping peace with the environment; he will live a harmonious life of joy and anger in a peaceful manner keeping peace within oneself; he will maintain a balance between yin and yang, between robustness and tenderness. Consequently, a man of wisdom will not be susceptible to attack from vicious energies and he will live a long life."8 The Duality Concept in Chinese MedicineYin and Yang Yin and yang are two basic fundamentals of ancient Chinese philosophy. First described in the I Ching, Book of Changes, they are opposite terms representing the duality of positive and negative power. Normally they are equal in value, in balance with each other, and cannot exist one without the other. In the classical Chinese medical literature, yin and yang are used to describe the state of equilibrium within and around the body, its organs and functions, and the relationship to the environment. The following illustrates this application: * The Beginning of Life "The origin of life started with yin (female) and yang (male)."9 * Structure of -the Body "When speaking of yin and yang, the exterior is yang, the interior is yin; when speaking of yin and yang in the human body, the back is yang, the front is yin; when speaking of yin and yang of the organs in the body, the solid organs are yin, the hollow organs are yang."'0 "Therefore, the heaven is yang and the earth is yin; the part of the body above the waist is comparable to the heaven while the region of the body below the waist is comparable to the earth."7


Since the meridians, functional tracts of the body, running on the outer surface of the extremities are called yang meridians and the inner surface are called yin meridians, the outer surface is yang and the inner surface is yin. * Activities of the Body Yang represents the active, strong, fast and positive aspects of the body. Yin, on the other hand, describes the passive, weak, slow and negative nature of the being. As a matter of fact, all of the visible organs and structures of the body are described as yin because of their passive nature when they are not functioning. The organs classified as yang are so named because they exist only by activity. "Yang results in spirit, yin gives the shape." "Yin in the interior is the guardian of yang; yang in the exterior is the activator of yin."5 * Diagnoses of Diseases "So to explain the yin and yang, hypofunction is a yin disease, hyperfunction is a yang disease. Chronically inactive is yin, acutely active is yang. Limpering, weakening or decaying is yin; hasty flourishing is yang."" * For Treatment "In yang diseases, treat the yin; in yin diseases, treat the yang."'a * In General It seems that everything in life can be classified according to its yin and yang components. "The relation of yin and yang is the means whereby the myriad of things are able to come to birth; yin and yang react upon each other, producing change."5 To further prove that the words yin and yang are used merely as symbols, it is said "now the yin/yang have a name but no form. Thus it can be extended from 1 to 10, from 10 to 100, from 100 to 1,000, from 1,000 to 10,000, etc. It can embrace all things. "12 In order to be able to express all the phenomena, the yin and yang components not only oppose but also contain its opposite. "There is yin within yang and yang within yin. From dusk until midnight, the yin of heaven is the yin within the yin. From midnight until dawn, the yin of heaven is the yang within the yin."'10 This idea is best illustrated by the symbol (Figure 1) where there is a small black dot in the white half and a white dot in the black half. By now, readers may realize the similarity of the expressions of many phenomena in Western
JUNE 1978 * 128 * 6

Figure 1.-Yin (left) and Yang.

science. The most obvious ones are the positive and negative electrical charges, the levorotatory and dextrorotatory chemical compounds, the acid base balance and the reciprocal phenomenon of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. An interesting illustration of yang within the yin and the yin within the yang might be the fact that there are androgens (male hormones) existing in women and estrogens (female hormones) existing in men.

The Concept of Anatomy in Chinese Medicine Since the Chinese divide the body into parts by their functions rather than by their structure, the three components of the body-the anatomical, physiological and the psychological-are linked by an abstract term, meridian. Many Westerners thought the Chinese did not know true anatomy. The fact is that even in the Yellow Emperor's (Huang-Ti) first book it was stated: "at first, the embryo is brought into being by a combination of two reproductive energies, yin and yang; and then the marrow in the brain is formed and the bones are formed in order to support the body; and then the meridians are developed in order to transmit energy and blood; and then the tendons are formed in order to sustain the bones; and then the muscles are built in order to serve as the walls of the body; and then the skin becomes solid and the hair grown. After the baby is born, the stomach begins to take in food, the meridians begin to function, and the blood and energy begin to circulate in the body."1" "As to the man himself who is only eight feet tall on the average [Chinese feet], the external size of his body is measurable because its skin and flesh are nearby, and also his pulse may be taken in different regions. In addition, when a man dies, his body may be dissected for observation. For this reason there are established standards by which we determine the hardness and crispness of the viscera, the size of the bowels,


