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Notes for Nutrition
What is meant by nutrition?
Nutrition is the science of how foods affect the human body to promote health and prevent disease.
Six Classes of nutrients essential for health.
Carbohydrates, fats lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
What is the science of how foods affect the human body to promote health and prevent disease called?
Nutrition
What is the true statement about healthy lifestyles?
When focusing on a healthy lifestyle exercise and nutrition work together.
Recognize the key energy nutrients essential for health?
Anything that supply calories, fat, protein and carbs.
Which major classes of nutrients?
Fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals and carbs.
Components of a healthy diet.
Adequate amount of fiber, energy and nutrients, with balanced choices.
What may a healthy diet contain?
Adequate energy intake, variety, moderate amount of treats, fiber, intake all nutrients near the recommended daily.
Identify the Standard dietary reference intake for nutrients. Two parts
What are different measures of DRI, memorize specific DRI, Calcium, Vitamin C All AMDR.
Make sure to know the value through the lifecycles. Baby, Children, Adults
What is the tolerable upper intake level?
(Attached to the end of the paper)
The highest level of daily consumption that current data has shown to cause no side effects in humans. Ensures people do not take harmful amounts of supplements.
Analyze how the dietary guidelines for Americans can be used to design a healthful diet.
Identify how to choose healthy options base on the plate method.
½ fruits and vegetables and ½ fruits and proteins
What is true of the choose my plate.gov recommendations as represented by their setting.
Half plate should be fruits and vegetables
Determine various sources of reliable and accurate nutrition.
Explain how to assess the validity of research study?
CDC website, National Institute of Health website.
Analyze the physiologic stimuli that trigger us to eat.
What is an example of a social cue?
Eating more chips and dip at a gathering than you would alone.
Where and how is pepsin activated?
Pepsin is secreted in the stomach mucosa and activated by HCI in the stomach
What digestive processes for NOT begin in the mouth?
Proteins are denatured by HCI. Hydrochloric acid (stomach)
What does not occur in the stomach?
Amino acid absorption
Where are pancreatic proteases active?
Small intestine
Which do not occur in the small intestine?
Activation of pepsin and mastication
What are two common triggers foods of GERD ?
Coffee and tomato
What is a clinical manifestation of GERD?
Chest or back pain when lying down after a meal of spaghetti and meatballs
What foods should lactose intolerance avoid?
Milk products
What is safe for a sufferer of celiac disease? (Gluten)
Rice. They cannot have wheat rye or barley
What condition are generally considered to be controlled by diet?
Celiac, lactose, GERD
Session 2 Carbs, Fats and Proteins
Which is an example of a monosaccharide.
Glucose
When more than two glucose monomers are chained together in a polysaccharide this is known specifically as starch.
When two glucose monomers are chained together in a disaccharide this is known as MALTOSE.
GLUCOSE +GLUCOSE = MALTOSE
Some people lack the necessary enzyme to digest a particular sugar, as a result when they consume milk products high in this sugar they have gastrointestinal upset. This sugar is called Lactose.
A DISACCHARIDE OF GLUCOSE AND GALACTOSE
What is true about recommendations for carbohydrates intake for adults
The AMDR states that about half the daily calories should be from carbs. AMDR is for CARBS, FATS, and PROTIENS
How much Fiber is recommended in a healthy diet? 14g per 1000kcals
What is true about dietary recommendations for whole grain intake?
Half of all grain products should be whole grain products.
Lactose- Disaccharide
Fructose- Monosaccharide also known as fruit sugar
Glucose- a building block of glycogen
Amylose-complex carbs
What is false about added sugars?
Added sugars typically increase fiber content
Trans fats are found in partially hydrogenated oils. And are not saturated fats
Fat has an important concentrated source of energy.
Saturated fats stay solid at room temperature.
For ideal heart heath a person should strive for a diet that is lower in trans and saturated fats.
Dropdown menu questions. All words have the same menu of answers, each answer can be used once, more than once, or not at all. Answers include “are building blocks of steroid hormones contain nitrogen, contain only carbon hydrogen and oxygen typically contain trace minerals as structure components.
FATS- contain only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Carbohydrate- contain only carbon, hydrogen
Protein- contain nitrogen
Cholesterol- contain building block of steroid hormones
Fatty fish such as mackerel and Tuna are high in Omega -3 fatty acids EPA and DHA
Olive oil is high in monosaturated fat
What is not a major function of fat in the human body?
Fat does not maintain electrolyte fluid balance
What are seed and nut oils typically a good source of?
Polysaturated fat
Which dairy product typically has the most protein?
Non-Fat Greek Yogurt
Which dairy product typically has the least protein per serving?
Ice cream
What are good sources of dietary protein? Assume 1 Standard serving of each.
Garbanzo beans, eggs, chicken breast, yogurt.
A young nurse weighing 130pounds wants to determine their own RDA for protein. A chart indicates that a typical adult requires .8g of protein per kg body weight. What is the nurses RDA factor for protein. 130/2.2*0.8=48
What are not major functions of protein s in human physiology?
Blood lipids (HDL, LDL, TRIGYCERIDES
Form glycogen
Are the phospholipid component of the membrane?
Layer of insulation in skin store energy for fat DNA genetic code
What Proteins do?
Acid/base balance
Catalyze cell growth
Essential to immune system
What are some food combinations that provide complete protein? Choose as many as apply.
Red beans and rice
Hummus and wheat pita
Peanut butter and crackers
A mature legume product plus a grain product will provide protein
What nutrients tend to promote a feeling of fullness (satiety) for a longer period of time?
Protein and fiber