the quantity of food consumed, the length of meridians . . . All these aspects of the human body as outlined above are governed by a set of established standards. Therefore, these standards also govern the techniques of acupuncture therapy and moxibustion therapy."7 Since we know that the Chinese did understand anatomy, this way of dividing body components which is not based upon anatomical structure alone, may offer a significant new point of view. The following shows the details of the units and the anatomical, physiological and psychological components of each unit. The five tsang (stores): "What are called the five solid organs store life essence and energy (hsieh and chi) and do not let them leak away; therefore, they are filled but cannot be fu11."'14 * Hsin-Stores the organ heart, the function of the brain and the psychological function of the mind. It is expressed by the element fire. * Kan-Stores the organ liver, the liver function, the sensory-motor system, and the psychological function of equilibrium and tranquility. The element wood represents it. * P'i-Stores the organ spleen-pancreas, the functions of absorption, digestion, distribution and utilization of nourishment at both the organic and cellular level. The psychological component is temper and intelligence. The element that represents it is earth. * Fai-Stores the organ lung and the respiratory function of gas exchange at both the organic and cellular levels. The psychological component is the willpower and the element metal represents it. * Shen-Stores the organ kidney and the function of the endocrine system such as the functions of the neurohormonal system. The psychological component is the willingness of the person and the element representing it is water. The six fu (houses): " . . . the six hollow organs transmit and transform matter but do not store it; thus they are full and cannot be filled."'14 * Tan-Houses the gall bladder. The function is to control the circulation of lymphatics and other body fluids such as the fluid in the peritoneum. The psychological and representative elements are the same as its partner kan, which are equilibrium, tranquility, and "wood." * Hsiao Ch'ang-Houses the small intestine, the function of absorption of digestive nutrients from the lumen into the blood stream and the

transportation of waste products to the large intestine. The psychological component is the same as hsin, the heart, which is also the mind. Fire is the element that represents it. * Wei-Houses the organ stomach, the function of digestion and the mechanism of muscular contractions. The psychological component is the same as p'i, temper and intelligence, and it is represented by earth. * Da-ch'ang-Houses the organ large intestine. The function is the self-defense mechanism, particularly for cellular response to infection and the immunological system. The psychological component is the same as the fai, willpower, and the element represented by it is metal. * Pang-kuang-Houses the organ urinary bladder and the function is water balance and excretion. It is paired with shen, the kidney, therefore its psychological component is the same: compliance and the element representing it is water. * San-chiao-May be translated as "tripleburner," which represents the three functional zones of the body. The upper governs respiration and cardiovascular circulations, the middle one is for digestion and the lower zone for excretion. This unit is a coordinator of all functions of the body and, like the hsin unit, is represented by fire. From the above listing, one can see the specific understanding in Chinese medicine that all the organs and functions of the body are closely related to the psyche, and that in the literature, the psychosomatic relationships are well known and well documented. The Concept of Physiology in Chinese Medicine There has been much discussion about the need for a Western-trained person to study the formula of "five elements" because it appears to be highly mysterious: yet, at times, its application seems oversimplified. However, if one really wants to understand the trend of thought behind the Oriental approach to medicine, this study is essential. It simply uses the daily events surrounding us to describe the various functions of our body. For instance; the "water" can kill the "fire," the "fire" can melt the "metal"; consequently if the kidney is damaged, it may affect the heart, and the heart trouble will cause damage to the lungs, and so on. Using this simple illustration one can describe the complicated interreaction of the body functions at different times. It



was written in Su-Wen, "The five elements, wood, fire, earth, metal, water, encompass all the phenomena of nature. It is a symbolism that applies itself equally to man."'15 Because in Chinese medicine the concept of health depends upon the state of equilibrium, to keep perfect equilibrium of one's body is the goal. This calls for the five stores and six houses to be in perfect harmony with one another, and at the same time in harmony with the environment surrounding the person. In other words, the small and large universes are in perfect harmony. Any change in one part of the body or the environment will set off a chain reaction in other parts and thereby disrupt the state of equilibrium. This requires the capacity of the readjusting power within the body to regain its equilibrium. This complicated reaction and counterreaction are illustrated by the law of five elements and using the above mentioned principle.

The Concept of Pathophysiology in Chinese Medicine In Chinese medical literature the causes of diseases are almost equally divided into six physical aspects and seven emotional factors, or outer and inner insults. The former are the wind, cold, heat, dampness, dryness and fire. The latter are happiness, anger, sorrow, anxiety, sadness, fear and shock. For instance, "The vicious energies of wind and cold attack the upper half of the body, while the vicious energy of dampness attacks the lower half. However, when vicious energies attack the yin meridians, they will cause disease to the bowels; and when they attack the yang meridians, they will cause disease to the meridians themselves
. .


"Worry and fear may cause harm to the heart; exposing oneself to cold and consumption of cold food may cause harm to the lungs . . ."16 Credit should be given to the very early recognition of psychosomatic medicine by the Chinese: "in my opinion, only an unskilled physician will confine himself to the physical appearance of his patient, a skilled physician will go one step further and examine the emotions of his patient as well."4
The Concept of Maintaining and Promoting Health Since the definition of good health means the state of equilibrium within one's body and with one's surroundings, the way of maintaining health and promoting health is eventually to keep the
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balance of all the body functions, the body and the mind, the person and his environment. Within the body, there are two systems of circulation described in the classical Chinese literature: chi (air) and hsieh (blood). Chi represents the invisible circulation of the vital energy and, therefore, is classified as yang. This energy circulates along definite pathways within definite periods of the day and ceases to circulate when the organism dies. These pathways are called hsieh, according to our present understanding, and include all the visible circulations of the body, such as cardiovascular, lymphatic and even cerebrospinal fluid. Only when these two circulation systems maintain a constant balance, can a person be kept in perfect equilibrium. In fact, it was detected in the medical literature that the Chinese were fully aware of the circulating nourishment and self-defense mechanism in describing different kinds of chi function. One of them is called yin-chi (nutritional circulations); the other one is called wei-chi (defensive circulation). "Man receives chi in his food. Chi, entering the stomach is transmitted to the lungs, the five solid and six hollow organs, so that all these may receive chi. The power part of food is nourishing chi, or yin-chi; the less pure part: protecting chi, or wei-chi; yin-chi, being within the meridians and blood vessels, and wei chi outside them."'17 "Nourishing chi collects fluid and pours it into the vessels changing it into blood in order to nourish the four extremities and to flow into the solid and hollow organs .... Only if the vessels are so regulated that there is an uninterrupted circulation of blood can they be strong, vigorous and supple. Thus the reason why the eyes can see, the feet walk, the hand grasp and the skin sweat, because they are all irrigated by blood."''8 Adapting the above descriptions, we can see that the chi in Chinese literature represents all the invisible functions of the body-the vital energy, the nerve impulses, the automatic control of the mental activities. Hsieh represents the visible circulations, the organs and actually the body itself. In order to maintain health, one must keep equilibrium between the functions and the organs of one's self, and between the mind and the body by keeping in balance one's chi and hsieh. Maintaining the balance between body and environment can be done through adjustment of the chi and hsieh circulating through the meridians (tracts): "The 12 meridians are externally in


tune with the 12 meridian-like rivers, and internally they are in tune with the five stores and the six houses .... "Therefore, the standards governing the techniques of acupuncture therapy and moxibustion therapy which are aimed at adjusting the energy of meridians can be in harmony with those governing the 12 meridian-like rivers which are aimed at adjusting the flow of water in the rivers."7 In other words, in order to keep balance between man and his environment, the meridians are the communication routes. Since meridians are supposed to connect nearly a thousand acupuncture points (skin receptors of acupuncture stimuli) of the body, skin is really the reactor of the body to the surroundings. This does fit into the Western theories of the cutaneous-visceral and the viscerocutaneous reflexes and the referring pain tracts. That it is the relation between cutaneous caresses and contact which stimulates the homeostasis and produces soothing effects. The Therapeutic Concept in Chinese Medicine When there is a disruption of the balance of the body function or body and mind, traditional Chinese physicians use either the pharmacological approach-herb medicine-or the physical approach-. acupuncture and moxibustion through the meridean system.'9 (A complete text on acupuncture techniques was Jai Yi Ching containing 118 chapters.'9)
Preventive Medicine "To administer medicine for diseases that have already developed and to suppress revolts that have already developed are comparable to the behavior of those persons who begin to dig a well after .they have become thirsty, and to those who begin to make their weapons after they have already engaged in battle. Would these actions not be too late?"20 "I have heard that in ancient times the people lived to be over a hundred years and yet they remained active and did not become decrepit in their activities, but nowadays people only reach half of that age and yet become decrepit and failing. Is it that mankind is degenerating through the ages and losing his original vigor?"2'