Session 3 Vitamins Minerals and Electrolytes
Vitamin K- Needs fat to be stored and transported along with vitamins A,D,and E.
Match the vitamin with its correct Fact
K- Fat soluble; essential in coagulation
Thiamin- deficiency in beriberi
Folate-deficiency in microcytic anemia
Vitamin C- water soluble, antioxidant
Vitamin E- Fat soluble antioxidant
What is recommended that a Lact-Ovo vegetarian take Supplements for? They still milk and eggs.
Vitamin B12 that is only found in animal products.
What is NOT a likely health benefit of a flexitarian diet? (Occasionally eat meat)
Lower the risk of Macrocytic anemia
Match the Nutrient with its characteristics
Minerals- Crystalline substance that do not contain carbon
Electrolytes-regulate blood pressure and maintain fluid balance
Vitamin – an organic chemical an organism cannot synthesize in sufficient quantities and therefore must consume.
Iron- Absorption is increased if consumed with vitamin C sources. Calcium interferes with the absorption of iron.
What is one way to increase Iron intake? Cook in a Cast Iron skillet
What minerals are important in maintain bone health?
Phosphorous and Fluoride
What is False about Bone remodeling?
Osteoblast excrete enzyme and acids that aid in breaking down bone.
Osteoblasts are single nuclei cells that operate in groups to form bone. They produce calcium and phosphate mineral deposits that form a very dense, hard shell around a bone fracture. The shell is known as a bone callus and lasts for three to four months.
Osteoclast-Osteoclasts break down the mineral deposits from the osteoblasts by releasing acid and collagenase enzymes. The broken down material is then released into the bloodstream. The process of bone repair takes months. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts continually work to rebuild fractured bone until it is completely healed.
Which are good sources of calcium?
Soy beans and mackerel with bones
Trace Minerals ZINC, FLORIDE, NICKEL
Major Minerals Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium
Vitamin FOLATE, THAMINE
Fluid comes to the body from what sources?
Water, coffee, some foods, ENERGYDRINKS
What is true of thirst?
Triggered by increase in blood sodium or decrease in blood volume
What is hypernatremia?
An effect of water intoxication when blood sodium is too low.
What are some causes of dehydration?
Excess sweating, diarrhea, tissue damage, fever, diabetes/hyperglycemia, vomiting
What is not a component of determining whether or not and individual is a healthy weight?
The weight is considered attractive in that culture, the average weightin the community
At what BMI does cardiovascular disease incidence increase?
Overweight, BMI>25KG/M2
What health risk increase with BMI?
Heart disease, type 2 diabetes, premature death
What does FITT stand for?
Frequency, intensity, time and type.
What is true about jumping rope as quickly as you can for 30 seconds versus an all-day walk a thon?
ATP-CP contributes significant energy to the rope jumping but not to the walk a thon
The walk a thon uses greater percentage of fat than the rope jumping.
The walk a thon uses a greater percentage of carbohydrates than the jump roping
ATP-CP Quick intense Carbs work out- Fats endurance
Which are true about the health benefits of regular physical activity
Regular physical activity increases uptake of glucose, making insulin more active
It increases HDL cholesterol improving heart health
Anorexia nervosa- Characterized by sever food restrictions; fear of weight gain women often get amenorrhea.
Bulimia- Binge eating followed by purging
PICA- appetite for non-nutritive foods
Binge eating disorder- binge eating without purging
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.[2] Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications.[3] Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.[4] Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.[3]
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.[5] There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: * Type 1 DM results from the pancreas' failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.[3] * Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[3] As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.[6] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.[3] * Gestational diabetes, is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood sugar level.[3]
Prevention and treatment involve a healthy diet, physical exercise, not using tobacco and being a normal body weight. Blood pressure control and proper foot care are also important for people with the disease. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.[3] Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin.[7] Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.[8] Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is an effective measure in those with type 2 DM.[9] Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.

.

1. Calculate BMI. 2. Calorie restriction and exercise to lose weight. 3. Caloric restriction and physical activity as tolerated, medication for appetite suppression followed by gastric bypass.
Which is most supportive of the thrifty gene hypothesis?
An ethnic population adapted to climate with frequent famine now struggles with obesity.
What is true regarding genetic influence on body weight?
Body weight of parents are often predictive of body weights of children even when the parents don’t raise them.
What is true regarding total energy expenditure? (TEE)
Basel metabolic rate is the greatest contributor to (TEE)
Which describes root causes of heat syncope heat cramps, and heat exhaustion.
Becoming dehydrated, loss of evaporative cooling.
Ergogenic aid- athletic performance
Nootropic- cognition
Probiotic- Digestive problems
Galactagyue- breast milk production
What nutrient prevents neural tube defects? Folate.
How can a woman reduce her risk for gestational diabetes?
Maintaining a healthy diet prior to conception and throughout pregnancy.
What is NOT TRUE of breastfeeding?
It is a reliable form of birth control.
What is true about the GRAS list?
It is generally recognized as AD space.
Additives on it are safe according to consensus among experts.…...

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