Chi-Po answered: "In ancient times those people who understood the ways of nature, patterned themselves upon the yin and yang. Modern man drinks wine like water, leads an irregular life, engaging in sexual intercourse while he is drunk thus exhausting his vital energy. They do not know how to preserve their 'vital force, wasting energy excessively seeking only physical pleasure, all of which is against the rules of nature. For these reasons they reach only half of the hundred years and then they degenerate."'2' It is interesting to know that, although the dangers of self-indulgence were documented three thousand years ago, modern man continues to ignore those dangers. This general review should lead the reader to a better understanding of the Chinese concept of medicine.
REFERENCES 1. Dorf P: State laws regulating the practice of acupuncturoe 3:39-45, March 1975 J Leg Med 2. Healing arts: Acupuncture. California Senate Bill 86, March 1975 3. Rushner RF: Distribution of Responsibility for Disablities, Humanizing Health Care. Cambridge, Mass. The MIT Press, 1975, p 36 4. Huang-Ti, Chi Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Hyou Jeng She Er Yuan, Ling-Shu, chap 1:1. China, 249-221 BC (Huang-Ti Nei Ching [The Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine] was originally published in two volumes, in which the Ling-Shu describes the theory and the Su-Wen discusses the practical aspects of acupuncture and moxibustion. Chi-Bai is thought to be Huang-Ti's medical officer. From the geographical names, literary construction and historical allusions, it may be assumed that the Nei Ching was published about the end of the Chou dynasty [l121-249 BC] or the beginning of the Chin dynasty [221-207 BC]. The contents are naturally much older. Evidently it is not the work of a single person but a compilation of various writers.) 5. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Yin and Yang Xiang Dalum, Su-Wen, chap 2:5. China, 249-221 BC 6. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Zhu Zhi Jiao Lun Pian, Su-Wen, chap 23:75. China, 249-221 BC 7. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Jin Shwai, Ling-Shu, chap 3:12. China, 249-221 BC 8. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Ban Shen, Ling-Shu, chap 2:8. China 249-221 BC 9. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Shen-Chi Tun Tien Lun, Su-Wen, chap 1:3. China, 249-221 BC 10. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Jin Kui Zhen You Lun, Su-Wen, chap 1:4. China, 249-221 BC 11. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Jim Yang Lung Lwun, Su-Wen, chap 24:79. China, 249-221 BC 12. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Yin Yang Syi R Ywe, Ling-Shu, chap 7:41. China, 249-221 BC 13. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Jin Mei, Ling-Shu chap 3:10. China, 249-221 BC 14. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Wu Zeng Bie Lwun Pian, Su-Wen, chap 3:11. China, 249-221 BC 15. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Wu Yun Syin Da Lwen Pian, Su-Wen, chap 19:67. China, 249-221 BC 16. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Sye Chi Zeng Fu Bin Syin, Ling-Shu, chap 1:4. China, 249-221 BC 17. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Ying Wei Shen Hui, Ling-Shu, chap 4:18. China, 249-221 BC 18. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Ying Chi Pian, Ling-Shu, chap 4:16. China, 249-221 BC 19. Huang, PI: Jai Yi Ching (Acupuncture ABC). China, 215282 AD 20. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Sz Chi Tyau Shen Da Lwung Pian, Su-Wen, chap 1:2. China, 249-221 BC 21. Huang-Ti, Chi-Bai Nei Ching (Canon of Medicine): Shai Gu Tyan Jen Lweng Pian, Su-Wen, chap 1:1. China, 249-221 BC



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Differences and Similarities Between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine

...Differences and similarities between traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine Chinese traditional medicine has been practiced for around 5,000 years. Western medicine (at least the modern kind that is not based on shamans) is considerably younger, but since its inception, there has been a debate about the relative effectiveness of Western versus Chinese medicine (which in the U.S. is usually referred to as Oriental medicine). Chinese medicine is based on natural plants and herbs for the most part, and is keyed on establishing the vital energy of the body or Qi (pronounced 'chi'), as compared to western medicine which focuses on control or elimination of symptoms. From a philosophical viewpoint the two schools are poles apart. The differences begin with their main philosophies of health. Chinese medicine, as previously stated, thinks of Qi as life and that life and medicine are one. Western medicine believes that humans can control nature, and has its focus on external causes of maladies. In Chinese medicine, health is a state of well-being where the body is in balance with and adaptive to the environment. Western doctors consider health to be the absence of disease, pain or defect. To the Chinese practitioner, disease is caused by an imbalance of the vital force of the body and stems from multiple causes, while westerners think of it as a difect of tissue or structure of the organism with a single cause. Symptoms, in the Asian view are messages from the body about...

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Human Resources

...Initial Activity Assessment _____________ ______ Name: Med record # Sex: M F DOB: _______________ Birthplace: __________________________________________ Marital Status: M W S D Family Info: # of children ____ # of grandchildren ____ # of great grandchildren: ____ # of step-children:____ # step-grand:_____ Significant other:____________________________ Res. Relationship with family: _______________ Registered voter:__________ Veteran: _____ Branch & date: ________________ Spouse in service: ____ Branch & date: ________________________________ Religious affiliation: _________________________ Personal Involvement: _____________________________________________ Education level: ____________________________Ability to read: _____ Ability to write: _____ Other Language:______________ Past occupations & jobs: ____________________________________________________________ __________________________ Organizational involvement: ____________________________________________________________ _______________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Hand dominance: Left Right Tobacco user: ______ Kind: _______________ How much: _________________ When last used: ___________________________ Alcohol user: ______ Kind: _______________ How much: _________________ When last used: ___________________________ Interest Survey Games Bingo Checkers Chess Backgammon Dominoes Monopoly Scrabble Yahtzee _____________......

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Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior

...Why Chinese mothers are superior There are numerous opinions about how to raise children ideally. Everyone want to do what is best for their children, but the description about how to do so, is extremely different from parent to parent. There has especially been quite a lot debate about how Chinese mothers raise their children compared to Western mothers. Many Westerns people describe the Chinese mothers methods of upbringing as strict, pushy and some times directly cruel. The article “Why Chinese Mothers are Superior” deals with these differences between methods of upbringing, written by the 48-year-old Chinese-American mother Amy Chua and it is thereby seen from her point of view. The author Amy Chua is a professor at Yale Law School and has two daughters herself, whom she is raising very strictly with lots of rules and big demands. Chua claims that the way that Chinese mothers are upbringing their children, is superior compared to the Western mothers methods of upbringing. She underlines than in order to achieve success, the children must focus on certain priority areas, and therefore they are forced to give up other things. This is why her own daughters are not allowed to attend to sleepovers, choose their own extracurricular activities and they are demand to be the very best in every subject except gym and drama. This is only a few of the rules, which Chua’s daughters must live by. Chua underlines that one of the most important parts of upbringing in Chinese manner,......

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Number Tree

...Number Three The world now a day seems to be split into mainly to worlds - The Western - and the eastern world. It appears to be the idea, in the western part, that people in for example China only are put into the world for ‘our’ delight. That all they should ever do is just work in factories or the tertiary sector and never granting them a single thought. It is this prevailing idea, and the biggest population on the earth, that gives the Chinese leaders a lust for power and a unique opportunity of taking advantages of the lower classes, making them work longer hours and paying them less. It is a great scenario moneywise for the Western firms because it is possible for companies to produce/submit their products to absurdly low prices. But who is affected when western people make extraordinary demands? In the short story ‘Number Three’ Anna Metcalfe (A.M.) tries to give one version of what happens when an employee, on the one hand, has a manager, whom the employee is scared of asking for help and thereby showing weakness, and on the other hand has a ‘customer’, whom the employee is trying to satisfy and comply with the demands there may come. In the short story, we are introduced to Miss Coral. She now lives in the city Chongqing in China. She was born and raised a few hundred miles in the country. In the story, she works as International Hostess for Number Three Middle School since the rival school had employed a “Real English Tea......

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...Western Movie Graphics vs. Today’s Graphics Ashford University Vicky Roach Starbuck Social Problems SOC203 Instructor Gina Rollings April 4, 2011 Western movies have been around since the beginning of cinematic history in the US. They are no longer the most common nor the most popular movies presented to audiences. However, they still hold a special spot for those who love adventure and larger than life heroes. Stick around and learn more about the history of western movies and the producers and actors that have created them. Before western films became popular with movie going fans, western books and shows blazed the trail, whetting the appetite of millions for adventure. Although life in the early west was harsh, novels began proliferating in the 1860's which presented a more ideal or glamorized version of the experience. Real-life characters such as William F. Cody ("Buffalo Bill") and James Butler Hickok ("Wild Bill" Hickok) as well as a number of fictional characters were extremely popular. While many early western movies told moral tales of good triumphing over evil and men fighting for a righteous cause some were also comedies and others merely action packed showcases for their smart horses and talented "cowboy" actors. Films like "Custer’s Last Fight" in 1912, "On the Night Stage" in 1914, "Hell's Hinges" in 1916, and "Tumbleweeds" in 1925 were well received. Certainly films about the west have focused on cowboys, gunslingers,...

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Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior

...-Why Chinese Mothers are Superior- The essay “Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior” by Amy Chua was published on “The Wall Street Journal” January 8, 2011. The topic of this text is Chinese parenting methods opposed to the western way of parenting. Within the first few lines it is very clear that Amy Chua has a different view on parenting than most traditional western parents. The title itself is a claim, and it sets the tone for how the essay is going to be. From the start we get the hint that this text will try to convince us, that Chinese parenting methods are superior. Amy Chua begins something that she claims is on a lot of people’s minds. The wonders about how Chinese parents are able to raise such successful kids. She then continues to saying that she can give the answer to these wonders, because she has done it herself. Amy Chua gives us a list of things that her daughters, were never allowed to do. This list seems, to us, unusual and maybe even mad. But to her, this is a necessity in her way of parenting. To her this is logical and is what must be done to get successful kids. In her list we see that not only are her children not allowed to get any grade less than A, but also they have to be the No. 1 student in every subject, except gym and drama. This put a really huge amount of pressure on her daughters. Amy Chua is an American lawyer, writer and legal scholar. She is the Professor of Law at Yale Law School. Amy Chua has two daughters Sophia and Louisa. The......

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...Shane by Angela Day “Shane” is a screenplay that was based on Jack Schaefer's 1949 book of the same name. The film is a classic western tale which is a very familiar and highly regarded in the western genre and the most successful Western of the 1950s and it is also a period piece since it is set in the late 1800’s. The film's rich color cinematography captures the beautiful environment of the frontier which was filmed on location in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, with the mountains as a backdrop. The location and the having been filmed in color is effective in telling the story and had it been done in black and white it would have lost some of the visual impact. This film received six Academy Award nominations including “Best Cinematography” and won one for photography. Many films since Shane have paid homage to the film and used a similar plot and theme. The film used technicolored panoramic angles to create a symbolic myth: the age old story of the duel between good and evil, the social conflict (with families, law and order, and homesteaders) the challenges faced in the era which included an implied love connection between Shane and Marion, lawless gunslingers, and a land-dispute conflict between a homesteader and cattle baron, and the coming of age of a young boy. The film is riddled with classic symbols and conflicts from the uprooting of the stubborn stump in the yard, Torrey's murder in the muddy street and his hilltop funeral, and the climactic......

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Towards a Non-Western Perspective on Scientific Knowledge

...This article from PPST Bulletin is made available on-line by Samanvaya ( All the rights of the article rest with the authors and any enquiries and clarifications may be directed to them. These are made available in an as-is basis, please report any mistakes to TOWARDS A NON-WESTERN PERSPECTIVE ON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE I The available studies on the phenomenon and institution of science suffer from a curious limitation. It is as if all those who analyse the subject were overawed by the grandeur of modern science, and their studies were in the nature of tributes laid at the feet of this great saviour. All analysis starts from the assumption that modern science is a set of value-free theories that uniquely explain reality. After the scientists in the early 20th century started overhauling their theories in a big way, it was granted that the value-free theories of science that explain reality may do so only partially at a given time, but as science progresses, its theories explain more and more of reality and the process converges towards the ‘ultimate’, ‘unique’ law that explains everything. Committed to this idealist picture of a unique value free science, the philosophy of science is reduced to a set of attempts at finding the epistemological criterion, internal to science, that allows the scientist, unencumbered by any extraneous considerations, to choose the true theory out of a competing set; the sociology of science is reduced......

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...philosopher who developed his own ideas about government. He was extremely specific about democracy which he felt would lead to mob rule. He also felt that human reason is the most godlike part of human nature 3. In this document, Pericles is describing the complex government know as democracy. He had expectations for citizens in this type of government. For example, an expectation was that he wanted people, no matter what social class, to speak up for their political decisions no matter what the social scale. 4. Hippocrates was a Greek physician who studied the causes of illness as well as looked for cures. The Hippocratic oath states that he was promising to not give any harmful or deadly medicines to his patients. He also promises to not advise people to get any deadly nor harmful medicines. 5. Euclid was a highly-known famous Greek mathematician, he was also referred to as “The Father of Geometry”. He is best known for his work titled Elements, a thirteen-volume textbook on the principles of mathematics. They include treatises on plain geometry, proportion, and music. 6. According to the article, there are several values that are expressed in this Greek play. For example, Antigone claims that for him, Zeus has not made the order. He also feels that a mortal man could overrun the gods’ unwritten and greatly unfailing laws. Antigone would not allow his brother be dead and...

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History of Korea China and Japan

...Throughout the 19th century into the 20th century, the west started to have an increasingly great influence on the other parts of the world. Asia, in particular, was faced with the decision of whether to adopt and conform to the western ways or to reject and stick with their traditional ways of life. In the end, Asia adapted to ways of the western “devils”, but most of their efforts seemed unsuccessful while others were quite successful. The main countries that experienced the western influence were China, Korea and Japan. Although all three countries experienced their share of internal and external strife, China and Korea’s modernization efforts were, in comparison to Japan, unsuccessful. The reason for this was because Japan was able to fully utilize their resources and take advantage of the opportunities that they were presented with in Asia, whereas China and Korea were occupied with internal and external conflicts. Although China and Korea weren’t total failures, the Land of the Rising sun overshadowed them. China’s first experience with western imperialism is seen in the 1830’s when they had conflict with the spread of opium and the dwindling of silver within the country. China wished to stop both these events so when they confiscated supplies of opium from British traders, the British government used its newly developed military power to make their dissatisfaction known to the Chinese. This, along with other factors, led to the First Opium War (1839-1842). The......

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Mr. Peter Williams

...CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Information The Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli (Matschie, 1904), a subspecies of the western gorilla, Gorilla gorilla, is found in contiguous forest patches bordering South-Southern Nigeria and South-Western Cameroon, an area recognized as a biodiversity hotspot characterized by species diversity and endemism (Edet, 2011). The subspecies is one of the most critically endangered primates of Africa (Oates et al., 2008; IUCN, 2013). The subspecies is also one of the world’s 25 most endangered primates (Mittermeier et al., 2009). As humans extend their land use, Cross River gorilla habitat is rapidly disappearing, and this may have adverse effects on number of individuals within the subspecies. The Cross River gorilla, Gorilla gorilla diehli, chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes vellorosus) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), though legally protected by the Endangered Species Decree 11 of 1985, are some of the primates hunted for bushmeat and other purposes (Edet, 2011). The Major threat to the survival of the subspecies is lack of thorough conservation strategy necessary for its protection. The survival of this endangered species and ecosystems depends on long-term participation and understanding of local populations (Oates, 1999). Due to the close relationship between cultural diversity and biodiversity, traditional knowledge systems play an important role when developing species conservation and management strategies......

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